World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Asian American

Asian Americans
Total population
5.6% of total U.S. population, 2012[3]
Regions with significant populations
Throughout the United States, especially Hawaii, the West Coast, and major urban areas.
Christian (42%)
Unaffiliated (26%)
Buddhist (14%)
Hindu (10%)
Muslim (4%)
Sikh (1%)
Other (2%) including Jain[4]
Related ethnic groups
Asian American of Hispanic and Latino ethnicity

Asian Americans are Americans of Asian descent. The U.S. Census Bureau definition of Asians refers to a person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent.[5] It includes people who indicated their race(s) as "Asian" or reported entries such as "Indian", "Chinese", "Filipino", "Korean", "Japanese", "Vietnamese", and "Other Asian" or provided other detailed Asian responses. They comprise 4.8% of the U.S. population alone, while people who are Asian combined with at least one other race make up 5.6%[5] As of 2012, Asian Americans had the highest educational attainment level and median household income of any racial demographic in the country,[2][6] and in 2008 they had the highest median household income overall of any racial demographic.[7][8]


  • Terminology 1
  • Demographics 2
    • Religion 2.1
  • History 3
    • Immigration trends 3.1
  • Notable contributions 4
    • Arts and entertainment 4.1
    • Business 4.2
    • Government and politics 4.3
    • Journalism 4.4
    • Military 4.5
    • Science and technology 4.6
      • Award recipients 4.6.1
      • Space 4.6.2
    • Sports 4.7
      • Basketball 4.7.1
      • Football 4.7.2
      • Mixed martial arts 4.7.3
      • Olympics 4.7.4
      • Other sports 4.7.5
  • Cultural influence 5
    • Cultural factors of success 5.1
    • Health and medicine 5.2
    • Education 5.3
  • Cultural issues 6
    • Illegal immigration 6.1
    • Race-based violence 6.2
    • Stereotypes 6.3
      • Model minority 6.3.1
    • Bamboo ceiling 6.4
  • See also 7
  • References 8
  • Further reading 9
  • External links 10


As with other racial and ethnicity based terms, formal and common usage have changed markedly through the short history of this term.

Prior to the late 1960s, people of Asian ancestry were usually referred to as Oriental, Asiatic, and Mongoloid.[9][10] The term Asian American was coined by historian Yuji Ichioka, who is credited with popularizing the term, to frame a new "inter-ethnic-pan-Asian American self-defining political group" in the late 1960s.[9]

The Hart-Celler Act of 1965 eliminated highly restrictive "national origins" quotas, designed, among other things, to restrict immigration of those of Asian racial background.[11] The new system, based on skills and family connections to U.S. residents, enabled significant immigration from every nation in Asia, which led to dramatic and ongoing changes in the Asian American population. As a result of these population changes, the formal and common understandings of what defines Asian American have expanded to include more of the peoples with ancestry from various parts of Asia. Because of their more recent immigration, new Asian immigrants also have had different educational, economic and other characteristics than early 20th-century immigrants. They also tend to have different employment and settlement patterns in the United States.

Today, Asian American is the accepted term for most formal purposes, such as government and academic research, although it is often shortened to Asian in common usage. The most commonly used definition of Asian American is the US Census Bureau definition of Asian,[12] chiefly because the Census definitions determine many government classifications, notably for equal opportunity programs and measurements. People with origins in the Far East, Southeast Asia and the Indian Subcontinent are included in the Census definition of Asia.[13] The use of a separate "Asian" category in the Census is a recent addition, beginning in 1990. Since then, the Census definitions have varied. The 2000 census divided the Asian-Pacific Islander group and created Pacific Islander ethnicities as a separate category.

According to the Armenians, Azeris) are classified as "White".[21]

Before 1980, Census forms listed particular Asian ancestries as separate groups, along with White and Black or Negro.[22] Asian Americans had also been classified as "other".[23] In 1977, the federal Office of Management and Budget issued a directive requiring government agencies to maintain statistics on racial groups, including on "Asian or Pacific Islander".[24] The 1980 census marked the first classification of Asians as a large group, combining several individual ancestry groups into "Asian or Pacific Islander." By the 1990 census, Asian or Pacific Islander (API) was included as an explicit category, although respondents had to select one particular ancestry.[25][26] In the 2000 census, people reporting Jewish, Arab, Iranian, or Turkish ancestry but not reporting race are presumed to be in the White race category rather than Asian.[13]

The definition of Asian American has variations that derive from the use of the word American in different contexts. Immigration status, citizenship (by birthright and by naturalization), acculturation, and language ability are some variables that are used to define American for various purposes and may vary in formal and everyday usage.[27] For example, restricting American to include only U.S. citizens conflicts with discussions of Asian American businesses, which generally refer both to citizen and non-citizen owners.[28]

In a PBS interview from 2004, a panel of Asian American writers discussed how some groups include people of Middle Eastern descent in the Asian American category.[29] Asian American author Stewart Ikeda has noted, "The definition of 'Asian American' also frequently depends on who's asking, who's defining, in what context, and why... the possible definitions of 'Asian-Pacific American' are many, complex, and shifting... some scholars in Asian American Studies conferences suggest that Russians, Iranians, and Israelis all might fit the field's subject of study."[30] Jeff Yang, of the Wall Street Journal, writes that the pan-ethnic definition of Asian American is a unique American construct, and as an identity is in "beta".[31]


Asian American population percentage by state in 2010.
Asian percentage by County, 2010

The demographics of Asian Americans describe a heterogeneous group of people in the United States who can trace their ancestry to one or more countries in Asia.[32][33] Because Asian Americans comprise 5% of the entire U.S. population, the diversity of the group is often disregarded in media and news discussions of "Asians" or of "Asian Americans." While there are some commonalities across ethnic sub-groups, there are significant differences among different Asian ethnicities that are related to each group's history.[34][35]

The demographics of Asian Americans can further be subdivided into:


As of July 2012, 42% of U.S. Asian adults are Christian. 26% are unaffiliated with any religion, 14% are Buddhist, 10% are Hindu, 4% are Muslim, 2% are of another religion, and 1% is Sikh.[36]


Five images of the Filipino settlement at Saint Malo, Louisiana

As Asian Americans originate from many different countries, each population has its own unique history.[2]

The earliest immigration of Asian populations to North America occurred in the 16th century. By 1587, when both the Philippines and vast swathes of North America were colonized by the Spanish Empire, "Luzonians" arrived in Morro Bay, (San Luis Obispo) California on board the Manila-built galleon ship Nuestra Senora de Esperanza under the command of Spanish Captain Pedro de Unamuno.[37][38] In 1635, an "East Indian" is listed in Jamestown, Virginia;[39] this preceded Indian immigrants settling on the East Coast of the United States beginning in the 1790s.[40] In 1763, Filipinos established the small settlement of Saint Malo, Louisiana, after fleeing mistreatment aboard Spanish ships.[41] Since there were no Filipino women with them, these Manilamen, as they were known, married Cajun and Native American women.[42]

Chinese sailors first came to Hawaii in 1778,[43][44] the same year that Captain James Cook came upon the island. Many settled and married Hawaiian women. Some Island-born Chinese can claim to be 7th generation. Most Chinese, Korean and Japanese immigrants in Hawaii arrived in the 19th century as laborers to work on sugar plantations.[45] Later, Filipinos also came to work as laborers, attracted by the job opportunities, although they were limited.[46][47]

Chinese began arriving to the West Coast of what is now the United States in the mid-19th century.[48] After hearing stories of incredible wealth in California's Gum Shan or Gold Mountain, Chinese started to immigrate to California. During the early 1850s, around 85% of the Chinese immigrants in California were involved in the mining business.[49] By 1852, the number of Chinese immigrants in San Francisco had jumped to more than twenty thousand. The next big thing that attracted Chinese immigrants was the construction of the transcontinental railroad. In 1862, the construction of the Railroad started in Sacramento; this caused another Chinese movement. When the Gold Rush hype had died down, Chinese immigrants became unemployed. When the Railroad construction began, Chinese slowly migrated inland to work as construction workers.[49]

The first Japanese person to come to the United States, and stay any significant period of time was Nakahama Manjirō who reached the East Coast in 1841.[50] In 1858, Joseph Heco, became the first naturalized Japanese American U.S. Citizen.[51] Japanese immigration to the United States did not begin in any significant numbers until after the Meiji Restoration, which occurred in 1868.[52]

Although the absolute numbers of Asian immigrants in the late 19th century were small compared to that of immigrants from other regions, much of it was concentrated in the West, and the increase caused some Americans to fear the change represented by the growing number of Asians. This fear was referred to as the "yellow peril". The United States passed laws such as Asian Exclusion Act and Chinese Exclusion Act to sharply restrict Asian immigration.[53]

Immigration trends

Filipinos have been in the territories that would become the United States since the 16th century, beginning in the year 1587.[54] In 1898, all Filipinos in the Philippine Islands became American nationals when the United States took over colonial rule of the islands from Spain following the latter's defeat in the Spanish–American War.[55]

There were thousands of Asians in Hawaii, predominantly originating from Japan, China, and Korea, when it was annexed to the United States in 1898, and they all gained full US citizenship at that time.[56] The United States Supreme Court in United States v. Wong Kim Ark (1898) interpreted the 14th Amendment to mean that every person born in the United States, regardless of race or ancestry is a citizen of the United States.[57]

Congress passed restrictive legislation to nearly all Chinese immigration in the 1880s.[58] Japanese immigration was sharply curtailed by a gentleman's agreement brokered by President Theodore Roosevelt. The Asiatic Barred Zone Act in 1917 consolidated Chinese exclusion and further barred immigration from South Asia (then-British India), South-East Asia, and the Middle East. The immigration restriction laws of the 1920s, specifically the Immigration Act of 1924, produced quotas for all countries, with countries in the Asiatic Barred Zone Act getting a zero quota.[59]

World War II-era legislation and judicial rulings gradually increased the ability of Asian Americans to immigrate and become naturalized citizens. Immigration rapidly increased following the enactment of the Immigration and Nationality Act Amendments of 1965 as well as naturalization of refugees from conflicts that occurred in the late 20th century in Southeast Asia. Asian American immigrants have a significant percentage of individuals who have already achieved professional status, a first among immigration groups.[60] In 2009, Asian Americans surpassed Hispanic Americans as the largest plurality of immigrants to the United States.[61] Additionally, from 2000 to 2010, the Asian American population was the fastest growing group according to the 2010 U.S. Census.[2][62][63]

Notable contributions

Arts and entertainment

See also: Asian-American literature

Asian Americans have been involved in the entertainment industry since the first half of the 19th century, when Chang and Eng Bunker (the original "Siamese Twins") became naturalized citizens.[64] Acting roles in television, film, and theater were relatively few, and many available roles were for narrow, stereotypical characters. More recently, young Asian American comedians and film-makers have found an outlet on YouTube allowing them to gain a strong and loyal fanbase among their fellow Asian Americans.[65] There have been several Asian American-centric television shows in American media, beginning with Mr. T and Tina in 1976, and as recent as Fresh Off the Boat in 2015.[66]


Co-founder of Yahoo! Jerry Yang

When Asian Americans were largely excluded from labor markets in the 19th century, they started their own businesses. They have started convenience and grocery stores, professional offices such as medical and law practices, laundries, restaurants, beauty-related ventures, hi-tech companies, and many other kinds of enterprises, becoming very successful and influential in American society. They have dramatically expanded their involvement across the American economy. Asian Americans have been disproportionately successful in the hi-tech sectors of California's Silicon Valley, as evidenced by the Goldsea 100 Compilation of America's Most Successful Asian Entrepreneurs.[67]

Compared to their population base, Asian Americans today are well represented in the professional sector and tend to earn higher wages.[68] The Goldsea compilation of Notable Asian American Professionals show that many have come to occupy high positions at leading U.S. corporations, including a surprising number as Chief Marketing Officers.[69]

Asian Americans have made major contributions to the American economy. In 2012, Asian Americans own 1.5 million businesses, employ around 3 million people who earn an annual total payroll of around $80 billion.[62] Fashion designer and mogul Vera Wang, who is famous for designing dresses for high-profile celebrities, started a clothing company, named after herself, which now offers a broad range of luxury fashion products. An Wang founded Wang Laboratories in June 1951. Amar Bose founded the Bose Corporation in 1964. Charles Wang founded Computer Associates, later became its CEO and chairman. David Khym founded hip-hop fashion giant Southpole (clothing) in 1991. Jen-Hsun Huang co-founded the NVIDIA corporation in 1993. Jerry Yang co-founded Yahoo! Inc. in 1994 and became its CEO later. Andrea Jung serves as Chairman and CEO of Avon Products. Vinod Khosla was a founding CEO of Sun Microsystems and is a general partner of the prominent venture capital firm Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers. Steve Chen and Jawed Karim were co-creators of YouTube, and were beneficiaries of Google's $1.65 billion acquisition of that company in 2006. In addition to contributing greatly to other fields, Asian Americans have made considerable contributions in science and technology in the United States, in such prominent innovative R&D regions as Silicon Valley and The Triangle.

Government and politics

Daniel Inouye's Official Photo in 2009.

Asian Americans have a high level of political incorporation in terms of their actual voting population. Since 1907, Asian Americans have been active at the national level and have had multiple officeholders at local, state and national levels. The highest ranked Asian American was Senator and President Pro Tempore Daniel Inouye, who died in office in 2012.


Connie Chung, First Asian American national news anchor.

Connie Chung was one of the first Asian American national correspondents for a major TV news network, reporting for CBS in 1971. She later co-anchored the CBS Evening News from 1993 to 1995, becoming the first Asian American national news anchor.[70] At ABC, Ken Kashiwahara began reporting nationally in 1974. In 1989, Emil Guillermo, a Filipino American born reporter from San Francisco, became the first Asian American male to co-host a national news show when he was senior host at National Public Radio's "All Things Considered." In 1990, Sheryl WuDunn, a foreign correspondent in the Beijing Bureau of The New York Times, became the first Asian American to win a Pulitzer Prize. Ann Curry joined NBC News as a reporter in 1990, later becoming prominently associated with The Today Show in 1997. Carol Lin is perhaps best known for being the first to break the news of 9-11 on CNN. Dr. Sanjay Gupta is currently CNN's chief health correspondent. Lisa Ling, a former co-host on The View, now provides special reports for CNN and The Oprah Winfrey Show, as well as hosting National Geographic Channel's Explorer. Fareed Zakaria, a naturalised Indian-born immigrant, is a prominent journalist, and author specialising in international affairs. He is the editor-at-large of Time magazine, and the host of Fareed Zakaria GPS on CNN. Juju Chang, James Hatori, John Yang, Veronica De La Cruz, Michelle Malkin, Betty Nguyen, and Julie Chen have become familiar faces on television news. John Yang won a Peabody Award. Alex Tizon, a Seattle Times staff writer, won a Pulitzer Prize in 1997.


Former Secretary of Veterans Affairs Eric Shinseki; previously, as the 4-star Chief of Staff of the United States Army, Shinseki became the highest ranked Asian American ever in the military.

Since the War of 1812 Asian Americans have served and fought on behalf of the United States. Serving in both segregated and non-segregated units until the desegregation of the US Military in 1948, 31 have been awarded the nation's highest award for combat valor, the Medal of Honor. Twenty-one of these were conferred upon members of the mostly Japanese American 100th Infantry Battalion of the 442nd Regimental Combat Team of World War II, the most highly decorated unit of its size in the history of the United States Armed Forces.[71]

Science and technology

Asian Americans have made many prominent and notable contributions to Science and Technology.

Chien-Shiung Wu was known to many scientists as the "First Lady of Physics" and played a pivotal role in experimentally demonstrating the violation of the law of conservation of parity in the field of particle physics. Fazlur Rahman Khan, also known as named as "The Father of tubular designs for high-rises",[72] was highlighted by President Barack Obama in a 2009 speech in Cairo, Egypt,[73] and has been called "Einstein of Structural engineering".[74] Min Chueh Chang was the co-inventor of the combined oral contraceptive pill and contributed significantly to the development of in vitro fertilisation at the Worcester Foundation for Experimental Biology. David T. Wong was one of the scientists credited with the discovery of ground-breaking drug Fluoxetine as well as the discovery of atomoxetine, duloxetine and dapoxetine with colleagues.[75][76][77] Michio Kaku has popularized science and has appeared on multiple programs on television and radio.

Award recipients

Samuel Chao Chung Ting, Nobel Prize laureate, 1976.

Wolf Prize in Chemistry for this achievement. Manjul Bhargava, an American Canadian of Indian origins won the Fields Medal in mathematics in 2014. Shuji Nakamura won the 2014 Nobel Prize in Physics for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes.


An image of LTC Onizuka with a model of the Challenger shuttle and astronaut helmet on a desk in front of him. The United States Flag, and a smoky blue backdrop in the background.
Lieutenant Colonel Ellison Onizuka, the first Asian American, and third person of Asian descent, in space.

LTC Ellison Onizuka became the first Asian American (and third person of Asian descent) when he made his first space flight aboard STS-51-C in 1985. Onizuka later died aboard the Space Shuttle Challenger in 1986. Taylor Gun-Jin Wang became the first person of Chinese ethnicity and first Chinese American, in space in 1985; he has since been followed by Leroy Chiao in 1994, and Ed Lu in 1997. In 1986, Franklin Chang-Diaz became the first Asian Latin American in space. Eugene H. Trinh became the first Vietnamese American in space in 1992. In 2001, Mark L. Polansky, a Jewish Korean American, made his first of three flights into space. In 2003, Kalpana Chawla became the first Indian American in space, but died aboard the ill fated Space Shuttle Columbia. She has since been followed by CDR Sunita Williams in 2006.



Basketball player Jeremy Lin

Wataru Misaka broke the NBA color barrier when he played for the New York Knicks in the 1947–48 season.[78] The next Asian American NBA player was Raymond Townsend, who played for the Golden State Warriors and Indiana Pacers from 1978 to 1982.[78] Rex Walters, played from 1993 to 2000 with the Nets, Philadelphia 76ers and Miami Heat;[78] he is presently the head coach for the University of San Francisco basketball team.[79] After playing basketball at Harvard University, point guard Jeremy Lin signed with the NBA's Golden State Warriors in 2010[78] and now plays for the Charlotte Hornets.

Current Kansas Jayhawks assistant coach Kurtis Townsend is Raymond Townsend's brother.[80]

Erik Spoelstra became the youngest coach ever in NBA history. He is currently the head coach of the Miami Heat.[81]


Wally Yonamine as a Giant in 1951.

In football, Wally Yonamine played professionally for the San Francisco 49ers in 1947.[82] Norm Chow is currently the head coach for the University of Hawaii and former offensive coordinator for UCLA after a short stint with the Tennessee Titans of the NFL, after 23 years of coaching other college teams, including four years as offensive coordinator at USC. In 1962, half Filipino Roman Gabriel was the first Asian American to start as an NFL quarterback. Dat Nguyen was an NFL middle linebacker who was an all-pro selection in 2003 for the Dallas Cowboys. In 1998, he was named an All-American and won the Bednarik Award as well as the Lombardi Award, while playing for Texas A&M University. Hines Ward who was born to a Korean mother and an African American father, is a former NFL wide receiver who was the MVP of Super Bowl XL and Ward also won the 12th season of the Dancing with the Stars television series. Former Patriot's linebacker Tedy Bruschi is of Filipino and Italian descent. While playing for the Patriots, Bruschi won three Super Bowl rings and was a two-time All-Pro selection. Bruschi is currently a NFL analyst at ESPN.

Mixed martial arts

There are several top ranked Asian American mixed martial artists. BJ Penn is a former UFC lightweight and welterweight champion. Cung Le is a former Strikeforce middleweight champion. Benson Henderson is the former WEC lightweight champion and a former UFC lightweight champion. Nam Phan is UFC featherweight fighter.


Sammy Lee, first Asian American Olympic Gold Medalist

Asian Americans first made an impact in Olympic sports in the late 1940s and in the 1950s. Sammy Lee became the first Asian American to earn an Olympic Gold Medal, winning in platform diving in both 1948 and 1952. Victoria Manalo Draves won both gold in platform and springboard diving in the 1948. Harold Sakata won a weightlifting silver medal in the 1948 Olympics, while Tommy Kono (weightlifting), Yoshinobu Oyakawa (100-meter backstroke), and Ford Konno (1500-meter freestyle) each won gold and set Olympic records in the 1952 Olympics. Konno won another gold and silver swimming medal at the same Olympics and added a silver medal in 1956, while Kono set another Olympic weightlifting record in 1956. Also at the 1952 Olympics, Evelyn Kawamoto won two bronze medals in swimming.

Amy Chow was a member of the gold medal women's gymnastics team at the 1996 Olympics; she also won an individual silver medal on the uneven bars. Gymnast Mohini Bhardwaj won a team silver medal in the 2004 Olympics. Bryan Clay who is of Half-Japanese descent[83] won the decathlon gold medal in the 2008 Olympics, the silver medal in the 2004 Olympics, and was the sport's 2005 world champion.

Since Tiffany Chin won the women's US Figure Skating Championship in 1985, Asian Americans have been prominent in that sport. Kristi Yamaguchi won three national championships, two world titles, and the 1992 Olympic Gold medal. Michelle Kwan has won nine national championships and five world titles, as well as two Olympic medals (silver in 1998, bronze in 2002).

Apolo Ohno who is of Half-Japanese[84] descent is a short track speed skater and an eight-time Olympic Medalist as well as the most decorated American Winter Olympic athlete of all time. He became the youngest U.S. national champion in 1997 and was the reigning champion from 2001 to 2009, winning the title a total of 12 times. In 1999, he became the youngest skater to win a World Cup event title, and became the first American to win a World Cup overall title in 2001, which he won again in 2003 and 2005. He won his first overall World Championship title at the 2008 championships.

Nathan Adrian who is also a Hapa of Half-Chinese descent[85] is a professional American swimmer and three-time Olympic gold medalist who currently holds the American record in the 50 and 100-yard freestyle (short course) events. He has won a total of fifteen medals in major international competitions, twelve gold, two silver, and one bronze spanning the Olympics, the World, and the Pan Pacific Championships.

Other sports

Michael Chang was a top-ranked tennis player for most of his career, and the youngest ever winner of a Grand Slam tennis tournament in men's singles. He won the French Open in 1989. Tiger Woods, who is partially of Asian descent, is the most successful golfer of his generation and one of the most famous athletes in the world. Eric Koston is one of the top street skateboarders and placed first in the 2003 X-Games street competition. Richard Park is a Korean American ice hockey player who currently plays for the Swiss team HC Ambri-Piotta.

Brian Ching, whose father was Chinese, represented the United States Men's National Soccer Team, scoring 11 goals in 45 caps. He participated in the 2006 World Cup and won the 2007 Gold Cup.[86]

Cultural influence

In recognition of the unique culture, traditions, and history of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders, the United States government has permanently designated the month of May to be Asian Pacific American Heritage Month.[87][88]

Cultural factors of success

After observing the rapid economic growth of Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, Hong Kong and Singapore, as well as the success Asian Americans achieved, scholars took notice of a cultural commonality. All of them are influenced by Confucian values. In 1979, Herman Kahn, the world-famous futurist, pointed out the cultural strengths of the Confucian Ethic in the pursuits of industrialization and affluence. He predicted, "the Confucian ethic—the creation of dedicated, motivated, responsible, and educated individuals and the enhanced sense of commitment, organizational identity, and loyalty to various institutions—will result in all the neo-Confucian societies having at least potentially higher growth rates than other cultures."[89] In 1980, Roderick MacFarquhar, the world-renowned China expert and former Director of the John King Fairbank Center for East Asian Research at Harvard University declared: "That ideology [Confucianism] is as important to the rise of the east Asian hyper-growth economies as the conjunction of Protestantism and the rise of capitalism in the West."[90]

Health and medicine


Educational Attainment
Bachelor's degree or higher
Ethnicity or
Percent of
Taiwanese 74.1%
Indian 67.9%
Jews 59.0%
Iranian 57.2%
Pakistani 54.3%
Korean 50.8%
(including Taiwanese)
Venezuelan 49.7%
Filipino 47.9%
Japanese 43.7%
Bangladeshi 41.9%
Armenian[98] 41%
Argentinean 38.9%
Non-Hispanic white 30.7%
Total U.S. population 28.0%
Vietnamese 26.1%
Black 16.5%
Hmong 16.0%
Cambodian 14.6%
Laotian 13.0%
Educational Attainment
(25 and older)
Ethnicity High school
graduation rate
Bachelor's degree
or higher (2010)
Filipinos 90.8% 48.1%
Indian 90.2% 70.7%
Pakistanis 87.4% 55.1%
Bangladeshis 84.5% 49.6%
Chinese 80.8% 51.8%
Japanese 93.4% 47.3%
Koreans 90.2% 52.9%
Vietnamese 70.0% 26.3%
Total U.S. population 83.9% 27.9%
Sources: 2004[108][109][110] and 2010[111]

Among America's major racial categories, Asian Americans have the highest educational qualifications. This varies, however, for individual ethnic groups. Dr. C.N. Le, Director of the Asian & Asian American Studies Certificate Program at the University of Massachusetts, writes that although 42% of all Asian American adults have at least a college degree, Vietnamese Americans have a degree attainment rate of only 16% while Laotians and Cambodians only have rates around 5%.[112] It has been noted, however, that 2008 US Census statistics put the bachelor's degree attainment rate of Vietnamese Americans at 26%, which is not very different from the rate of 27% for all Americans.[113] According to the US Census Bureau in 2010, while the high school graduation rate for Asian Americans is on par with those of other ethnic groups, 50% of Asian Americans have attained at least a bachelor's degree as compared with the national average of 28%,[114] and 34% for non-Hispanic Whites.[115] Indian Americans have some of the highest education rates, with nearly 71% having attained at least a bachelor's degree in 2010.[111] According to Carolyn Chen, director of the Asian American Studies Program at Northwestern University, as of December 2012 Asian Americans made up twelve to eighteen percent of the student population at Ivy League schools, larger than their share of the population.[116] For example, the Harvard Class of 2016 is 21% Asian American.[117]

In the years immediately preceding 2012, 61% of Asian American adult immigrants have a bachelor or higher level college education.[2]

Cultural issues

Illegal immigration

In 2012, there are 1.3 million alien Asian Americans; and for those awaiting visas, there are lengthy backlogs with over 450 thousand Filipinos, over 325 thousand Indians, over 250 thousand Vietnamese, and over 225 thousand Chinese are awaiting visas.[118][119] As of 2009, Filipinos and Indians accounted for the highest number of alien immigrants for "Asian Americans" with an estimated illegal population of 270,000 and 200,000 respectively. Indian Americans are also the fastest growing alien immigrant group in the United States, an increase in illegal immigration of 125% since 2000.[120][121] This is followed by Koreans (200,000) and Chinese (120,000).[122]

Due to the stereotype of Asian Americans being successful as a group and having the lowest crime rates in the United States, illegal immigration is mostly focused on those from Mexico and Latin America while leaving out Asians.[123] Asians are the second largest racial/ethnic alien immigrant group in the U.S. behind Hispanics and Latinos.[124][125] While the majority of Asian immigrants to the United States immigrate legally,[126] up to 15% of Asian immigrants immigrate without legal documents.[127]

Race-based violence

Historically Asian Americans have been the target of violence based on their race and or ethnicity. This includes, but are not limited to, such events as the Rock Springs massacre,[128] Watsonville Riots,[129][130] attacks upon Japanese Americans following the attack on Pearl Harbor.,[131] and Korean American businesses targeted during the 1992 Los Angeles riots.[132] According to historian Arif Dirlik: "Indian massacres of Chinese was a commonplace experience on the frontier, the most notable being the "legendary slaughter by Paiute Indians of forty to sixty Chinese miners in 1866."'"[133] In the late 1980s, South Asians in New Jersey faced assault and other hate crimes by a group known as the Dotbusters. Violence against Asian Americans continue to occur based on their race,[134] with one source asserting that Asian Americans are the fastest growing targets of hate crimes and violence.[135]

After the September 11 attacks, Sikh Americans were targeted, being the recipient of numerous hate crimes including murder.[136][137][138][139] Other Asian Americans have also been the victim of race based violence in Brooklyn,[140] Philadelphia,[141][142] San Francisco.[143] and Bloomington, Indiana.[144] Furthermore, it has been reported that young Asian Americans are more likely to be a target of violence than their peers.[140][145][146] Racism and discrimination still persists against Asian Americans occurring not only to recent immigrants but also towards well-educated and highly trained professionals.[147] Examples include a boycott of Asian-owned businesses in Dallas in 2012,[148][149] hate mail received by Filipinos in American Canyon in 2013,[150][151] and looting of Asian-owned businesses during the 1992 Los Angeles riots.[152][153] As new Asian immigrants have moved into many traditionally black neighborhoods, tensions with African Americans have increased.[154][155][156][157][158][159]


Until the late 20th century, the term "Asian American" was adopted mostly by activists, while the average person of Asian ancestries identified with their specific ethnicity.[160] The murder of Vincent Chin in 1982 was a pivotal civil rights case, and it marked the emergence of Asian Americans as a distinct group in United States.[160][161]

Stereotypes of Asians have been largely collectively internalized by society and these stereotypes have mainly negative repercussions for Asian Americans and Asian immigrants in daily interactions, current events, and governmental legislation. In many instances, media portrayals of East Asians often reflect a dominant Americentric perception rather than realistic and authentic depictions of true cultures, customs and behaviors.[162] Asians have experienced discrimination and have been victims of hate crimes related to their ethnic stereotypes.[163]

Study has indicated that most non-Asian Americans do not generally differentiate between Asian Americans of different ethnicities.[164] Stereotypes of both groups are nearly identical.[165] A 2002 survey of Americans' attitudes toward Asian Americans and Chinese Americans indicated that 24% of the respondents disapprove of intermarriage with an Asian American, second only to African Americans; 23% would be uncomfortable supporting an Asian American presidential candidate, compared to 15% for an African American, 14% for a woman and 11% for a Jew; 17% would be upset if a substantial number of Asian Americans moved into their neighborhood; 25% had somewhat or very negative attitude toward Chinese Americans in general.[166] The study did find several positive perceptions of Chinese Americans: strong family values (91%); honesty as business people (77%); high value on education (67%).[165]

There is a widespread perception that Asian Americans are not "American" but are instead "perpetual foreigners".[166][167][168] Asian Americans often report being asked the question, "Where are you really from?" by other Americans, regardless of how long they or their ancestors have lived in United States and been a part of its society.[169] Many Asian Americans are themselves not immigrants but rather born in the United States. Many East Asian Americans are asked if they are Chinese or Japanese, an assumption based on major groups of past immigrants.[167][170]

Model minority

Percent of households with six figure incomes and individuals with incomes in the top 10%, exceeding $77,500.

Asian Americans are sometimes characterized as a model minority in the United States because many of their cultures encourage a strong work ethic, a respect for elders, a high degree of professional and academic success, a high valuation of family, education and religion.[171][172] Statistics such as high household income and low incarceration rate,[173] low rates of many diseases and higher than average life expectancy[174] are also discussed as positive aspects of Asian Americans.

The implicit advice is that the other minorities should stop protesting and emulate the Asian American work ethic and devotion to higher education. Some critics say the depiction replaces biological racism with cultural racism, and should be dropped.[175]

The model minority concept can also affect Asians' public education.[176] By comparison with other minorities, Asians often achieve higher test scores and grades compared to other Americans.[177] Stereotyping Asian American as over-achievers can lead to harm if school officials or peers expect all to perform higher than average.[178] The very high educational attainments of Asian Americans has often been noted; in 1980, for example, 74% of Chinese Americans, 62% of Japanese Americans, and 55% of Korean Americans aged 20–21 were in college, compared to only a third of the whites. The disparity at postgraduate levels is even greater, and the differential is especially notable in fields making heavy use of mathematics. By 2000, a plurality of undergraduates at such elite public California schools as UC Berkeley and UCLA, which are obligated by law to not consider race as a factor in admission, were Asian American. The pattern is rooted in the pre-World War II era. Native-born Chinese and Japanese Americans reached educational parity with majority whites in the early decades of the 20th century.[179]

The "model minority" stereotype fails to distinguish between different ethnic groups with different histories. When divided up by ethnicity, it can be seen that the economic and academic successes supposedly enjoyed by Asian Americans are concentrated into a few ethnic groups. Cambodians, Hmong, and Laotians (and to a lesser extent, Vietnamese), all of whose relatively low achievement rates are possibly due to their refugee status, and that they are non-voluntary immigrants as other ethnicities are more likely to be;[180] additionally, one in five Hmong and Bangladeshi people live in poverty.[62]

Furthermore, the model minority concept can be emotionally damaging to some Asian Americans, particularly since they are expected to live up to those peers who fit the stereotype.[181] Studies have shown that some Asian Americans suffer from higher rates of stress, depression, mental illnesses, and suicides in comparison to other races,[182] indicating that the pressures to achieve and live up to the model minority image may take a mental and psychological toll on some Asian Americans.[183]

Bamboo ceiling

This concept appears to elevate Asian Americans by portraying them as an elite group of successful, highly educated, intelligent, and wealthy individuals, but it can also be considered an overly narrow and overly one-dimensional portrayal of Asian Americans, leaving out other human qualities such as vocal leadership, negative emotions, risk taking, ability to learn from mistakes, and desire for creative expression.[184] Furthermore, Asian Americans who do not fit into the model minority mold can face challenges when people's expectations based on the model minority myth do not match with reality. Traits outside of the model minority mold can be seen as negative character flaws for Asian Americans despite those very same traits being positive for the general American majority (e.g., risk taking, confidence, empowered). For this reason, Asian Americans encounter a "bamboo ceiling," the Asian American equivalent of the glass ceiling in the workplace, with only 1.5% of Fortune 500 CEOs being Asians, a percentage smaller than their percentage of the total United States population.[185]

The Bamboo ceiling is defined as a combination of individual, cultural, and organisational factors that impede Asian Americans' career progress inside organizations. Since then, a variety of sectors (including nonprofits, universities, the government) have discussed the impact of the ceiling as it relates to Asians and the challenges they face. As described by Anne Fisher,the "bamboo ceiling" refers to the processes and barriers that serve to exclude Asians and American people of Asian descent from executive positions on the basis of subjective factors such as "lack of leadership potential" and "lack of communication skills" that cannot actually be explained by job performance or qualifications.[186] Articles regarding the subject have been written in Crains, Fortune magazine, and The Atlantic.[187][188][189]

See also


  1. ^ "Most Children Younger Than Age 1 are Minorities, Census Bureau Reports - Population - Newsroom - U.S. Census Bureau". United States Census Bureau. 17 May 2012. Retrieved 13 November 2012. 
    "Cumulative Estimates of the Components of Resident Population Change by Race and Hispanic Origin for the United States: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2011 (NC-EST2011-04)". United States Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. May 2012. Retrieved 22 May 2013. 18,205,898 
    "Asian/Pacific American Heritage Month: May 2013" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. 27 March 2013. Retrieved 22 May 2013. 18.2 million
    The estimated number of U.S. residents in 2011 who were Asian, either alone or in combination with one or more additional races.
    "Asian American/Pacific Islander Profile". Office of Minority Health. United States Department of Health & Human Services. 17 September 2012. Retrieved 22 May 2013. According to the 2011 Census Bureau population estimate, there are 18.2 million Asian Americans, alone or in combination, living in the United States. Asian Americans account for 5.8 percent of the nation's population. 
    "Asian American Populations". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. United States Department of Health & Human Services. 7 May 2013. Retrieved 20 May 2013. In 2011, the population of Asians, including those of more than one race, was estimated at 18.2 million in the U.S. population. 
  2. ^ a b c d e Taylor, Paul; D'Vera Cohn; Wendy Wang; Jeffrey S. Passel; Rakesh Kochhar; Richard Fry; Kim Parker; Cary Funk; Gretchen M. Livingston; Eileen Patten; Seth Motel; Ana Gonzalez-Barrera (12 July 2012). "The Rise of Asian Americans" (PDF). Pew Research Social & Demographic Trends.  
  3. ^ 2012 U.S. Census Bureau estimate
  4. ^ "Asian Americans: A Mosaic of Faiths". The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. Pew Research Center. 19 July 2012. Retrieved 15 February 2013. Christian 42%, Buddhist 14%, Hindu 10%, Muslim 4%, Sikh 1%, Jain *% Unaffiliated 26%, Don't know/Refused 1% 
  5. ^ a b c d e Karen R. Humes; Nicholas A. Jones; Roberto R. Ramirez (March 2011). (PDF). United States Census Bureau. U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved January 5, 2012. 
  6. ^ White, Mercedes (23 January 2013). "Asian-American population on the rise, Pew Research Center survey says". Deseret News. Retrieved 28 January 2013. 
  7. ^ "Educational Attainment in the United States: 2007" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. 2009. 
  8. ^ "Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. 2009. p. 9. 
  9. ^ a b K. Connie Kang (7 September 2002). "Yuji Ichioka, 66; Led Way in Studying Lives of Asian Americans". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 4 May 2013. Yet Ichioka created the first inter-ethnic pan-Asian American political group. And he coined the term "Asian American" to frame a new self-defining political lexicon. Before that, people of Asian ancestry were generally called Oriental or Asiatic. 
  10. ^ Mio, Jeffrey Scott, ed. (1999). Key Words in Multicultural Interventions: A Dictionary. ABC-Clio ebook. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 20.  
  11. ^ Gabriel J. Chin, "The Civil Rights Revolution Comes to Immigration Law: A New Look at the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965," 75 North Carolina Law Review 273(1996)
  12. ^ a b U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000 Summary File 1 Technical Documentation, 2001, at Appendix B-14. "A person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Thailand, and Vietnam. It includes Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Korean, Japanese, Vietnamese, and Other Asian."
  13. ^ a b U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census of Population, Public Law 94-171 Redistricting Data File.Race at the Wayback Machine (archived November 3, 2001). (archived from the original on 2001-11-03).
  14. ^ "Asian American". Oxford University Press. Retrieved March 29, 2011. 
  15. ^ "Asian". Archived from the original on April 15, 2008. Retrieved September 29, 2007. 
  16. ^ Epicanthal folds: MedicinePlus Medical Encyclopedia states that "The presence of an epicanthal fold is normal in people of Asiatic descent" assuming it the norm for all Asians
  17. ^ Kawamura, Kathleen (2004). "Chapter 28. Asian American Body Images". In Thomas F. Cash; Thomas Pruzinsky. Body Image: A Handbook of Theory, Research, and Clinical Practice. Guilford Press. pp. 243–249.  
  18. ^ "American Community Survey; Puerto Rico Community Survey; 2007 Subject Definitions" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. p. 31. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 6, 2010. 
    "American Community Survey; Puerto Rico Community Survey; 2007 Subject Definitions" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved April 11, 2011. 
  19. ^ Cornell Asian American Studies; contains mentions to South Asians
    UC Berkeley – General Catalog – Asian American Studies Courses; South and Southeast Asian courses are present
    "Asian American Studies". 2009–2011 Undergraduate Catalog.  

    "Welcome to Asian American Studies". Asian American Studies. "Program". Asian American Studies. "About Us". Asian American Studies. "Welcome". Asian and Asian American Studies Certificate Program. "Overview". Cornell University Asian American Studies Program. Wayback Machine Archived June 15, 2012 at the  



  20. ^ a b c d "State & County QuickFacts: Race". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved August 31, 2009. 
  21. ^ "COMPARATIVE ENROLLMENT BY RACE/ETHNIC ORIGIN" (PDF). Diversity and Inclusion Office. Ferris State University. Retrieved 9 August 2014. original peoples of Europe, North Africa, or the Middle East. 
    "Not Quite White: Race Classification and the Arab American Experience". Arab American Institute. Arab Americans by the Center for Contemporary Arab Studies, Georgetown University. 4 April 1997. Retrieved 9 August 2014. 
    Ian Haney Lopez (1996). "How the U.S. Courts Established the White Race". Model Minority. New York University Press. Retrieved 9 August 2014. 
    "Race". United States Census Bureau. U.S. Department of Commerce. 2010. Retrieved 9 August 2014. White. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa. It includes people who indicate their race as "White" or report entries such as Irish, German, Italian, Lebanese, Arab, Moroccan, or Caucasian. 
  22. ^ 1980 Census: Instructions to Respondents, republished by Integrated Public Use Microdata Series, Minnesota Population Center, University of Minnesota at Accessed November 19, 2006.
  23. ^ Lee, Gordon. Hyphen Magazine. ArchivedThe Forgotten Revolution March 17, 2008 at the Wayback Machine. 2003. January 28, 2007 (archived from the original on March 17, 2008).
  24. ^ Wu, Frank H. Wu (2003). Yellow: race in America beyond black and white. New York, NY:  
  25. ^ 1990 Census: Instructions to Respondents, republished by Integrated Public Use Microdata Series, Minnesota Population Center, University of Minnesota at Accessed November 19, 2006.
  26. ^ Reeves, Terrance Claudett, Bennett. United States Census Bureau. Asian and Pacific Islander Population: March 2002. 2003. September 30, 2006.
  27. ^ Wood, Daniel B. "Common Ground on who's an American." Christian Science Monitor. January 19, 2006. Retrieved February 16, 2007.
  28. ^ "US Census Bureau, Asian Summary of Findings". Retrieved December 17, 2006. 
  29. ^ Searching For Asian America. Community Chats | PBS
  30. ^ S. D. Ikeda. "What's an "Asian American" Now, Anyway?". Archived from the original on 2011-06-10. 
  31. ^ Yang, Jeff (27 October 2012). "Easy Tiger (Nation)". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 19 February 2013. 
  32. ^ Barringer, Felicity (2 March 1990). "Asian Population in U.S. Grew by 70% in the 80's". New York Times. Retrieved 10 January 2013. 
  33. ^ Lowe, Lisa (2004). "Heterogeneity, Hybridity, Multiplicity: Marking Asian American Differences". In Ono, Kent A. A Companion to Asian American Studies (PDF). Blackwell Companions in Cultural Studies. John Wiley & Sons. p. 272.  
  34. ^ Fehr, Dennis Earl; Fehr, Mary Cain (2009). Teach boldly!: letters to teachers about contemporary issues in education.  
  35. ^ Raymond Arthur Smith (2009). """Issue Brief #160: Asian American Protest Politics: "The Politics of Identity (PDF). Majority Rule and Minority Rights Issue Briefs.  
  36. ^ "Asian Americans: A Mosaic of Faiths" (overview) (Archive). Pew Research. July 19, 2012. Retrieved on May 3, 2014.
  37. ^ "Historic Site, During the Manila". Michael L. Baird. Retrieved 2009-04-05. 
  38. ^ Eloisa Gomez Borah (1997). "Chronology of Filipinos in America Pre-1989" (PDF). Anderson School of Management.  
    Gonzalez, Joaquin (2009). Filipino American Faith in Action: Immigration, Religion, and Civic Engagement. NYU Press. pp. 21–22. Jackson, Yo, ed. (2006). Encyclopedia of Multicultural Psychology. SAGE. p. 216. Juan Jr., E. San (2009). "Emergency Signals from the Shipwreck". Toward Filipino Self-Determination. SUNY series in global modernity. SUNY Press. pp. 101–102.  

  39. ^ Martha W. McCartney; Lorena S. Walsh; Ywone Edwards-Ingram; Andrew J. Butts; Beresford Callum (2003). "A Study of the Africans and African Americans on Jamestown Island and at Green Spring, 1619-1803" (PDF). Historic Jamestowne.  
    Francis C.Assisi (16 May 2007). "Indian Slaves in Colonial America". India Currents. Retrieved 11 May 2013. 
  40. ^ Okihiro, Gary Y. (2005). The Columbia Guide To Asian American History. Columbia University Press. p. 178.  
  41. ^ "Filipinos in Louisiana". Retrieved January 5, 2011. 
  42. ^ Wachtel, Alan (2009). Southeast Asian Americans. Marshall Cavendish. p. 80.  
  43. ^ Wai-Jane Cha. "Chinese Merchant-Adventurers and Sugar Masters in Hawaii: 1802–1852" (PDF). University of Hawaii at Manoa. Retrieved January 14, 2011. 
  44. ^ Kalei, Kalikiano (August 12, 2010). "The Chinese Experience in Hawaii". University of Hawai`i Press. Retrieved January 14, 2011. 
  45. ^ Xiaojian Zhao; Edward J.W. Park Ph.D. (26 November 2013). Asian Americans: An Encyclopedia of Social, Cultural, Economic, and Political History [3 volumes]: An Encyclopedia of Social, Cultural, Economic, and Political History. ABC-CLIO. pp. 357–358.  
  46. ^ The Office of Multicultural Student Services (1999). "Filipino Migrant Workers in California". University of Hawaii. Retrieved January 12, 2011. 
  47. ^ Castillo, Adelaida (1976). "FILIPINO MIGRANTS IN SAN DIEGO 1900–1946". The Journal of San Diego History (San Diego Historical Society) 22 (3). Retrieved January 12, 2011. 
  48. ^ L. Scott Miller (1995). An American Imperative: Accelerating Minority Educational Advancement. Yale University Press. p. 19.  
  49. ^ a b Chang, Iris (2003). The Chinese in America : a narrative history. New York: Viking.  
  50. ^ John E. Van Sant (2000). Pacific Pioneers: Japanese Journeys to America and Hawaii, 1850-80. University of Illinois Press. p. 22.  
  51. ^ Sang Chi; Emily Moberg Robinson (January 2012). Voices of the Asian American and Pacific Islander Experience. ABC-CLIO. p. 377.  
    Joseph Nathan Kane (1964). Famous first facts: a record of first happenings, discoveries and inventions in the United States. H. W. Wilson. p. 161. 
  52. ^ Richard T. Schaefer (20 March 2008). Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity, and Society. SAGE Publications. p. 872.  
  53. ^ Gabriel J. Chin, "Segregation's Last Stronghold: Race Discrimination and the Constitutional Law of Immigration," 46 UCLA Law Review 1(1998)
  54. ^ "Historical Landmark, declared by the Filipino American National Historical Society, California Central Coast Chapter, Dedicated October 21, 1995". Retrieved February 14, 2011. 
  55. ^ Stephanie Hinnershitz-Hutchinson (May 2013). "The Legal Entanglements of Empire, Race, and Filipino Migration to the United States". Humanities and Social Sciences Net Online. Retrieved 7 August 2014. 
    Baldoz, Rick (2011). The Third Asiatic Invasion: Migration and Empire in Filipino America, 1898-1946. NYU Press. p. 204.  
  56. ^ Ronald Takaki, Strangers from a Different Shore: A History of Asian Americans (2nd ed. 1998) pp 133–78
  57. ^ Not including children of diplomats.
  58. ^ Takaki, Strangers from a Different Shore: A History of Asian Americans (1998) pp 370–78
  59. ^ Takaki, Strangers from a Different Shore: A History of Asian Americans (1998) pp 197–211
  60. ^ Elaine Howard Ecklund; Jerry Z. Park. """Asian American Community Participation and Religion: Civic "Model Minorities?. Project MUSE.  
  61. ^ Michelle Mai Selesky (31 August 2012). "The Asian-American dream and the Republican Party". Fox News. Retrieved 2 October 2012. 
  62. ^ a b c Adams, Shar (3 May 2012). "Growing Asian-American Communities Underrepresented".  
  63. ^ Semple, Kirk (8 January 2013). "Asian-Americans Gain Influence in Philanthropy". New York Times. Retrieved 3 March 2013. From 2000 to 2010, according to the Census Bureau, the number of people who identified themselves as partly or wholly Asian grew by nearly 46 percent, more than four times the growth rate of the overall population, making Asian-Americans the fastest growing racial group in the nation. 
  64. ^ We Are Siamese Twins-Fai的分裂生活
  65. ^ Lee, Elizabeth (28 February 2013). "YouTube Spawns Asian-American Celebrities". VAO News. Retrieved 4 March 2013. 
  66. ^ Chow, Kat (5 February 2015). "A Brief, Weird History Of Squashed Asian-American TV Shows". NPR. Retrieved 8 February 2015. 
    Cruz, Lenika (4 February 2015). "Why There's So Much Riding on Fresh Off the Boat". The Atlantic. Retrieved 8 February 2015. 
    Gamboa, Glenn (30 January 2015). "'"Eddie Huang a fresh voice in 'Fresh Off the Boat. Newsday (Long Island, New York). Retrieved 8 February 2015. 
    Lee, Adrian (5 February 2015). "Will Fresh Off The Boat wind up being a noble failure?". MacLeans (Canada). Retrieved 8 February 2015. 
    Oriel, Christina (20 December 2014). "Asian American sitcom to air on ABC in 2015". Asian Journal (Los Angeles). Retrieved 8 February 2015. 
    Beale, Lewis (3 February 2015). "The Overdue Asian TV Movement". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 8 February 2015. 
    Yang, Jeff (2 May 2014). "Why the 'Fresh Off the Boat' TV Series Could Change the Game". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 8 February 2015. 
    Joann Faung Jean Lee (1 August 2000). Asian American Actors: Oral Histories from Stage, Screen, and Television. McFarland. p. 98.  

    Branch, Chris (5 February 2015). Fresh Off The Boat' Brings Asian-Americans To The Table On Network TV"'". Huffington Post. Retrieved 8 February 2015. 
  67. ^ "100 Most Successful Asian American Entrepreneurs". 
  68. ^ "Broad racial disparities persist". Archived from the original on November 30, 2006. Retrieved December 18, 2006. 
  69. ^ "Notable Asian American Professionals". 
  70. ^ "CONNIE CHUNG". World Changers.  
  71. ^ 100th Battalion, 442nd Infantry,
  72. ^ Weingardt, Richard (2005). Engineering Legends.  
  74. ^ Murthy, Raja (13 January 2010). "Burj Khalifa and the Tower of Ideas". Asia Times (Mumbai, India). Retrieved 19 May 2015. 
  75. ^ Nature Reviews Drug Discovery (2011). "David T. Wong". Nature Publishing Group. Retrieved 14 September 2012. 
  76. ^ "Scientist Who Developed Prozac Receives International Honor". School of Medicine. Indiana University. 21 December 2011. Retrieved 17 September 2012. 
  77. ^ McDougal, Connie (1997). "The Faith of a Scientist: Alumnus of the Year David T.Wong Devotes a Lifetime to Neuroscience Research". Office of University Communications. Seattle Pacific University. Retrieved 17 September 2012. 
  78. ^ a b c d Beck, Howard (December 28, 2011). "Newest Knick Out to Prove He's Not Just a Novelty".  
  79. ^ "Rex Walters". Men's Basketball. University of San Francisco Athletics. Retrieved February 7, 2012. 
  80. ^ Haskin, evin (March 24, 2007). "Jayhawks not thinking NBA". The Topeka Capital-Journal. Retrieved February 7, 2012. 
  81. ^ Meet new Miami Heat coach Erik Spoelstra
  82. ^ Weber, Bruce (March 4, 2011), "Wally Yonamine, 85, Dies; Changed Japanese Baseball",  
  83. ^ "Bryan Clay Profile & Bio". 2008 Beijing Summer Olympics (NBC). August 8, 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-23. 
  84. ^ Allen, Percy (1996-03-15). "Fed. Way Speedskater Decides To Take His Time". The Seattle Times. Retrieved 2009-12-22. 
  85. ^ America's Olympic Crush [12] Retrieved December 15, 2012
  86. ^ "Bosnia-Herzegovina vs US match". Wild East Football. September 27, 2011. Retrieved October 15, 2015. 
  87. ^ "About Asian-Pacific American Heritage Month". Library of Congress. Retrieved 18 August 2014. 
  88. ^ George Bush: "Statement on Signing Legislation Establishing Asian/Pacific American Heritage Month," October 23, 1992. Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project.
  89. ^ Herman Kahn, "The Confucian Ethic and Economic Growth," in World Economic Development: 1979 and Beyond (Westview, 1979), 121–123
  90. ^ Roderick MacFarquar, "The Post-Confucian Challenge," The Economist, February 9, 1980: 67–72
  91. ^ Koehn NN, Fryer GE Jr, Phillips RL, Miller JB, Green LA. (2007) The increase in international medical graduates in family practice residency programs. Journal of Family Medicine, 34(6):468–9.
  92. ^ Mick SS, Lee SY. (2007) Are there need-based geographical differences between international medical graduates and U.S. medical graduates in rural U.S. counties? J Rural Health. 1999 Winter;15(1):26–43.
  93. ^ Somnath Saha, MD, MPH; Gretchen Guiton, PhD; Paul F. Wimmers, PhD; LuAnn Wilkerson, EdD. (2008) Student Body Racial and Ethnic Composition and Diversity-Related Outcomes in US Medical Schools. JAMA. 2008;300(10):1135–1145
  94. ^ Zhang, X (2003). "Acupuncture: Review and Analysis of Reports on Controlled Clinical Trials".   and
    Ernst E, Pittler MH, Wider B, Boddy K. (2007). "Acupuncture: its evidence-base is changing". Am J Chin Med. 35 (1): 21–5.  
  95. ^ "International Medical Graduates by Country". American Medical Association. Archived from the original on July 5, 2008. 
  96. ^ Sweis, L, and Guay, A. (2007) Foreign-trained dentists licensed in the United States: Exploring their origins. J Am Dent Assoc 2007;138;219–224
  97. ^ "Foreign Educated Nurses". ANA: American Nurses Association. Archived from the original on July 27, 2011. Retrieved August 31, 2009. 
  98. ^ Samkian, Artineh (2007). Constructing Identities, Perceiving Lives: Armenian High School Students' Perceptions of Identity and Education. ProQuest. p. 102.  
  99. ^ "Educational Attainment: 2000" Census 2000 Brief, U.S. Census Bureau
  100. ^;ACS_2009_1YR_G00_S0201PR:012;ACS_2009_1YR_G00_S0201T:012;ACS_2009_1YR_G00_S0201TPR:012&-_lang=en&-redoLog=false&-format=
  101. ^ "We the People: Asians in the United States" Census 2000 Special Reports, U.S. Census Bureau
  102. ^ "Migration Information Source – Spotlight on the Iranian Foreign Born". Retrieved 2010-02-15. 
  103. ^ "An Overview of Socioeconomic Characteristics of the Iranian-American Community based on the 2000 U.S. Census" (PDF). 
  104. ^ data from 2008 The Pew Forum on Religion and Public Lif US Religious Landscape Survey Educational Level by Religious Tradition
  105. ^ "Hmong Profiles 2010 American Community Survey". Retrieved 12 January 2013. 
  106. ^ A Closer Look at Asian Americans and Education, C.N. Le
    About me, C.N. Le,
  107. ^ Kim, Angela; Yeh, Christine J (2002), Stereotypes of Asian American Students, ERIC Educational Reports 
  108. ^ Pakistan American Educational Attainment United States Census Bureau. Retrieved October 2, 2010.
  109. ^ "The American Community-Asians: 2004" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. February 2007. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 26, 2007. Retrieved September 5, 2007.  (Figure 11, p.15)
  110. ^ Pakistani Migration to the United States: An economic perspective. Retrieved October 1, 2010.
  111. ^ a b Stella U. Ogunwole; Malcolm P. Drewery, Jr; Merarys Rios-Vargas (May 2012). "The Population With a Bachelor's Degree or Higher by Race and Hispanic Origin: 2006–2010" (PDF). American Community Survey Briefs. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 18 February 2013. 
  112. ^ C.N. Le (2010). "School of Education at Johns Hopkins University-A Closer Look at Asian Americans and Education". New Horizons for Learning.  
  113. ^ U.S. Census Bureau (March 3, 2008). "Asian/Pacific American Heritage Month: May 2008". Facts for Features. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 6 March 2013. 
  114. ^ "Asian/Pacific American Heritage Month: May 2012". Profile America Facts for Features. United States Census Bureau. 21 March 2012. Retrieved 18 February 2013. 
  115. ^ Richard Perez-Pena (23 February 2012). "U.S. Bachelor Degree Rate Passes Milestone". New York Times. Retrieved 18 February 2013. 
  116. ^ Chen, Carolyn (19 December 2012). "Asians: Too Smart for Their Own Good?". New York Times. Retrieved 3 March 2013. 
  117. ^ "A Brief Profile of the Admitted Class of 2016". statistics. President & Fellows of Harvard College. 2012. Retrieved 2 April 2013. 
  118. ^ "Annual Report of Immigration Visa Applicants in the Family-sponsored and Employment-based preferences Registered at the National Visa Center as of November 1, 2012" (PDF). Bureau of Consular Affairs. United States Secretary of State. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2013. 
  119. ^ Demby, Gene (31 January 2013). "For Asian-Americans, Immigration Backlogs Are A Major Hurdle". National Public Radio. Retrieved 5 February 2013. 
  120. ^ Indians fastest-growing illegal immigrants in U.S.
  121. ^ Illegal Indians in US Archived August 15, 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  122. ^ Hoeffer, Michael; Rytina, Nancy; Campbell, Christopher. "Estimates of the Unauthorized Immigrant Population Residing in the United States: January 2009" (PDF). Department of Homeland Security. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 7, 2010. Retrieved April 9, 2010. 
  123. ^ Weingarten, Liza; Raymond Arthur Smith (2009). "Asian American Immigration Status" (PDF). Majority Rule and Minority Rights Issue Briefs. Columbia University. Retrieved March 4, 2012. Deemed successful as a complete group, the national immigration debate often leaves out Asians focusing instead on South America primarily. Furthermore, a failed attempt to naturalize can actually result in deportation. Because fluency in English is one of the criteria for naturalization, certain ethnicities within the panethnic Asian American immigrant identity are more strongly affected than others. But Asians are noticeably absent from the immigration debate, according to public radio reports. 
  124. ^ Passel, Jeffrey (March 21, 2005). "Estimates of the Size and Characteristics of the Undocumented Population" (PDF). Pew Hispanic Center. 
  125. ^ Erwin De Leon (2011). """Asian Immigration and the Myth of the "Model Minority. WNYC. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  126. ^ "New Asian Immigrants To US Now Surpass Hispanics". CBSDC. 19 June 2012. Retrieved 19 June 2012. While immigrants from Asia often obtain visas and arrive legally, many also sneak across the U.S. border or become undocumented residents after overstaying their visas. 
  127. ^ Guarino, Mark (19 June 2012). "How Asians displaced Hispanics as biggest group of new US immigrants".  
  128. ^ Tanner, Russel; Margie Fletcher Shanks (2008). Rock Springs. Arcadia Publishing. p. 31 28.  
  129. ^ "Racial Riots". Office of Multicultural Student Services.  
  130. ^ "Racial hate once flared on Central Coast". The Weekend Pinnacle Online. October 27, 2006. Archived from the original on 2011-07-10. Retrieved March 21, 2011. , Bellingham Riots in 1916 against South Asians,
  131. ^ Tenbroek, Jacobus; Edward Norton Barnhart; Floyd W. Matson (1975). Prejudice, war, and the Constitution. University of California Press. p. 352.  
  132. ^ Chung Kim, Kwang (1999). Koreans in the hood: conflict with African Americans. JHU Press. p. 146.  
  133. ^ Arif Dirlik, Malcolm Yeung (2001). Chinese on the American Frontier. Rowman & Littlefield.  
  134. ^ Sowell, Thomas (May 9, 2010). "Race and Resentment". Real Clear Politics. Archived from the original on February 14, 2011. Retrieved March 21, 2011. 
  135. ^ C.N. Le (March 21, 2011). "Anti-Asian Racism & Violence". Archived from the original on April 30, 2011. Retrieved March 22, 2011. 
  136. ^ Valarie Kuar Brar (September 30, 2002). "Turbans and Terror: Racism After Sep. 11". The Sikh Times. Retrieved March 21, 2011. 
  137. ^ Klug, Foster (September 17, 2001). "Sikh killed, others are targeted; Arizona man held". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Retrieved March 21, 2011. 
  138. ^ Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Lisa A. Suzuki; J. Manuel Casas; Charlene M. Alexander (2009). Handbook of Multicultural Counseling. SAGE. p. 472.  
  139. ^ Min, Pyong Gap (2006). Asian Americans: contemporary trends and issues. Pine Forge Press. p. 216.  
  140. ^ a b "Asian youth persistently harassed by U.S. peers". USA Today. November 13, 2005. Retrieved March 22, 2011. 
  141. ^ Hoye, Sarah (October 22, 2010). "Racial violence spurred Asian students to take a stand". CNN. Retrieved March 22, 2011. 
  142. ^ Johnson, Danielle (December 7, 2009). "Attacked Asian Students Afraid To Go to School".  
  143. ^ C.W. Nevius (April 29, 2010). "Asian American attacks focus at City Hall". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved March 22, 2011. 
  144. ^ Danielle Wiener-Bronner (November 1, 2010). "Asian Students Attacked At Indiana University". Huffington Post. Retrieved March 22, 2011. 
  145. ^ Lu, Hubert; Peter Schurmann (July 1, 2007). "Asian Parents and Students Face Challenge of Diversity". Douwei Times. Retrieved March 22, 2011. 
  146. ^  
  147. ^ Lee, Evelyn (2000). Working with Asian Americans: A Guide for Clinicians. New York, New York:  
  148. ^ "Racial Tension Rising in Dallas Against Korean Community".  
  149. ^ "Racial tensions flare in protest of South Dallas gas station".  
  150. ^ Almendrala, Anna (8 January 2013). "'"Derek Valencia, Filipino-American, Reports Racist Hate Mail About 'Filthy' 'Filipino Scum. Huffington Post. Retrieved 15 January 2013. 
  151. ^ Anthony, Laura (9 January 2013). "Filipino-Americans in Napa Co. targeted in hate mail". KGO-TV. Retrieved 15 January 2013. 
  152. ^ Kim, Kwang Chung (1999). Koreans in the Hood: Conflict With African Americans. Baltimore, Maryland: JHU Press. p. 250.  
  153. ^ Abelmann, Nancy; Lie, John (1995). Blue Dreams: Korean Americans and the Los Angeles Riots. Harvard University Press. p. 288.  
  154. ^ New York Times: "Attacks on Asians Highlight New Racial Tensions" By GERRY SHIH May 2, 2010
  155. ^ USA Today: "Bullying against Asian students roils Philadelphia high school" January 22, 2010
  156. ^ CNN: "Racial violence spurred Asian students to take a stand" By Sarah Hoye October 22, 2010
  157. ^ "Attacks on Asian-Americans lead to racial tension" By Juliana Barbassa May 15, 2010
  158. ^ Washington Post: "D.C.'s Black-Korean Dynamic: A Simmering Tension by Marc Fisher June 20, 2007
  159. ^ Baltimore Sun: "Black, Korean tension is focus U.S. civil rights panel to meet in Baltimore" By Erin Texeira July 23, 1998
  160. ^ a b Yip, Alethea. "Remembering Vincent Chin". Asian Week. Archived from the original on March 18, 2007. Retrieved March 14, 2007. 
  161. ^ ACAPAA. "Pilicy Recommendation Document." (PDF). State of Michigan. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 8, 2007. Retrieved March 14, 2007. 
  162. ^ Kashiwabara, Amy, Vanishing Son: The Appearance, Disappearance, and Assimilation of the Asian-American Man in American Mainstream Media, UC Berkeley Media Resources Center 
  163. ^ "Pearl Harbor and Asian-Americans". New York Times. 26 October 1991. Retrieved 31 December 2012. 
  164. ^ Espiritu, Yen le (1993). Asian American panethnicity: bridging institutions and identities. Temple University Press. p. 139.  
  165. ^ a b Committee of 100 (April 25, 2001). "Committee of 100 Announces Results of Landmark National Survey on American Attitudes towards Chinese Americans and Asian Americans". Retrieved June 14, 2007. 
  166. ^ a b Yi, Matthew; et al. (April 27, 2001). "Asian Americans seen negatively". The San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved June 14, 2007. 
  167. ^ a b Frank H. Wu. "Asian Americans and the Perpetual Foreigner Syndrome". Archived from the original on September 28, 2007. Retrieved June 14, 2007. 
  168. ^ Lien, Pei-te; Mary Margaret Conway; Janelle Wong (2004). The politics of Asian Americans: diversity and community. Psychology Press. p. 7.  
  169. ^  
  170. ^ K. Bergquist. "Image Conscious". Archived from the original on July 9, 2007. Retrieved June 14, 2007. 
  171. ^ Le, C.N. (2001). "The Model Minority Image". Asian-Nation: The Landscape of Asian America. C.N. Le. Retrieved 18 February 2013. 
  172. ^ Wu, Frank H. (2002). "The Model Minority: Asian American 'Success' as a Race Relations Failure". Yellow: Race in America Beyond Black and White (PDF). New York: Basic Books. pp. 39–77.  
  173. ^ Bureau of Justice Statistics: Criminal Offenders Statistics at the Wayback Machine (archived July 16, 2008), November 13, 2005. (archived from the original on July 16, 2008)
  174. ^ The Soft Bigotry of Life Expectancy By William Saletan March 16, 2005 "Asian-Americans were beating white life expectancy by six years among men and 6.5 years among women"
  175. ^ Chih-Chieh Chou, "Critique on the notion of model minority: an alternative racism to Asian American?," Asian Ethnicity, Oct 2008, Vol. 9#3 Issue 3, pp 219–229
  176. ^ Kumar, Revathy; Maehr, Martin L. (2010). "Schooling, Cultural Diversity, and Student Motivation". In Meece, Judith L.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S. Handbook of Research on Schools, Schooling and Human Development. Routledge. p. 314.  
  177. ^ "Asian Americans outperform whites in terms of their overall or average grades (GPA), grades in math, and test scores in math", School Performance, Tseng, V., Chao, R. K., & Padmawidjaja, I. (2007). Asian Americans educational experiences. In F. Leong, A. Inman, A. Ebreo, L. Yang, L. Kinoshita, & M. Fu (Eds.), Handbook of Asian American Psychology, (2nd Edition) Racial and Ethnic Minority Psychology (REMP) Series (pp. 102–123). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications (MS Word format, via Multicultural Families and Adolescents Study, Publications).
  178. ^ Frank H. Wu (2002). Yellow. Basic Books.  
  179. ^ Charles Hirschman and Morrison G. Wong, "The Extraordinary Educational Attainment of Asian-Americans: A Search for Historical Evidence and Explanations," Social Forces, Sept 1986, Vol. 65#1 pp 1–27
  180. ^ "Socioeconomic Statistics & Demographics : Asian-Nation :: Asian American History, Demographics, & Issues". Asian-Nation. Retrieved 2012-11-11. 
    Hing, Julianne (22 June 2012). "'"Asian Americans to Pew Study: We're Not Your 'Model Minority. The Hartford Guardian. Retrieved 22 June 2012. 
  181. ^ Nhan, Doris (15 May 2012). "Asians Often Burdened as Model Minority". National Journal. Retrieved 19 February 2013. 
  182. ^ "Mental Health and Depression in Asian Americans"
  183. ^ Cohen, Elizabeth (16 May 2007). "Push to achieve tied to suicide in Asian-American women". CNN. Retrieved 19 February 2013. 
  184. ^ Cheng, Joy; Charles Hsieh; Scott Lu; Sarah Talog. "Asian Americans and the Media: Perpetuating the Model Minority". Psychology 457.002. University of Michigan. Retrieved 19 February 2013. 
  185. ^ Sylvia Ann Hewlett (28 July 2011). """Asians in America: What's Holding Back the "Model Minority?. Forbes. Retrieved 19 February 2013. 
  186. ^ Anne Fisher (8 August 2005). "'"Piercing the 'Bamboo Ceiling.  
  187. ^ Anne Fisher (18 November 2011). "Training executives to think globally". Crain's New York Business. Retrieved 14 June 2012. 
  188. ^ Anne Fisher (7 October 2011). "Is there a 'bamboo ceiling' at U.S. companies?". Fortune Magazine. Retrieved 14 June 2012. 
  189. ^ Hans Villarica (15 May 2012). "Study of the Day: There's a 'Bamboo Ceiling' for Would-Be Asian Leaders".  

Further reading

  • Bhatt, Amy, et al. Roots and Reflections: South Asians in the Pacific Northwest (2013)
  • Chan, Sucheng. "The changing contours of Asian-American historiography," Rethinking History, March 2007, Vol. 11 Issue 1, pp 125–147; surveys 100+ studies of defining events; Asian diasporas; social dynamics; cultural histories.
  • Chan, Sucheng. Asian Americans: an interpretive history (Twayne, 1991). ISBN 978-0-8057-8437-4
  • Chau Trinh-Shevrin, Nadia Shilpi Islam, Mariano Jose Rey. Asian American Communities and Health: Context, Research, Policy, and Action (Public Health/Vulnerable Populations), 2009. ISBN 978-0-7879-9829-5
  • Cheng, Cindy I-Fen. Citizens of Asian America: Democracy and Race during the Cold War (2013)
  • Chin, Gabriel J., Ed., U.S. Commission on Civil Rights: Reports on Asian Pacific Americans (2005) ISBN 978-0-8377-3105-6
  • Choi, Yoonsun. "Academic Achievement and Problem Behaviors among Asian Pacific Islander American Adolescents." (Archive, Alternate link) Journal of Youth and Adolescence. Received 26 August 2006. Accepted 13 October 2006. Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. DOI 10.1007/s10964-006-9152-4. May 2007, Volume 36, Issue 4, pp 403–415.
  • Chiu, Monica, ed. Asian Americans in New England: Culture and Community (Durham: University of New Hampshire Press, 2009. xviii, 252 pp.) ISBN 978-1-58465-794-1
  • Kwong, Peter and Dusanka Miscevic. Chinese America: The Untold Story of America's Oldest New Community (2005)
  • Lowe, Lisa Immigrant Acts: On Asian American Cultural Politics Durham: Duke University Press, 1996. ISBN 978-0-8223-1864-4
  • Matsumoto, Jon. "Asian Americans Anchor Their Influence." Los Angeles Times. September 4, 1998.
  • Okihiro, Gary Y. The Columbia Guide to Asian American History (Columbia UP, 2005) excerpt and text search
  • Pyong Gap Min Asian Americans: Contemporary Trends and Issues Thousand Oaks, Ca.: Pine Science Press, 2005. ISBN 978-1-4129-0556-5
  • Takaki, Ronald Strangers from a Different Shore: A History of Asian Americans New York: Little, Brown, 1998. ISBN 978-0-316-83130-7.
    • adapted by Rebecca Stefoff: Raising Cane. The World of Plantation Hawaii, Chelsea House Publishers, New York/Philadelphia 1994, ISBN 0-7910-2178-5.
  • Tamura, Eileen H. "Using the Past to Inform the Future: An Historiography of Hawaii's Asian and Pacific Islander Americans," Amerasia Journal, 2000, Vol. 26 Issue 1, pp 55–85
  • Wu, Frank H. Yellow: Race in American Beyond Black and White New York: Basic Books, 2002. ISBN 978-0-465-00639-7
  • Zia, Helen Asian American Dreams: The Emergence of an American People New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2000. ISBN 978-0-374-52736-5.
  • Zhou, Min and Carl L. Bankston III Growing Up American: How Vietnamese Children Adapt to Life in the United States New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1998. ISBN 978-0-871-54995-2.
  • "Asian Americans: A Mosaic of Faiths" (full report) (Archive). Pew Research Center. July 19, 2012.


External links

  • Population: Estimates and Projections by Age, Sex, Race/Ethnicity, The 2010 Statistical Abstract, U.S. Census Bureau
  • UCLA Asian American Studies Center
  • Asian-Nation Asian American History, Culture, Statistics, & Issues
  • Korean Americans in America – National organizations, business directory, job posts and news
  • U.S. Asian Population, Census 2000,
  • Video: Panel Discussion on 'Asian Americans Changing the Landscape' Asia Society, New York, May 19, 2010
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.