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Battle of Bannockburn

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Title: Battle of Bannockburn  
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Battle of Bannockburn

Battle of Bannockburn
Part of the First War of Scottish Independence

This depiction from the Scotichronicon (c.1440) is the earliest known image of the battle. King Robert wielding an axe and Edward II fleeing toward Stirling feature prominently, conflating incidents from the two days of battle.
Date 23–24 June 1314
Location Bannockburn, south of Stirling, Scotland
Result Decisive Scottish victory
Belligerents
Kingdom of Scotland Kingdom of England
Commanders and leaders
Robert the Bruce Edward II Humphrey de Bohun
Strength
5,000[1]–10,000[2] 13,700[3]–25,000[4]
Casualties and losses
400[5]–4,000[6] 700 cavalry[7]
4,000[8] – 11,000 infantry[9]

The Battle of Bannockburn (Blàr Allt nam Bànag, often mistakenly called Blàr Allt a' Bhonnaich in Scottish Gaelic) (24 June 1314) was a significant Scottish victory in the First War of Scottish Independence, and a landmark in Scottish history.

Stirling Castle, a Scots royal fortress, occupied by the English, was under siege by the Scottish army. Edward II of England assembled a formidable force to relieve it. This attempt failed, and his army was defeated in a pitched battle by a smaller army commanded by Robert I of Scotland.

Background

The Wars of Scottish Independence between England and Scotland began in 1296 and initially the English were successful, having won victories at the Battle of Dunbar (1296) and at the Capture of Berwick (1296).[10] The removal of John Balliol from the Scottish throne also contributed to the English success.[10] The Scots had been victorious in defeating the English at the Battle of Stirling Bridge in 1297, however this was countered by Edward I of England's victory at the Battle of Falkirk (1298).[10] By 1304 Scotland had been conquered, but in 1306 Robert the Bruce seized the Scottish throne and the war was reopened.[10]

Edward II of England came to the throne in 1307 but was incapable of providing the determined leadership that had been shown by his father, Edward I, and the English position soon became more difficult.[10] Stirling Castle was one of the most important castles that was held by the English as it commanded the route north into the Scottish Highlands.[10] It was besieged in 1314 by Robert the Bruce's brother, Edward Bruce, and an agreement was made that if the castle was not relieved by mid-summer then it would be surrendered to the Scots.[10] The English could not ignore this challenge and military preparations were made for a substantial campaign in which the English army probably numbered 2,000 cavalry and 15,000 infantry, many of whom would have been longbowmen.[10] The Scottish army probably numbered between 7,000 and 10,000 men, of whom no more than 500 would have been mounted.[10] Unlike the heavily armoured English cavalry, the Scottish cavalry would have been light horsemen who were good for skirmishing and reconnaissance but were not suitable for charging the enemy lines.[10] The Scottish infantry would have had axes, swords and pikes, with few bowmen among them.[10]

The precise size of the English force relative to the Scottish forces is unclear but estimates range from as much as at least two or three times the size of the army Bruce had been able to gather, to as little as only 50% larger.[11]

Preparations

An early 14th century English depiction of a Biblical battle giving an impression of how soldiers were equipped at Bannockburn. The image of a king wielding a battle axe in the top half has led some historians to link this image to Bannockburn.

Edward II and his advisors were aware of the places that the Scots were likely to challenge them and sent out orders for their troops to prepare for an enemy established in boggy ground near to the River Forth, near Stirling.[10] The English appear to have advanced in four divisions whereas the Scots were in three divisions, known as 'schiltrons' which were strong defensive circles of men bristling with pikes.[10] Thomas Randolph, 1st Earl of Moray, commanded the Scottish vanguard, which was stationed about a mile to the south of Stirling, near the church of St. Ninian, while the king commanded the rearguard at the entrance to the New Park. His brother Edward led the third division. According to Barbour, there was a fourth division nominally under the youthful Walter the Steward, but actually under the command of Sir James Douglas.[12] The Scottish archers used yew-stave longbows and though these were not weaker or inferior to English longbows, there were fewer Scottish archers than English archers, [13]possibly numbering only 500. These archers played little part in the battle.[14] There is firsthand evidence in a poem by the captured Carmelite friar Robert Baston, written just after the battle, that one or both sides employed slingers and crossbowmen.[15]

The Battle

Location of the battlefield

There is some confusion over the exact site of the Battle of Bannockburn, although most modern historians agree that the traditional site, where a visitor centre and statue have been erected, is not the correct one.[16] Although a large number of possible alternatives have been proposed, most can be dismissed leaving two serious contenders:[17]

  • the area of peaty ground known as the Dryfield outside the village of Balquhiderock, about three-quarters of a mile to the east of the traditional site,[18] and
  • the Carse of Balquhiderock, about a mile and a half north-east of the traditional site, accepted by the National Trust as the most likely candidate.[19]

First day of battle

An interpretation of the battle of Bannockburn-first day

Most medieval battles were short-lived, lasting only a few hours, therefore the Battle of Bannockburn is unusual in that it lasted for two days.[10] On 23 June 1314 two of the English cavalry formations advanced, the first commanded by the Earl of Gloucester and the Earl of Hereford.[10] They encountered a body of Scots, among them Robert the Bruce himself.[10] A celebrated single combat then took place between Bruce and Henry de Bohun who was the nephew of the Earl of Hereford.[10] Bohun charged at Bruce and when the two passed side by side, Bruce split Bohun's head with his axe.[10][20] The Scots then rushed upon the English under Gloucester and Hereford who struggled back over the Bannockburn.[21] The second English cavalry force was commanded by Robert Clifford. They advanced on the flank of the Scots, coming up against the schiltrom that was commanded by Thomas Randolph, 1st Earl of Moray, but the English withdrew in confusion, unable to break the Scottish formation.[10]

Second day of battle

An interpretation of the battle of Bannockburn-second day

Under nightfall the English forces crossed the stream that is known as the Bannock Burn, establishing their position on the plain beyond it.[10] A Scottish knight, Alexander Seton, who was fighting in the service of Edward II of England, deserted the English camp and told Bruce of the low English morale, encouraging Bruce to attack them.[10] In the morning the Scots then advanced from New Park.[10] Not long after daybreak, the Scots spearmen began to move towards the English. Edward was surprised to see Robert's army emerge from the cover of the woods. As Bruce's army drew nearer, they paused and knelt in prayer. Edward is supposed to have said in surprise "They pray for mercy!" "For mercy, yes," one of his attendants replied, "But from God, not you. These men will conquer or die."[22] The English archers should have been able to counter this advance but they were neutralized by a Scottish cavalry charge led by Sir Robert Keith.[10] The English responded to the Scots advance with a charge of their own, led by the Earl of Gloucester. Gloucester had argued with the Earl of Hereford over who should lead the vanguard into battle, and argued with the king that the battle should be postponed. This led the king to accuse him of cowardice, which perhaps goaded Gloucester into the charge.[10] Few accompanied Gloucester in his charge and when he reached the Scottish lines he was quickly surrounded and killed.[10] Gradually the English were pushed back and ground down by the Scots' schiltrons.[10] An attempt to employ the English and Welsh longbowmen to shoot at the advancing Scots from their flank failed when they were dispersed by the Scottish 500-horse light cavalry under the Marischal Sir Robert Keith[23] The English cavalry was hemmed in making it difficult for them to maneuver.[10] As a result the English were unable to hold their formations and broke ranks.[10] It soon became clear that the English had lost and Edward II needed to be led to safety.[10] However one of Edward's knights, Giles d'Argentan, declared that he was not accustomed to flee and made one final charge on the Scots, only to die on their spears.[10]

English retreat

Edward fled with his personal bodyguard, ending the remaining order in the army; panic spread and defeat turned into a rout. He arrived eventually at Dunbar Castle, from which he took ship to England. From the carnage of Bannockburn, the rest of the army tried to escape to the safety of the English border, ninety miles to the south. Many were killed by the pursuing Scottish army or by the inhabitants of the countryside that they passed through. Historian Peter Reese says that, "only one sizeable group of men—all footsoldiers—made good their escape to England."[9] These were a force of Welsh spearmen who were kept together by their commander, Sir Maurice de Berkeley, and the majority of them reached Carlisle.[9] Weighing up the available evidence, Reese concludes that "it seems doubtful if even a third of the footsoldiers returned to England."[9] Out of 16,000 infantrymen, this would give a total of about 11,000 killed. The English chronicler Thomas Walsingham gave the number of English men-at-arms who were killed as 700,[7] while 500 more men-at-arms were spared for ransom.[24] The Scottish losses appear to have been comparatively light, with only two knights among those killed.[25]

Aftermath

The defeat of the English opened up the north of England to Scottish raids[10] and allowed the Scottish invasion in Ireland.[26] These finally led, after the failure of the Declaration of Arbroath to reach this end by diplomatic means, to the Treaty of Edinburgh–Northampton.[27] It was not until 1332 that the Second War of Scottish Independence began with the Battle of Dupplin Moor, followed by the Battle of Halidon Hill (1333) which were won by the English.[10]

Notable casualties

Deaths

Captives

Legacy

Bannockburn Visitor Centre

The modern Bannockburn monument
Statue of Robert the Bruce by Pilkington Jackson, near the Bannockburn Heritage Centre

In 1932 the Bannockburn Preservation Committee, under Edward Bruce, 10th Earl of Elgin and Kincardine, presented lands to the National Trust for Scotland. Further lands were purchased in 1960 and 1965 to facilitate visitor access. A modern monument stands in a field above the battle site, where the warring parties are believed to have camped on the night before the battle. The monument consists of two hemicircular walls depicting the opposing parties. Nearby stands the 1960s statue of Bruce by Pilkington Jackson. The monument, and the associated visitor centre, is one of the most popular tourist attractions in the area. The battlefield has been included in the Inventory of Historic Battlefields in Scotland and protected by Historic Scotland under the Historic Environment (Amendment) Act 2011.[28]

The National Trust for Scotland operates the Bannockburn Visitor Centre (previously known as the Bannockburn Heritage Centre), which is open daily from March through October. On 31 October 2012 the building was closed[29] for demolition and replacement by a new design, inspired by traditional Scottish buildings, by Reiach and Hall Architects. The project is a partnership between the National Trust for Scotland and Historic Scotland, funded by the Scottish Government and the Heritage Lottery Fund.[30] The battlefield's new visitor centre - now rebranded as the Bannockburn Visitor Centre - opened in March 2014. One of the top attractions created by a £9m redevelopment of the centre and the nearby battlefield memorial is a computerised multiplayer game. [31]

Arts

"Scots Wha Hae" is the title of a patriotic poem by Robert Burns.[32] The chorus of Scotland's unofficial national anthem Flower of Scotland refers to Scotland's victory over Edward and the English at Bannockburn.

Notes

  1. ^ Nusbacher, Aryeh (2000). The Battle of Bannockburn 1314. Stroud: Tempus. p. 85.  
  2. ^  
  3. ^ Armstrong, Pete (2002). Bannockburn. Botley, Oxford:  
  4. ^ Grant, R.G. (2008), Battle: A visual journey through 5,000 years of combat, DK Publishing,p.118.
  5. ^ Sadler, John, Scottish Battles, (Biddles Ltd., 1998), 52–54.
  6. ^ Grant, 118.
  7. ^ a b Mackenzie, p.88 referencing Walsingham, p.141
  8. ^ Sadler, 52.
  9. ^ a b c d Reese, p.174
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af Black, Jeremy. (2005). The Seventy Great Battles of All Time. pp. 71–73. Thames & Hudson Ltd. ISBN 0-500-25125-8.
  11. ^ Watson, F., "In Our Time: The Battle of Bannockburn", BBC Radio, 3 February 2011
  12. ^ Nicholson, Later Middle Ages pp.87–89
  13. ^ Strickland, Matthew; Hardy,Robert (2005). The Great Warbow. Stroud: Sutton. p. 162.  
  14. ^ The Chronicle of Lanercost says that on the second day of the battle, "the English archers were thrown forward before the line, and the Scottish archers engaged them, a few being killed and wounded on either side; but the King of England's archers quickly put the others to flight." The Chronicle of Lanercost, 1272–1346: Translated, with notes by Sir Herbert Maxwell. p. 206
  15. ^ Walter Bower, Scotichronicon,Book XII, p. 371
  16. ^ Mackenzie, W. M. (1913). The Battle of Bannockburn: a Study in Mediaeval Warfare, Publisher: James MacLehose; Glasgow.
  17. ^ Barrow, Geoffrey W.S. (1998). Robert Bruce & The Community of The Realm of Scotland. ISBN 0-85224-604-8
  18. ^ Barron, E.M., The Scottish War of Independence: a Critical Study, 1934
  19. ^ Christison, Philip, Bannockburn: The Story of the Battle, 1960, Edinburgh: The National Trust for Scotland.
  20. ^ Hyland, Ann. The Warhorse 1250–1600, UK: Sutton Publishing, 1998, p 38
  21. ^ The Battle of Bannockburn britishbattles.com. Retrieved 14 June, 2014.
  22. ^ Ronald McNair Scott (1988). Robert the Bruce, King of Scots. Canongate:p. 158
  23. ^ Ronald McNair Scott: Robert the Bruce, King of Scots, Canongate (1996)
  24. ^ Mackenzie, p.90
  25. ^ Reese, p.176
  26. ^ Ronald McNair Scott (1988). Robert the Bruce, King of Scots. Canongate (1996)
  27. ^ Ronald McNair Scott (1988). Robert the Bruce, King of Scots. Canongate (1996)
  28. ^ "Inventory battlefields". Historic Scotland. Retrieved 2012-04-12. 
  29. ^ "Bannockburn Heritage Centre closes before demolition". BBC News. 31 October 2012. Retrieved 31 October 2012. 
  30. ^ url=http://www.battleofbannockburn.com/About-the-project/
  31. ^ http://battleofbannockburn.com/updates/timeline/the-battle-of-bannockburn-visitor-centre-opens/
  32. ^ The Complete Works of Robert Burns at Project Gutenberg.

References

Primary

  • Barbour, John, The Brus, trans. A. A. M. Duncan, 1964.
  • Bower, Walter, Scotichronicon, ed. D. E. R. Watt, 1987–1993.
  • Gray, Thomas, Scalacronica, edited and translated by H Maxwell, 1913.
  • Lanercost Chronicle, edited and translated by H. Maxwell, 1913.
  • Vita Edwardi Secundi (Life of Edward the Second), ed. N. D. Young, 1957.
  • Walsingham, Thomas, Historia Anglicana.

Secondary

  • Barrow, G. W. S., Robert Bruce and the Community of the Realm of Scotland, 1988,ISBN 0-85224-604-8
  • Brown, C.A., "Bannockburn 1314",History Press,Stroud, 2008, ISBN 978-0-7524-4600-4.
  • Nicholson, R., Scotland-the Later Middle Ages, 1974.
  • Prestwich, M., The Three Edwards: War and State in England, 1272–1377, 1980
  • Ramsay, J. H., The Genesis of Lancaster, 1307–99, 1913.
  • Brown, C.A., Robert the Bruce. A life Chronicled.
  • MacNamee, C., The Wars of the Bruces
  • Brown, M., Wars of Scotland
  • Reese, P., Bannockburn, Canongate, Edinburgh, 2003, ISBN 1-84195-465-9
  • Mackenzie, W. M., Bannockburn: A Study in Medieval Warfare, The Strong Oak Press, Stevenage 1989 (first published 1913), ISBN 1-871048-03-6
  • Armstrong, Pete (illustrated by Graham Turner), Bannockburn 1314: Robert Bruce's Great Victory, Osprey Publishing, 2002 ISBN 1-85532-609-4
  •  

External links

  • Battle of Bannockburn animated battle map by Jonathan Webb
  • The Battle of Bannockburn 700th Anniversary Project
  • Battle of Bannockburn on Medieval Archives Podcast
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