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Bi'ina

Bi'ina
בענה
بعنة
Local council
Country Israel
District north
Population (2004)
 • Total 5,600
Time zone IST (UTC+2)
 • Summer (DST) IDT (UTC+3)

Bi'ina or al-Bi'na[1] is an Arab town in the North District of Israel. It is located east of Akko. In 2003, Bi'ina merged with Majd al-Krum and Deir al-Asad to form the city of Shaghur, but was reinstated as a local council in 2008 after Shaghur was dissolved. Bi'ina has a mostly Muslim population with a small Christian minority.

Contents

  • History 1
    • Ottoman era 1.1
    • Modern era 1.2
  • Notable residents 2
  • References 3
  • Bibliography 4
  • External links 5

History

The village was established in the Crusader period, and continued to be inhabited after the Mamluks conquered Palestine. Al-Qalqasandi (d. 1418) mentioned the place as "a village in the district of al-Sajur with a monastery." The monastery was also mentioned later.[2]

Ottoman era

In 1517, Bi'ina was with the rest of Palestine incorporated into the Ottoman Empire after it was captured from the Mamluks, and by 1596, Bi'na appeared in tax registers as belonging to the Nahiya of Akka of the Liwa of Safad. It had a population of 16 Muslim households and 15 Christian households and paid taxes on wheat, barley, olives, cotton, goats or beehives and a press for grapes or olives.[3]

French scholar Victor Guérin visited in the 1870s, and wrote that the population was divided between Druze and "Schismatic Greek." He listed a mosque and a Greek church, both of which were built on the sites of older churches.[4] In the late 19th century, it was described as a village of 300 Muslims and 100 Christians, surrounded by olives and arable land. Water was supplied by a spring.[5]

Modern era

At the time of the 1931 census, Bi'ina had 133 houses and a population of 441 Muslims and 270 Christians.[6] In 1945, Bi'ina had 830 inhabitants, all Arabs. They owned 14,839 dunams of land, while 57 dunams were public.[7]

During Operation Hiram, 29-31 October 1948, the village surrendered to the advancing Israeli army. Many of the villagers fled north but some remained and were not expelled.[8] The village remained under Martial Law until 1966.

In 1981, a Bedouin neighborhood was created in the village, populated by members of the Sawaed tribe from Rame.

Notable residents

References

  1. ^ from personal name, according to Palmer, 1881, p. 41
  2. ^ Ellenblum, 2003, pp. 167- 169
  3. ^ Hütteroth and Abdulfattah, 1977, p. 191
  4. ^ Guérin, 1880, p. 445, as translated by Conder and Kitchener, 1881, SWP I, p.150
  5. ^ Conder and Kitchener, 1881, SWP, p. 150
  6. ^ Mills, 1932, p. 100
  7. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in S. Hadawi, Village Statistics, 1945. PLO Research Center, 1970 p. 40
  8. ^ Morris, 1987, p. 226

Bibliography

  • Barron, J. B., ed. (1923). Palestine: Report and General Abstracts of the Census of 1922. Government of Palestine. 
  •   (p. 153)
  • Ellenblum, Ronnie (2003). Frankish Rural Settlement in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem. Cambridge University Press.  
  •   (Deir al-Asad: p. 446, Majd al-Kurum: pp 437, 444)
  •  
  • Hütteroth, Wolf-Dieter; Abdulfattah, Kamal (1977). Historical Geography of Palestine, Transjordan and Southern Syria in the Late 16th Century. Erlanger Geographische Arbeiten, Sonderband 5. Erlangen, Germany: Vorstand der Fränkischen Geographischen Gesellschaft.  
  • Mills, E., ed. (1932). Census of Palestine 1931. Population of Villages, Towns and Administrative Areas. Jerusalem: Government of Palestine. 
  •  
  •  
  • Pringle, Denys (1993), The Churches of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem: A-K (excluding Acre and Jerusalem),   (p.80 -92 )
  •   (p. 188 no 674; p. 248 no 934; p. 256 no 974; p. 308 no 1175)

External links

  • Welcome To Bi'na
  • SWP map III IAA
  • , Wikimedia commons

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