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Bilabial nasal

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Title: Bilabial nasal  
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Bilabial nasal

Bilabial nasal
m
IPA number 114
Encoding
Entity (decimal) m
Unicode (hex) U+006D
X-SAMPA m
Kirshenbaum m
Braille ⠍ (braille pattern dots-134)
Sound
 ·

The bilabial nasal is a type of consonantal sound used in almost all spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is m, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is m. The bilabial nasal occurs in English, and it is the sound represented by "m" in map and rum.

It occurs nearly universally, and few languages (e.g. Mohawk) are known to lack this sound.

Contents

  • Features 1
  • Occurrence 2
  • See also 3
  • References 4
  • Bibliography 5

Features

Features of the bilabial nasal:

  • Its manner of articulation is occlusive, which means it is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract. Because the consonant is also nasal, the blocked airflow is redirected through the nose.
  • Its place of articulation is bilabial, which means it is articulated with both lips.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is a nasal consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the nose, either exclusively (nasal stops) or in addition to through the mouth.
  • Because the sound is not produced with airflow over the tongue, the centrallateral dichotomy does not apply.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Adyghe мазэ [maːza] 'moon'
Arabic Standard[1] مطابخ [mɑˈtˤɑːbiχ] 'kitchens' See Arabic phonology
Armenian Eastern[2] մայր     'mother'
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic mara [maːra] 'owner'
Basque maitatu [majt̪at̪u] 'to love'
Bulgarian мъгла [mɐɡla] 'fog'
Catalan[3] mare [ˈmaɾə] 'mother' See Catalan phonology
Cherokee [ama˦] 'water'
Chinese Cantonese /maan5 [maːn˩˧] 'night' See Cantonese phonology
Mandarin 母親/mǔqīn [mu˨˩ tɕʰin˥] 'mother' See Mandarin phonology
Czech m [mʊʃ] 'man' See Czech phonology
Dutch[4] mond [mɔnt] 'mouth' See Dutch phonology
English him [hɪm] 'him' See English phonology
Filipino manok [maˈnok] 'rooster' See Filipino phonology
Finnish minä [ˈminæ] 'I' See Finnish phonology
French[5] manger [mɑ̃ʒe] 'to eat' See French phonology
[6] სა [ˈsɑmi] 'three'
German Maus [maʊ̯s] 'mouse' See German phonology
Greek[7] μάζα/maza [ˈmaza] 'clump' See Modern Greek phonology
Gujarati મો/mōr [moːɾ] 'male peacock' See Gujarati phonology
Hawaiian[8] maka [maka] 'eye' See Hawaiian phonology
Hindi मकान [məkaːn] 'house' See Hindi-Urdu phonology
Hebrew אמא [ˈʔimä] 'mother' See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hungarian ma [mɒ] 'today' See Hungarian phonology
Indonesian[9] masuk [ˈmäsʊʔ] 'enter'
Italian[10] mamma [ˈmamma] 'mamma' See Italian phonology
Japanese[11] 乾杯/kampai [kampai] 'a toast' See Japanese phonology
Kabardian мазэ [maːza] 'moon'
Kagayanen[12] ? [manaŋ] 'older sister'
Korean 엄마/eomma [ʌmma] 'mommy' See Korean phonology
Macedonian мајка [ˈmajka] 'mother' See Macedonian phonology
Malay malam [mäläm] 'night'
Malayalam[13] കമ്മി [kəmmi] 'shortage'
Maltese ilma [ilma] 'water'
Marathi [mən] 'mind' See Marathi phonology
Mutsun muruṭ [muɾuʈ] 'night'
Norwegian mamma [ˈmɑmːɑ] 'mom' See Norwegian phonology
Persian مادر [mɒdær] 'mother' See Persian phonology
Pirahã baíxi [ˈmàí̯ʔì] 'parent' allophone of /b/
Polish[14] masa     'mass' See Polish phonology
Portuguese[15] mato [ˈmatu] 'bush' See Portuguese phonology
Punjabi ਮੈਂ [mɛ̃ː] 'I'
Russian[16] муж     'husband' Contrasts with palatalized version. See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian милина / milina [milǐnä] 'enjoyment' See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovak m [mʊʃ] 'man'
Spanish[17] grumete [ɡɾuˈme̞te̞] 'cabin boy' See Spanish phonology
Swahili miti [ˈmiti] 'trees'
Swedish mask [mask] 'worm' See Swedish phonology
Tsez мец [mɛ̝t͡s] 'tongue'
Turkish benim [be̞nim] 'mine' See Turkish phonology
Ukrainian молоко [mo.ɫo.ˈkɔ] 'milk' See Ukrainian phonology
Urdu مکان [məkaːn] 'house' See Hindi-Urdu phonology
Uyghur men [mæn] 'I'
Vietnamese[18] muối [mwoj˧ˀ˥] 'salt' See Vietnamese phonology
Welsh mam [mam] 'mother' See Welsh phonology
West Frisian mar [mar] 'lake'
Yi /ma [ma˧ ] 'bamboo'
Zapotec Tilquiapan[19] man [maŋ] 'animal'

See also

References

  1. ^ Thelwall (1990:37)
  2. ^ Dum-Tragut (2009:19)
  3. ^ Carbonell & Llisterri (1992:53)
  4. ^ Gussenhoven (1992:45)
  5. ^ Fougeron & Smith (1993:73)
  6. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006:255)
  7. ^ Newton (1972:10)
  8. ^ Ladefoged (2005:139)
  9. ^ Soderberg & Olson (2008:210)
  10. ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004:117)
  11. ^ Okada (1991:94)
  12. ^ Olson et al. (2010:206–207)
  13. ^ Ladefoged (2005:165)
  14. ^ Jassem (2003:103)
  15. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995:91)
  16. ^ Padgett (2003:42)
  17. ^ Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:255)
  18. ^ Thompson (1959:458–461)
  19. ^ Merrill (2008:108)

Bibliography

  • Carbonell, Joan F.; Llisterri, Joaquim (1992), "Catalan", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 22 (1–2): 53–56,  
  • Dum-Tragut, Jasmine (2009), Armenian: Modern Eastern Armenian, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company 
  • Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 25 (2): 90–94,  
  • Fougeron, Cecile; Smith, Caroline L (1993), "Illustrations of the IPA:French", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 23 (2): 73–76,  
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos (1992), "Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 22 (2): 45–47,  
  • Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (1): 103–107,  
  •  
  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (2): 255–259,  
  • Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquiapan Zapotec", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 38 (1): 107–114,  
  • Newton, Brian (1972), The generative Interpretation of Dialect: A Study of Modern Greek Phonology, Cambridge Studies in Linguistics 8, Cambridge University Press 
  • Olson, Kenneth; Mielke, Jeff; Sanicas-Daguman, Josephine; Pebley, Carol Jean; Paterson, Hugh J., III (2010), "The phonetic status of the (inter)dental approximant", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 40 (2): 199–215,  
  • Okada, Hideo (1991), "Phonetic Representation:Japanese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 21 (2): 94–97,  
  • Padgett, Jaye (2003), "Contrast and Post-Velar Fronting in Russian", Natural Language & Linguistic Theory 21 (1): 39–87,  
  • Rogers, Derek; d'Arcangeli, Luciana (2004), "Italian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (1): 117–121,  
  • Shosted, Ryan K.; Vakhtang, Chikovani (2006), "Standard Georgian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 36 (2): 255–264,  
  • Soderberg, Craig D.; Olson, Kenneth S. (2008), "Illustrations of the IPA:Indonesian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 38 (2): 209–213,  
  • Thelwall, Robin (1990), "Illustrations of the IPA: Arabic", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 20 (2): 37–41,  
  • Thompson, Laurence (1959), "Saigon phonemics", Language 35 (3): 454–476,  
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