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Astroturfing is the practice of masking the AstroTurf, a brand of synthetic carpeting designed to look like natural grass, a play on the word "grassroots." The implication behind the use of the term is that there are no "true" or "natural" grassroots, but rather "fake" or "artificial" support, though some astroturfing operatives defend the practice (see Justification below).

On the Internet, astroturfers use software to mask their identity. Sometimes one individual operates over many personas to give the impression of widespread support for their client's agenda.[1][2] Some studies suggest astroturfing can alter public viewpoints and create enough doubt to inhibit action.


  • Definition 1
  • Policies and enforcement 2
  • Debate 3
    • Effectiveness 3.1
    • Justification 3.2
    • Impact on society 3.3
  • Techniques 4
    • Detection 4.1
  • Business and adoption 5
  • History of incidents 6
    • Origins 6.1
    • Tobacco 6.2
    • Internet 6.3
    • Politics 6.4
    • Environment 6.5
    • Commercial 6.6
    • State-sponsored 6.7
  • See also 7
  • References 8


Astroturfing is the use of fake grassroots efforts that primarily focus on influencing public opinion and are typically funded by corporations, and governmental entities, to form opinions.[3]

Policies and enforcement

Many countries have laws that prohibit more overt astroturfing practices.[4] In the United States the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) may send cease and desist orders or require a fine of $16,000 per day for those that violate its "Guides Concerning the Use of Endorsements and Testimonials in Advertising."[4][5] The FTC's guides were updated in 2009 to address social media and word-of-mouth marketing.[6][7] According to an article in the Journal of Consumer Policy, the FTC's guides holds advertisers responsible for ensuring bloggers or product endorsers comply with the guides and any product endorsers with a material connection are required to provide honest reviews.[4]

In the European Union, the Unfair Commercial Practices Directive requires that paid-for editorial content in the media provide a clear disclosure that the content is a sponsored advertisement.[4] Additionally, it prohibits those with a material connection from misleading readers into thinking they are a regular consumer.[4] The United Kingdom has the Consumer Protection from Unfair Trading Regulations[8] which prohibits "Falsely representing oneself as a consumer." They allow for up to two years in prison and unlimited fines for breaches.[4] Additionally, the advertising industry in the UK has adopted many voluntary policies, such as the Code of Non-Broadcast Advertising, Sale, Promotion and Direct Marketing. A trade association, the Advertising Standards Authority, investigates complaints of breaches. The policy requires that marketing professionals not mislead their audience, including by omitting a disclosure of their material connection.[4]

In Australia astroturfing is regulated by Section 18 of the Australian Consumer Law, which broadly prohibits "misleading and deceptive conduct". According to the Journal of Consumer Policy Australia's laws, which were introduced in 1975, are more vague. In most cases, they are enforced through lawsuits from competitors, rather than the regulatory body, the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission.[4] There is also an International Consumer Protection and Enforcement Network (ICPEN).[9]

Legal regulations are primarily targeted towards testimonials, endorsements and statements as to the performance or quality of a product. Employees of an organization may be considered acting as customers if their actions are not guided by authority within the company.[9]



In the book Grassroots for Hire: Public Affairs Consultants in American Democracy, Edward Walker defines "astroturfing" as public participation that is perceived as heavily incentivized, as fraudulent (claims are attributed to those who did not make such statements), or as an elite campaign masquerading as a mass movement.[10] Although not all campaigns by professional grassroots lobbying consultants meet this definition, the book finds that the elite-sponsored grassroots campaigns often fail when they are not transparent about their sources of sponsorship and/or fail to develop partnerships with constituencies that have an independent interest in the issue. Walker highlights the case of Working Families for Wal-Mart, in which the campaign's lack of transparency led to its demise.

A study published in the Journal of

  1. ^ Cory Doctorow, "HBGary's high-volume astroturfing technology and the Feds who requested it", boingboing, February 18, 2011
  2. ^ Peter Ludlow, "The Strange Case of Barrett Brown", The Nation, June 18, 2013
  3. ^ a b c d e Cho, Charles H.; Martens, Martin L.; Kim, Hakkyun; Rodrigue, Michelle (2011). "Astroturfing Global Warming: It Isn’t Always Greener on the Other Side of the Fence". Journal of Business Ethics 104 (4): 571–587.  
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Malbon, Justin (2013). "Taking Fake Online Consumer Reviews Seriously". Journal of Consumer Policy 36 (2): 139–157.  
  5. ^ Guides Concerning the Use of Endorsements and Testimonials in Advertising (PDF), Federal Trade Commission, retrieved June 20, 2014 
  6. ^ Foresman, Chris (August 27, 2010). "PR firm settles with FTC over alleged App Store astroturfing". Ars Technica. Retrieved 2012-11-07. 
  7. ^ Roberts, Jeff (April 26, 2012). "The ethics of astro-turfing: sleazy or smart business?". Giga Om. Retrieved June 20, 2014. 
  8. ^ OUTLAW.COM (2009-12-08). "EU rolls out out astroturf guide for consumer laws". The Register. Retrieved November 10, 2012. 
  9. ^ a b c d Kolivos, Eugenia, and Anna Kuperman. "Web Of Lies -- Legal Implications Of Astroturfing." Keeping Good Companies (14447614) 64.1 (2012): 38-41. Business Source Complete. Web. 10 Nov. 2012.
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  11. ^ a b c d Streitfeld, David (August 25, 2012). "The Best Book Reviews Money Can Buy". The New York Times. Retrieved October 25, 2012. 
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  18. ^ a b c d e Cheng Chen; Kui Wu; Venkatesh Srinivasan; Xudong Zhang (November 18, 2011). "Battling the Internet Water Army: Detection of Hidden Paid Posters" (PDF). University of Victoria and Beijing University. Retrieved November 12, 2012. 
  19. ^ a b c d Monbiot, George (February 24, 2011). "The need to protect the internet from 'astroturfing' grows ever more urgent".  
  20. ^ Monbiot, George (September 18, 2006). "The denial industry". The Guardian (London). Retrieved September 14, 2012. 
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  24. ^ Friel, Alan (October 2009). "FTC's New Endorsement Guides Call for Policies and Procedures". Wildman Harrold. 
  25. ^ a b "Astroturfing." New Scientist 193.2590 (2007): 48. Computers & Applied Sciences Complete. Web. 10 Nov. 2012.
  26. ^ Slutsky, Irina (February 24, 2011). Organic' SXSW Blogger Buzz? More Like Marketing Astroturf"'". AdAge. Retrieved November 9, 2012. 
  27. ^ Roberts, Jeff (April 26, 2012). "The ethics of astro-turfing:". Retrieved September 10, 2012. 
  28. ^ a b Rockefeller, Happy (February 16, 2011). "UPDATED: The HB Gary Email That Should Concern Us All". Daily Kos. 
  29. ^ a b c Menn, Joseph; Edmund Sanders (August 23, 2001). "Lobbyists Tied to Microsoft Wrote Citizens' Letters". The LA Times. 
  30. ^ a b "Husin tietojärjestelmän puolustajaa arveltiin keksityksi". September 13, 2012. Retrieved November 18, 2012. 
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  32. ^ Ratkiewicz, Jacob; Conover, Michael; Meiss, Mark; Gonçalves, Bruno; Alessandro Flammini; Filippo Menczer (Nov 16, 2010). "Detecting and Tracking the Spread of Astroturf Memes in Microblog Streams".  
  33. ^ Ratkiewicz, Jacob; Conover, Michael; Meiss, Mark; Gonçalves, Bruno; Snehal Patil; Alessandro Flammini; Filippo Menczer (July 17–21, 2011). Detecting and Tracking Political Abuse in Social Media. Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Weblogs and Social Media (Menlo Park, CA, USA: Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence).  
  34. ^ Fontanella-Khan, James (June 27, 2013). "Astroturfing takes root; Brussels". Financial Times. 
  35. ^ a b Rosemarie Ostler (6 September 2011). Slinging Mud: Rude Nicknames, Scurrilous Slogans, and Insulting Slang from Two Centuries of American Politics. Penguin. pp. 141–.  
  36. ^ Wade, Alex (January 9, 2011). "'"Good and bad reviews: The ethical debate over 'astroturfing. The Guardian (London). Retrieved November 18, 2012. 
  37. ^ Givel, Michael (2007). "Consent and Counter-Mobilization: The Case of The National Smokers Alliance". Journal of Health Communication 12 (4): 339–357.  
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  40. ^ Ratkiewicz, Jacob; Conover, Michael; Meiss, Mark; Gonçalves, Bruno; Snehal Patil; Alessandro Flammini; Filippo Menczer (July 17–21, 2011). Detecting and Tracking Political Abuse in Social Media. Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Weblogs and Social Media (Menlo Park, CA, USA: Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence).  
  41. ^ a b Rachel Maddow (August 4, 2009). "Reviewing the history of fake conservative protests".  
  42. ^ "PR firm admits it's behind Wal-Mart blogs". CNN. October 20, 2006. Retrieved November 10, 2008. 
  43. ^ Stoff, Rick. "Astroturf-Roots Campaign." St. Louis Journalism Review 36)2 (2006): 12-21. Communication & Mass Media Complete. Web. 11 Nov. 2012.
  44. ^ Patrick, Aaron (April 5, 2007). "Ask.Com's 'Revolt' Risks Costly Clicks". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved November 18, 2012. 
  45. ^ "White House Brushes Off Health-Care Protests". Wall Street Journal. August 4, 2009. 
  46. ^ Cook, Nancy (November 26, 2012). "Billionaire Peterson Sounds Alarm on Deficit". National Journal. Retrieved November 23, 2013. 
  47. ^ Confessore, Nicholas (January 9, 2013). "Public Goals, Private Interests in Debt Campaign". The New York Times. Retrieved November 22, 2013. 
  48. ^ "Using other people's words as your own". 
  49. ^ Krugman, Paul (April 12, 2009). "Tea Parties Forever". The New York Times. Retrieved April 24, 2010. 
  50. ^ Pelosi: Tea parties are part of an 'astroturf' campaign by 'some of the wealthiest people in America.' ThinkProgress, Apr 15, 2009. Retrieved January 28, 2011.
  51. ^ Monbiot, George (2010-10-25). "The Tea Party movement: deluded and inspired by billionaires". The Guardian.  
  52. ^ Lee, Caroline (Winter 2010), The roots of astroturfing (PDF), Contexts, pp. 73–75, retrieved June 21, 2014 
  53. ^ Valiante, Giuseppe (June 20, 2014), Feds weigh in on allegations Russia behind anti-fracking movement, National Bureau, pp. 73–75 
  54. ^ Gross, Grant (Aug 26, 2010). "FTC settles complaint about fake video game testimonials". Reuters. Retrieved September 25, 2012. 
  55. ^ Sanomat, Turun (September 13, 2012). "Laitos-lehti: Keksitty henkilö kehuu Husin tietojärjestelmää". Retrieved November 18, 2012. 
  56. ^ Brush, Pete (September 23, 2013). "NY 'Astroturfing' Cases Mark Fertile Ground For Civil Suits". Law360. LexisNexis. Retrieved February 20, 2014. 
  57. ^ "A.G. Schneiderman Announces Agreement With 19 Companies To Stop Writing Fake Online Reviews And Pay More Than $350,000 In Fines". New York State Office of the Attorney General. Retrieved February 20, 2014. 
  58. ^ Anderson, Nate (March 26, 2010). "280,000 pro-China astroturfers are running amok online". Ars Technica. Retrieved November 7, 2012. 
  59. ^ "Persona Management Software. Solicitation Number: RTB220610". Archived from the original on July 17, 2010. Retrieved 12 October 2012. 
  60. ^ Stephen C. Webster (February 22, 2011). "Military’s ‘persona’ software cost millions, used for ‘classified social media activities’". The Raw Story. Archived from the original on February 23, 2011. Retrieved 2011-02-24. 
  61. ^ Darlene Storm (February 22, 2011). "Army of fake social media friends to promote propaganda". Computerworld Inc. Archived from the original on February 24, 2011. Retrieved 2011-02-24. 
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See also

In June 2010, the United States Air Force solicited for "persona management" software that would "enable an operator to exercise a number of different online persons from the same workstation and without fear of being discovered by sophisticated adversaries. Personas must be able to appear to originate in nearly any part of the world and can interact through conventional online services and social media platforms..."[59] The $2.6 million contract was awarded to Ntrepid Corporation for astroturfing software the military would use to spread pro-American propaganda in the Middle East, and disrupt extremist propaganda and recruitment.[19][60][61][62]

In 2008, an expert on Chinese affairs, Rebecca MacKinnon, estimated the country employed 280,000 in a government-sponsored astroturfing operation to post pro-China propaganda and drown out voices of dissent.[18][58]


In September 2013, New York Attorney General Eric T. Schneiderman announced a settlement with 19 companies to prevent astroturfing. "'Astroturfing' is the 21st century's version of false advertising, and prosecutors have many tools at their disposal to put an end to it," said Scheiderman. The companies paid $350,000 to settle the matter, but the settlement opened the way for private suits as well. "Every state has some version of the statutes New York used," according to lawyer Kelly H. Kolb. "What the New York attorney general has done is, perhaps, to have given private lawyers a road map to file suit."[56][57]

In 2010, the Federal Trade Commission settled a complaint with Reverb Communications, who was using interns to post favorable product reviews in Apple's iTunes store for clients.[54] In September 2012, one of the first major identified case of astroturfing in Finland involved criticisms about the cost of a €1.8 billion patient information system, which was defended by fake online identities operated by involved vendors.[30][55]


Russia has recently been accused of using astroturf tactics to drum up anti-fracking sentiment across Europe and the West in order to maintain dominance in oil exports through Ukraine.[53]

Corporate efforts to mobilize the public against environmental regulation accelerated in the US following the election of president Barack Obama.[52]


The Tea Party movement has been alleged by noted liberals to be a case of astroturfing.[49][50][51]

In 2003, offered the site's users "points" that could be redeemed for products if they signed a form letter promoting Michael Moore's film Fahrenheit 9/11.[22] Some commentators compared protests of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act to prior Republican astroturfing tactics like the Brooks Brothers riots.[41][45] The Committee for a Responsible Federal Budget's "Fix the Debt" campaign advocated to reduce government debt without disclosing that its members were lobbyists or high-ranking employees at corporations that aim to reduce federal spending.[46][47] It also sent op-eds to various students that were published as-is.[48]

During the 2000 Presidential election as a recount of votes in Florida was taking place, a "spontaneous mob" arrived at the voting center called the Brooks Brothers riot, which created the appearance of a grass-roots protest, but many of the protesters were connected to the Republican party.[41] In 2006, two Edelman employees created a blog called "Wal-Marting Across America" about two people traveling to Wal-Marts across the country. The blog gave the appearance of being operated by spontaneous consumers, but was actually operated on behalf of Working Families for Walmart, a group funded by Wal-Mart.[42][43] In 2007, deployed an anti-Google advertising campaign portraying Google as an "information monopoly" that was damaging the Internet. The ad was designed to give the appearance of a popular movement and didn't disclose it was funded by a competitor.[44] As President Barack Obama drew attention to the issue of global warming in 2009, research from the Pew Research Centre found that front groups like the Heartland Institute created hesitation among constituents about global warming by distributing materials that cast doubt on the consensus among the scientific community.[3]


Email, automated phone calls, form letters, and the Internet made astroturfing more economical and prolific in the late 1990s.[19][35] In 2001, as Microsoft was defending itself against an antitrust lawsuit, Americans for Technology Leadership (ATL), a group heavily funded by Microsoft, initiated a letter-writing campaign. ATL contacted constituents under the guise of conducting a poll and sent pro-Microsoft consumers pre-written letters to send to involved lawmakers. The effort was designed to make it appear as though there was public support for a sympathetic ruling in the antitrust lawsuit.[29][38] An Indiana University research study developed a software system to detect astroturfing in the Twitter stream. "Some of these cases caught the attention of the popular press due to the sensitivity of the topic in the run up to the 2010 U.S. midterm political elections, and subsequently many of the accounts involved were suspended by Twitter." The study cited a limited number of examples, all promoting conservative policies and candidates.[31][39][40]


As health advocates began winning legislation to raise taxes and increase regulation of smoking in the US, Philip Morris, Burson-Marsteller and other tobacco interests created the National Smokers Alliance (NSA) in 1993. The NSA and other tobacco interests initiated an aggressive public relations campaign from 1994 to 1999 in an effort to exaggerate the appearance of grassroots support for smoker's rights. According to an article in the Journal of Health Communication, the NSA had mixed success at defeating bills that were damaging revenues of tobacco interests.[37]


Although the term "astroturfing" was not yet developed, an early example of the practice was in Act 1, Scene 2 of Shakespeare's play Julius Caesar. In the play, Cassius writes fake letters from "the public" to convince Brutus to assassinate Caesar.[9] In the early 1900s a disposable cup vendor convinced travelers to avoid public drinking cups found in trains and shops through a pamphlet called The Cup Campaigner. The pamphlet warned that public drinking cups could spread disease and did not disclose that the message was commercially motivated.[25] The term "astroturfing" was first coined in 1985 by then-US Senator Lloyd Bentsen (DTexas) when he said, "a fellow from Texas can tell the difference between grass roots and AstroTurf... this is generated mail".[9][35] Bentsen was describing a "mountain of cards and letters" sent to his office to promote insurance industry interests.[36]


History of incidents

According to The Financial Times, astroturfing is "common place" in American politics, but was "revolutionary" in Europe when it was exposed that the European Privacy Association, an anti-privacy "think-tank," was actually sponsored by technology companies.[34]

According to Nancy Clark from Precision Communications, grass-roots specialists charge $25 to $75 for each constituent they convince to send a letter to a politician.[29] Paid online commentators in China are paid fifty cents for each online post that is not removed by moderators,[18] leading to the nickname of the "50-cent party."[13] The New York Times reported that a business selling fake online book reviews charged $999 for 50 reviews and made $28,000 a month shortly after opening.[11]

According to an article in the Journal of Consumer Policy academics disagree on how prolific astroturfing is.[4]

Business and adoption

According to an article in The New York Times, the Federal Trade Commission rarely enforces its astroturfing laws.[11] However, astroturfing operations are frequently detected if their profile images are recognized[30] or if they are identified through the usage patterns of their accounts.[18] Filippo Menczer's group at Indiana University developed software in 2010 that detects astroturfing on Twitter by recognizing behavioral patterns.[31][32][33]

Mass letters may be printed on personalized stationery using different typefaces, colors and words to make them appear personal.[29]

Persona management software can age accounts and simulate the activity of attending a conference automatically to make it more convincing that they are genuine.[28] At HBGary, employees are given separate thumb drives that contain online accounts for individual identities and visual cues to remind the employee which identity they are using at the time.[28]


Pharmaceutical companies may sponsor patient support groups and simultaneously push them to help market their products.[25] Bloggers who receive free products, paid travel or other accommodations may also be considered astroturfing if those gifts are not disclosed to the reader.[26] Analysts could be considered astroturfing, since they often cover their own clients without disclosing their financial connection. To avoid astroturfing, many organizations and press have policies about gifts, accommodations and disclosures.[27]

[24][19] Persona management software may be used so that each paid poster can manage five to seventy convincing online personas without getting them confused.[18] Astroturfing businesses may pay staff based on the number of posts they make that are not flagged by moderators.[23][12] Another technique is the use of

Use of one or more front groups is one astroturfing technique. These groups typically present themselves as serving the public interest, while actually working on behalf of a corporate or political sponsor.[20] Front groups may resist legislation and scientific consensus that is damaging to the sponsor's business by emphasizing minority viewpoints, instilling doubt and publishing counterclaims by corporate-sponsored experts.[3] Fake blogs can also be created that appear to be written by consumers, while actually being operated by a commercial or political interest.[21] Some political movements have provided incentives for members of the public to send a letter to the editor at their local paper, often using a copy and paste form letter that is published in dozens of newspapers verbatim.[22]


Data mining expert Bing Liu ([19] An article in the Journal of Consumer Policy said that regulators and policy makers needed to be more aggressive about astroturfing. The author said it undermines the public's ability to inform potential customers of sub-standard products or inappropriate business practices, but also noted that fake reviews were difficult to detect.[4]

Impact on society

Some astroturfing operatives defend their practice.[14] Regarding "movements that have organized aggressively to exaggerate their sway", author Ryan Sager said this "isn't cheating. Doing everything in your power to get your people to show up is basic politics."[15] According to a Porter/Novelli executive, "There will be times when the position you advocate, no matter how well framed and supported, will not be accepted by the public simply because you are who you are."[16]


[13].groupthink Online comments from astroturfing employees can also sway the discussion through the influence of [12]

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