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Azerbaijan in World War II

Battalion sent to the front, on the road to the Balajary station

The Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic entered World War II with the whole Soviet Union, on June 22, 1941. German command gave the great consideration to oil pools of Baku and set a task to take Baku and oil and gas area of Baku under their control in the course of the Battle of the Caucasus. More than 600,000 people from Azerbaijan were conscripted to the Workers’ and Peasants’ Red Army during World War II, from 1941 to 1945.

Contents

  • World War II 1
    • Battle of the Caucasus 1.1
    • “Edelweiss” campaign 1.2
    • “Consent” campaign 1.3
  • Lend-Lease 2
  • Trans-Iranian route 3
  • Population of the Azerbaijan SSR at the battle and home fronts 4
    • National military units of the Red Army 4.1
    • Citizens of Azerbaijan conferred on a title of Hero of the Soviet Union 4.2
    • Partisan detachments and groups in countries of Western and Eastern Europe 4.3
    • Guerrillas in the ranks of the resistance in Western and Eastern Europe 4.4
    • The Caspian fleet 4.5
    • Baku Air Defense Army 4.6
  • Economy of Azerbaijan during the wartime 5
    • Contribution on material-technical provision 5.1
  • References 6

World War II

Battle of the Caucasus

German attack: June–November, 1942

Baku and the North Caucasus were the main oil sources for the whole economy of the USSR.[1] 80% of oil was extracted in Azerbaijan throughout the whole USSR. Significance of the Caucasus and Kuban as the source of grain was sharply increased after loss of Ukraine. Reserves of strategic raw materials such as deposit of tungsten-molybdenum ore were in these places. Loss of the Caucasus could cause a significant influence upon general course of the war against the USSR, and that is why Hitler had chosen namely this direction as the main.[2] Group of armies, created for attack to the Caucasus, was given coded identification “A”.

Tasks of the group “A” were the following: to surround and destroy the Georgia, with a bypass manoeuvre.

On February 1, 1942 the Central Inquiry Office under the Soviet of Evacuation carried out a general census of the population came from threatened areas of the USSR, according to the order of the Azerbaijanis, 11 Poles, 8 Tatars and also representatives of other nations of evacuated people came to Gorodskoy and Dzherjinski regions of Baku by February 1, 1942 according to the census.[3]

“Edelweiss” campaign

German army approached the South Caucasus. Even the date of seizure of Baku – September 26, 1942 - was fixed.[4] Defense regions were created around Nalchik, Vladikavkaz, Grozny, Makhachkala and Baku. The first stage of the battle of the Caucasus was from July to December, 1942. German-Romanian army, suffering a great loss, could reach foothills of Greater Caucasus and the Terek River. But, generally, “edelweiss” plan of Germany failed. Only during the 1st stage of the battle the “A” group of armies lost about 100,000 people[5] and Germans couldn’t burst the South Caucasus and the Near East.

“Consent” campaign

From August 25 to September 17, 1941 the Great Britain and the Soviet Union carried out a joint campaign under a code name “Consent”. Defense of Iranian oil deposits and pools and their capture by German army and their allies, and also defense of transportation corridor (southern corridor), along which allies supplied the Soviet Union according to Lend-Lease, was its main goal. During World War II, Rezā Shāh refused to deploy troops of the Great Britain and the Soviet Union at their request. But, for instance, according to the 5th and 6th points of the agreement between Soviet Russia and Iran of 1921, the USSR had a right to deploy its troops in the territory of Iran in case of appearance of any threat to its southern borders.

Armed forces of the allies invaded Iran, dethroned Reza Pahlavi and established their control over railway roads and oil deposits of the country, in course of the campaign. Meanwhile, troops of the United Kingdom occupied southern Iran, and troops of the Soviet Union – northern part of the country (Iranian Azerbaijan).

Lend-Lease

Trans-Iranian route

Map of the route

Cargo delivery from the USA and the United Kingdom within the Lend-Lease program was implemented through the Trans-Iranian route. Delivery of cargo was implemented by water crafts of the Caspian Flotilla. Cars go along the following routes: Tehran-Ashgabat, Tehran-Astara-Baku and Julfa-Vladikavkaz.

Railwaymen of Azerbaijan carried out a maintenance and general exploitation of Julfa-Tabriz railway road according to rules of the wartime.[6]

Population of the Azerbaijan SSR at the battle and home fronts

Lyubov Orlova sees off soldiers to Balajary station (Baku)

681 thousand people from the total population of 3.4 million people were conscripted to the front from the Azerbaijan SSR, and 10,000 women, 300,000 citizens of the USSR conscripted from Azerbaijan perished in the battlefields. 15,000 nurses and sanitary activists, 750 operators and 3,000 drivers were trained for military units. Azerbaijani women also participated in the war. Partisan Aliya Rustambeyova, sniper Ziba Ganiyeva, anti-craft gunner Almaz Ibrahimova, captain of a steamship Shovkat Salimova and others were among them.

Defense of Brest Fortress, Siege of Leningrad, Battle of Moscow, battles of Stalingrad, Caucasus and Kursk, Ukraine, mainly Crimean peninsula, and also Baltic Offensive, Eastern Europe and Battle in Berlin were the main battlefields of soldiers from the Azerbaijan SSR.

National military units of the Red Army

The following divisions were created in the territory of the Azerbaijan SSR:[7]

  • 87 battalions
  • 1123 self-defense squads

Were established:

  • The 77th infantry division
  • The 223rd infantry division
  • 396th infantry division
  • 402nd infantry division
  • 416th infantry division

Military units and formations in which significant part of Azerbaijani citizens took part:[8]

  • 416th Taganrog, Red Banner, Order of Suvorov Division Infantry Division
  • 76th Mountain Infantry Division named after K.E.Voroshilov (later the 51st Guards Rifle Division of Taganrog)
  • 77th 'Simferopolskaya Red Banner, Order of Suvorov Division Sergo Ordzhonikidze' Mountain Rifle Division
  • 223rd 'Belgrade Red Banner Azerbaijan' Rifle Division
  • 227th Rifle Division
  • 396th Rifle Division
  • 402nd Rifle Division

Citizens of Azerbaijan conferred on a title of Hero of the Soviet Union

128 residents of Azerbaijan were conferred on title of Hero of the Soviet Union for military valour and feats shown during World War II. Hazi Aslanov received this title twice. There were 42 ethnic Azerbaijanis who received the title of Hero of the Soviet Union and 14 of them were awarded posthumously. Lieutenant Israfil Mammadov was the first Azerbaijani who became Hero of the Soviet Union.

Partisan detachments and groups in countries of Western and Eastern Europe

Name Country/Republic Commander
Azerbaijani Partisan Detachment France Huseynrza Mammadov
Azerbaijani Partisan Detachment – “Ruska Cheta”[9][10] Italy Javad Hakimli
The 8th Azerbaijani Partisan Detachment – “Krasniy Partizan”[11] Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic Mammad Aliyev
Raiding Party of “Pravda” Partisan Detachment Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic Mammad Aliyev

Guerrillas in the ranks of the resistance in Western and Eastern Europe

Guerilla Country/Republic
Nuru Abdullayev France
Hasan Aliyev France
Mazaim Aliyev Italy
Mammad Samad oglu Baghirov Italy
Vali Valiyev[12] France
Mikayil Huseynov[12] France
Mehdi Huseynzade Yugoslavia, Italy
Khanchoban Jafarov[13] Italy
Pasha Jafarkhanli France
Ahmadiyya Jabrayilov France
Feyzulla Gurbanov[12] France
Huseynrza Mammadov France
Gurban Mammadov France
Mirzakhan Mammadov France
Mammad Mammadov[14] Netherlands
Mirzali Mammadli France
Nurush Mehdiyev France
Jalil Rafiyev Italy
Ali Taghiyev[15] Yugoslavia, Italy
Javad Hakimli Yugoslavia, Italy
Mirza Shahverdiyev Italy
Mashi Eylazov Italy

The Caspian fleet

The Caspian fleet took the first place for cargo-turnover until World War II.[16] Approximately one third of cargo transported throughout all seas of the USSR was delivered along the Caspian Sea. Proximity of oil deposits, petroleum refineries and cotton storehouses to the sea was the reason for it. Transportation of wood and bread to regions of the Caucasus and Middle Asia, which were delivered to the Caspian Sea through the Volga and Ural, also stipulated the high level of cargo-turnover. Oil and oil products, which were mainly transported from Baku to Astrakhan for further transportation to other regions of the USSR through the Volga River, were the main goods determining significance of the Caspian Sea. Territory of Azerbaijan, mainly Baku-Baladjary point, located on the junction of railway and marine roads, was the important link on the railway road of the South Caucasus.

Baku oil was transported to all regions of the USSR and agricultural provision of the Azerbaijan SSR from central regions of the USSR was realized along this railway road. Baku port was distinguished for high intensity of cargo handling and capability of passing. Transportation of oil to the Volga River was the main content of the port.[16]

Baku Air Defense Army

Baku Air Defense Army was established by resolution of the State Defense Committee since April 5. Its administration was created on the basis of reformed administration of the 3rd corps of anti-craft warfare. Organizationally it was part of the South Caucasus zone of anti-craft defense, but since April, 1944 it became part of the South Caucasus front of anti-craft defense. In May–October, 1942, during the period of active actions of German reconnaissance crafts in the borders of the army, its war strength included in:

  • The 8th destructive aircraft corps of anti-craft defense (6 destructive aircraft regiments),
  • 7 regiments of antiaircraft artillery,
  • 1 regiment of antiaircraft machineguns,
  • 1 searchlight regiment,
  • A regiment of aerostatic obstacle,
  • A regiment of troops of air observation, warning and connection,
  • Other distinct parts.

Commanders: P.M.Beskrovnov, general-major of the artillery (April 1942 – February 1945) and N.V.Markov, general-lieutenant of the artillery (February, 1945 – till the end of the war).

Economy of Azerbaijan during the wartime

Contribution on material-technical provision

Oil tankers in Baku moved to front.

Until the beginning of World War II the Azerbaijan SSR was a locomotive of the sector: the main provider of oil and oil products, forge of specialists in oil sector and producer of oil petroleum equipment. Despite the military actions, Baku remained the main provider of fuels and lubricants. Azerbaijani oilmen produced 80% of fuel of the whole country during the wartime. In the first year of the war, they sent 23,5 million tones of oil. Only 75 million tones of oil were transported for military needs during World War II.

  1. ^ Баку и Северный Кавказ были основным источником нефти для всей экономики СССР.
  2. ^ Митчем, стр. 135
  3. ^ a b Г. А. Куманев. (№ 6, 2006). "ВОЙНА И ЭВАКУАЦИЯ В СССР. 1941—1942 годы". VIVOS VOCO!. Archived from the original on 2011-08-14. 
  4. ^ Vagif Agayev, Fuad Akhundov, Fikrat T. Aliyev and Mikhail Agarunov. (Summer 1995 (3.2)). "World War II and Azerbaijan". Azerbaijan International. Archived from the original on 2011-08-14. 
  5. ^ Новая Российская энциклопедия. Т. 3, ч. 1. Битва за Кавказ 1942—43
  6. ^ «Очерки истории стальной магистрали Азербайджана» Б. И. Султанов, Баку, 1997.
  7. ^ Азербайджанские части и соединения
  8. ^ Азербайджан в годы Великой Отечественной войны
  9. ^ :::::: ãàçåòà Íàø ÂÅÊ ::::::
  10. ^ http://www.zerkalo.az/print.php?id=4066
  11. ^ 8-й Азербайджанский партизанский отряд
  12. ^ a b c Азербайджанский партизан Ахмад Мишель
  13. ^ Kaspiy
  14. ^ Одиссея Медо
  15. ^ Венок от соотечественников
  16. ^ a b V.A.Belyayeva (1957). Трудовой героизм рабочих Азербайджана в годы Великой Отечественной войны (1941—1945 гг.). Baku: Азнефтеиздат. 
  17. ^ Братья и сестры по оружию
  18. ^ Василий Истратов: «Без природных ресурсов Азербайджана не было бы победы в Великой Отечественной войне»: Политика, 8 мая 2007
  19. ^ a b Н. К. Байбаков. Моя родина — Азербайджан.
  20. ^ a b c Андрей Соколов. "В годину тяжких испытаний". Нефть России. Archived from the original on 2011-08-14. 
  21. ^ a b В. В. Маяковский: «БАКУ» — Страницы Баку.
  22. ^ "Героизм народа в годы Великой Отечественной войны незабываем". 9may.az. Archived from the original on 2011-08-14. 
  23. ^ Глеб Красневский: «Именно азербайджанская нефть стала одним из решающих факторов победы в Великой Отечественной войне»

References

Namely Azerbaijani oil became one of the determinants of the victory in World War II.

Gleb Krasnevsky, Secretary General of the Embassy of Belarus in Azerbaijan said:[23]

If there were not your oil in the war, we would scarcely to go far away with the help of cavalry.

Semyon Budyonny, marshal of the Soviet Union, who came to Baku after the war, said journalists the following words:[22]

“The Red Army owes Azerbaijani nation and courageous Baku oilmen for many victories, for on-time delivery of qualitative fuel to attacking units. Soldiers of our front under Stalingrad, in Don and Donbass, on the shores of the Dnepr and Dnestr, in Belgrad, under Budapesht and Vienna remember Azerbaijani oilmen with gratitude and greet brave workers of oily Baku.

On April 28, 1945 Fyodor Tolbukhin, marshal of the Soviet Union in his article under a subtitle of “Glory to Azerbaijani nation” wrote:[21]

A great part of the victory belongs to Baku oilmen in every military attack of fearless falcons, in every raid of the Soviet tankmen, in every victory over German-fascist forces.

Konstantin Rokossovsky, marshal of the Soviet Union in his letter to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Azerbaijan SSR wroteл:[21]

Military machine of the Soviet Union was put in motion for 75-80% thanks to valorous work of Baku citizens. Destiny of the war depended on them in many things. Being a non-frontline city, the capital of Azerbaijan was hourly connected with acting units of the Red Army with its oil arteries, as a frontline part of its fronts.

In September, 1942 a military situation was announced in the South Caucasus and situation in Baku became critical. Only 1,6 million tones of oil was sent instead of 6 million tones till the end of navigation. Special oil wells, into which were pumped hundred thousand tones of topped oil, were allocated. Scarcity of tanks led to collapse of work. “Neftchala” – was the only trust which produced petroleum in autumn.[20] As N.K.Baibakov wrote:[19]

In 1942, by the order of the State Defense Committee Oil Refinery of Baku was stopped to produce various kinds of products, for solving the main task – provision of the aviation with ultimate gasoline.[20] 13 million tones of 17 million oil products were produced in Azerbaijan. Approximately 85% of aviation gasoline was produced in Azerbaijan. 1 million tones of - B-78 - high-octane gasoline was delivered to the front. Terminal stations, which were located on the shore of the Caspian Sea and The Volga River and other great population aggregates and which adjoined railway roads, were created. Transportation of oil and oil products from Baku to petroleum storage depots and to oil refineries of various regions of the country was implemented through the sea and then by railway roads. In July of the same year navigation in the Volga was stopped because of entrance of German troops to Volgograd. The main railway roads along which oil and oil products were sent from Baku to the front were blocked by German troops. German-fascist troops were at the gates of the Caucasus, they tended to Baku petroleum and Baku itself was under threat of war. As the direct road for oil transportation was blocked, a new way for transportation of oil products to Stalingrad had to be found. It was decided to send oil products through the only way through Krasnovodsk, and then through the railway road of Middle Asia and Kazakhstan to Stalingrad. But there was not enough amount of cisterns in the railway road of Middle Asia for transportation of oil. And then Baku administration of the sector had a risky solution for that: to send cisterns of oil products afloat by tugs to Krasnovodsk along the sea and then to transport then to railway road.

Modern oil fields of Azerbaijan

[20] Equipment, specialists and their families were sent to “The second Baku” district (

“All pick of Azerbaijani oil industry was on the wheels”

Krasnovodsk with their families and oil equipments on steamships and tankers, and then to unpopulated regions by the trains. N.K.Baibakov wrote in his “Azerbaijan-my motherland” book that:[19]

Toiling under “Everything for front!Everything for victory!” slogan Azerbaijani oilmen were awarded a Red challenge banner of the State Defense Committee, All-Union Central Council of Professional Unions and National Commissariat of Oil Industry of the USSR, which was the indicator of high evaluation of the work.

"There wouldn’t be any victory in World War II without natural resources of Azerbaijan."

[18]Vasiliy Istratov, former ambassador of Russia to Azerbaijan wrote:

"Oilmen of Baku gave front and the country so much fuel, necessary for defense of our Fatherland and for quick victory over the enemy."

[17]

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