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Boy Scouts of America

Boy Scouts of America
Headquarters Irving, Texas
Country United States
Founded February 8, 1910
  • 2,658,794 youth
  • 1,039,825 adults
  • 108,971 units (2012)[1]
Chief Scout Executive Wayne Brock
President Robert Gates
Executive Vice President, President-Elect Robert Gates
Affiliation World Organization of the Scout Movement
Governing body National Executive Board
Boy Scout, 2006

The Boy Scouts of America (BSA) is one of the largest United States, with 2.7 million youth members and over 1 million adult volunteers.[2] Since its founding in 1910 as part of the international Scout Movement, more than 110 million Americans have been members of the BSA.[3]

The BSA's goal is to train youth in responsible citizenship, character development, and self-reliance through participation in a wide range of outdoor activities, educational programs, and, at older age levels, career-oriented programs in partnership with community organizations. For younger members, the Scout method is part of the program to inculcate typical Scouting values such as trustworthiness, good citizenship, and outdoors skills, through a variety of activities such as camping, aquatics, and hiking.[4][5] The BSA has several locations in Florida, Minnesota, New Mexico, and West Virginia in the United States and Manitoba and Ontario in Canada that allow Scouts to participate in the various aforementioned outdoor activities which are collectively called high-adventure bases.

The BSA is a constituent member of the Professional Scouters and volunteers.

The influence of Scouting on American society is frequently cited by both its advocates and critics. Critics have called the BSA's membership obligations unfair, resulting in litigation in various state and federal courts.


  • Origins 1
    • Federally chartered corporation 1.1
  • Membership 2
    • Traditional membership 2.1
    • Learning for life 2.2
    • Membership controversies 2.3
  • Aims, methods, and ideals 3
    • Scout Oath 3.1
    • Scout Law 3.2
    • Outdoor Code 3.3
  • Organization 4
    • National Council 4.1
    • Governance and the National Executive Board 4.2
    • Groups and divisions 4.3
    • Regions and areas 4.4
    • Local councils 4.5
    • Chartered organizations and units 4.6
  • National Camping School 5
  • Finance 6
    • Corporate funding 6.1
  • Leadership training 7
    • Adult leadership training 7.1
    • Youth leadership training 7.2
  • Impact on American life 8
    • Good Turns 8.1
    • Sex abuse cases 8.2
  • National Scout jamboree 9
  • High adventure bases 10
  • Eagle Scout 11
  • References 12
  • Further reading 13
  • External links 14


Baden-Powell's sketch of Chief of Scouts Burnham, Matopos Hills, 1896. Burnham is seated on a horse with his rifle at his side, and he is wearing his Stetson hat and neckerchief. Both Burnham and his horse are shown profile, facing right.
Baden-Powell's sketch of Chief of Scouts Burnham, Matopos Hills, 1896.

The progressive movement in the United States was at its height during the early 20th century.[8] With the migration of families from farms to cities, there were concerns among some people that young men were no longer learning patriotism and individualism. The YMCA was an early promoter of reforms for young men with a focus on social welfare and programs of mental, physical, social and religious development.[9]:72–82 In 1896, years before the Scouting movement was founded, Baden-Powell met the American born Chief of Scouts in British Africa, Frederick Russell Burnham, and learned from him the fundamentals of scouting, inspiring him and giving him the plan for the program and the code of honor of Scouting for Boys, and thus restoring the old traditions of American Youth.[10][11]

BSA had two notable predecessors in the United States: the Woodcraft Indians started by Ernest Thompson Seton in 1902 and the Sons of Daniel Boone founded by Daniel Carter Beard in 1905 in Cincinnati, Ohio.[12] In 1907, British General Robert Baden-Powell founded the Scouting movement in England using elements of Seton's works among other influences.[13] Several small local Scouting programs for boys started independently in the U.S., soon after, many of these programs merged with the BSA.[14]:52

In 1909, Chicago publisher W. D. Boyce was visiting London, where he encountered a boy who came to be known as the Unknown Scout.[15] Boyce was lost on a foggy street when an unknown Scout came to his aid, guiding him to his destination. The boy then refused Boyce's tip, explaining that he was a Boy Scout and was merely doing his daily good turn. Interested in the Scouting program, Boyce met with General Baden-Powell, who was Chief Scout at the time. Upon his return to the U.S., Boyce incorporated the Boy Scouts of America on February 8, 1910.[16] Edgar M. Robinson and Lee F. Hanmer became interested in the nascent BSA movement and convinced Boyce to turn the program over to the YMCA for development in April 1910. Robinson enlisted Seton, Beard, Charles Eastman and other prominent leaders in the early youth movements. Former president Theodore Roosevelt, who had long complained of the decline in American manhood, was an ardent supporter.[17] In January 1911, Robinson turned the movement over to James E. West who became the first Chief Scout Executive and Scouting began to expand in the U.S.[9]:148

The BSA's stated purpose at its incorporation in 1910 was "to teach [boys] patriotism, courage, self-reliance, and kindred values."[3]:7 Later, in 1937, Deputy Chief Scout Executive [18] The current mission statement of the BSA is "to prepare young people to make ethical and moral choices over their lifetimes by instilling in them the values of the Scout Oath and Law."[4] The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints was the first partner to sponsor Scouting in the United States, adopting the program in 1913 as part of its Mutual Improvement Association program for young men.[19]

Federally chartered corporation

The BSA holds a

  • Boy Scouts of America at DMOZ
  • Scouting resources at DMOZ

External links

  • Block, Nelson R.; Proctor, Tammy M. (2009). Scouting Frontiers: Youth and the Scout Movement's First Century. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.  
  • Boy Scouts of America (1911). Boy Scouts Handbook: Original 1911 Edition. 
  • Macleod, David. Building Character in the American Boy: The Boy Scouts, YMCA, and Their Forerunners, 1870-1920 (2004), scholarly history
  • Perry, Rick (February 12, 2008). On My Honor: Why the American Values of the Boy Scouts Are Worth Fighting For. Macon, GA: Stroud & Hall.  , pep talks by a politician

Further reading

  1. ^ "At a Glance". Boy Scouts of America. 2012. 
  2. ^ "2011 Report to the Nation". Boy Scouts of America. Retrieved March 10, 2012. 
  3. ^ a b c d  
  4. ^ a b c d "BSA Vision Statement".  
  5. ^ "Aims of the Boy Scouts of America" (PDF). U.S. Scouting Service Project. Retrieved July 3, 2008. 
  6. ^ "At a Glance". Boy Scouts of America. 2010. Retrieved June 23, 2010.  (Learning for Life numbers are no longer reported)
  7. ^ a b "Boy Scouts". The New Book of Knowledge. Grolier Online. Retrieved February 24, 2008.  (subscription required)
  8. ^ Phillips, John Calvin (2001). "Selling America: the Boy Scouts of America in the Progressive Era, 1910–1921" (PDF). University of Maine. Retrieved July 19, 2008. 
  9. ^ a b Macleod, David L. (1983). Building Character in the American Boy: The Boy Scouts, YMCA and Their Forerunners, 1870–1920. University of Wisconsin Press.  
  10. ^  
  11. ^ DeGroot, E.B (July 1944). "Veteran Scout".  
  12. ^ Anderson, H. Allen (1986). The Chief: Ernest Thompson Seton and the Changing West. Texas A&M University Press.  
  13. ^ Beardsall, Jonny (2007). "Dib, dib, dib... One Hundred Years of Scouts at Brownsea". The National Trust Magazine ( 
  14. ^  
  15. ^  
  16. ^ Rowan, Edward L (2005). To Do My Best: James E. West and the History of the Boy Scouts of America. Exeter, NH: Publishing Works, Inc.  
  17. ^ Boy Scouts of America (1911). Boy Scouts Handbook: Original 1911 Edition. pp. 374–5. 
  18. ^ The National and World Jamborees in Pictures. New York: Boy Scouts of America. 1937. p. 131. 
  19. ^  
  20. ^ "Title 36—Patriotic and Natural Observances, Cermonies, and Organizations" (PDF). Retrieved January 4, 2013. 
  21. ^ Moe, Ronald C. "Congressionally Chartered Nonprofit Organizations ("Title 36 Corporations"): What They Are and How Congress Treats Them," Congressional Research Service, CRS Report to Congress. Order Code RL30340 (April 8, 2004).
  22. ^ "What is a congressional charter?", Knight Ridder Newspapers, December 12, 2007.
  23. ^ "Exclusive right to emblems, badges, marks, and words". Retrieved September 25, 2013. 
  24. ^ Kosar, Kevin R. "Congressional or Federal Charters: Overview and Current Issues," Congressional Research Service, CRS Report to Congress. Order Code RS22230 (January 23, 2007).
  25. ^ Petterchak 2003, pp. 110–111
  26. ^ Patriotic and National Observances, Ceremonies, and Organizations — Boy Scouts of America, U.S. House of Representatives, January 2, 2006, retrieved October 11, 2008 
  27. ^ a b c Boy Scouts of America Youth Application (PDF). Boy Scouts of America. #28-406B. Retrieved March 10, 2008. Venturers and Sea Scouts registered in a crew or ship prior to their 21st birthday may continue as members after their 21st birthday until the crew or ship recharters or until they reach their 22nd birthday, whichever comes first. 
  28. ^ a b "Cub Scout Advancement". U.S. Scouting Service Project. November 10, 2007. Retrieved July 14, 2008. 
  29. ^ "Boy Scouts". Boy Scouts of America. 
  30. ^ "Varsity Letters and Pins". U.S. Scouting Service Project. August 5, 2007. Retrieved July 3, 2008. 
  31. ^ "Order of the Arrow". Boy Scouts of America. Retrieved July 3, 2008. 
  32. ^ "What is Venturing". Fact Sheet. Boy Scouts of America. 
  33. ^ "Sea Scouts, BSA". Sea Scouts, BSA. Retrieved June 28, 2008. 
  34. ^ "Learning for Life — Exploring". Learning For Life. Retrieved June 24, 2008. 
  35. ^ a b "Learning For Life". BSA Discrimination. Retrieved June 24, 2008. 
  36. ^ "What Is Exploring?" (PDF). Learning For Life. Retrieved June 24, 2008. 
  37. ^ "Duty to God". Archived from the original on May 9, 2008. Retrieved May 25, 2008. 
  38. ^ "About us". Scouting For All. Retrieved January 4, 2013. 
  39. ^ "Atheists and Other Freethinkers in Scouting". Scouting For All. Retrieved January 4, 2013. 
  40. ^ "Gays in Scouting". Scouting For All. Retrieved January 4, 2013. 
  41. ^ [1] Retrieved March 10, 2012
  42. ^ "Morally Straight". Archived from the original on February 6, 2010. Retrieved May 25, 2008. 
  43. ^ Crary, David. "Boy Scouts To Review Ban On Gays; No Change Imminent" Huffington Post. AP. June 6, 2012.
  44. ^ "Boy Scouts to review ban on gays". Fox News Channel. June 7, 2012. Retrieved November 15, 2012. 
  45. ^ "After Two-year Evaluation, Boy Scouts of America Affirms Membership Standards and Announces No Change in Policy". Boy Scouts of America. July 17, 2012. Retrieved August 18, 2012. 
  46. ^ Leitsinger, Miranda (July 17, 2012). "Boy Scouts: We're keeping policy banning gays". NBC News. Retrieved January 4, 2013. 
  47. ^ a b Rogoway, Mike (November 10, 2012). "Intel will end support for Oregon Boy Scouts over Scouts' policy on gays". The Oregonian. Retrieved January 4, 2013. 
  48. ^ a b "UPS stops Boy Scout funding over anti-gay policy". CBS News. November 12, 2012. Retrieved January 4, 2013. 
  49. ^ a b Schulz, Sam (December 11, 2012). "Merck Pulls Boy Scouts Funding Over Anti-Gay Policy". NBC 5 Dallas-Fort Worth. Retrieved January 4, 2013. 
  50. ^ a b Spain, William, "Merck cuts funds to Boy Scouts over antigay policy", MarketWatch, December 10, 2012. Retrieved January 4, 2013.
  51. ^ McGregor, Jena (July 19, 2012). "After Boy Scouts of America reaffirms exclusion of gays, the biggest leadership question remains". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 10, 2013. 
  52. ^ Cobb, Joshua (July 17, 2012). "AT&T CEO commits to ending ban on gay Boy Scouts, leaders". Retrieved January 10, 2013. 
  53. ^ "Membership Policy" (Press release). Boy Scouts of America. January 28, 2013. 
  54. ^ "Boy Scouts vote to allow gay youth". Dallas Voice. Retrieved May 23, 2013. 
  55. ^ "Boy Scouts of America Statement". Boy Scouts of America. May 23, 2013. Retrieved October 2, 2013. 
  56. ^ "Boy Scouts to allow gay youths to join". CNN. May 23, 2013. Retrieved October 2, 2013. 
  57. ^ Eckholm, Erik (May 23, 2013). "Boy Scouts End Longtime Ban on Openly Gay Youths". The New York Times. Retrieved October 2, 2013. 
  58. ^ "So. Baptists Pass Resolution Urging Boy Scouts to Not Repeal Gay Ban by Michael Gryboski of CP". The Christian Post. February 20, 2013. Retrieved October 2, 2013. 
  59. ^ Ellsworth, Tim (June 12, 2013). "Boy Scout resolution adopted by SBC". Baptist Press. Retrieved October 2, 2013. 
  60. ^ Payne, Ed (September 9, 2013). "Trail Life USA launches a Boy Scout alternative". CNN. Retrieved February 15, 2014. 
  61. ^ Lohr, Kathy (September 9, 2013). "Trail Life USA, The 'Other' Boy Scouts Of America". NPR. Retrieved October 2, 2013. 
  62. ^ "Trail Life USA: An alternative to the Boy Scouts". The Washington Post. September 9, 2013. Retrieved October 2, 2013. 
  63. ^ "Boy Scouts or an alternative? Churches continue to deliberate". Baptist Press. September 16, 2013. Retrieved October 2, 2013. 
  64. ^ "Boy Scout Aims and Methods". Retrieved October 2, 2013. 
  65. ^ "Basic Leader Training". Boy Scouts of America. Retrieved March 4, 2008. 
  66. ^ "The Cub Scout Promise The Law of the Pack and The Cub Scout Motto". U.S. Scouting Service Project. August 5, 2007. Retrieved June 28, 2008. 
  67. ^ "Character Connections". U.S. Scouting Service Project. August 5, 2007. Retrieved July 14, 2008. 
  68. ^ "Cub Scout Academics and Sports Program". U.S. Scouting Service Project. November 10, 2007. Retrieved July 14, 2008. 
  69. ^ "Boy Scout Advancement". U.S. Scouting Service Project. January 17, 2008. Retrieved July 14, 2008. 
  70. ^ "What is Venturing" (doc). U.S. Scouting Service Project. Retrieved June 28, 2008. 
  71. ^ "Venturing and Sea Scouting Awards". U.S. Scouting Service Project. August 9, 2007. Retrieved July 14, 2008. 
  72. ^ "Title 36 > Subtitle II > Part B > Chapter 309: Boy Scouts of America". United States Code. Cornell University Law School. Retrieved July 1, 2008. 
  73. ^ "2007 Report to the Nation". Boy Scouts of Amercica. 2007. Retrieved September 23, 2009. 
  74. ^ "Committed to Scouting, Open to Diversity. Working to end discrimination against gays, atheists, agnostics, other non-theists, and all other groups in the Boy Scouts of America". Scouting for All. March 8, 2008. Retrieved January 4, 2013. 
  75. ^ Burke, Patrick (August 9, 2012). "Romney Says Boy Scouts Should Admit Homosexuals". CNS News. Retrieved January 4, 2013. 
  76. ^ Hirschfield, Brad (July 20, 2012). "Boy Scouts of America should learn from its own history - For God's Sake". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 4, 2013. 
  77. ^ "President Monson Discusses Strengths of Scouting". The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. Retrieved January 4, 2013. 
  78. ^ a b c Nelson, Bill. "Organization of the Boy Scouts of America". U.S. Scouting Service Project. Retrieved March 12, 2008. 
  79. ^ a b c Rules and Regulations of the Boy Scouts of America. Boy Scouts of America. 1985. 
  80. ^ "Commissioners". Boy Scouts of America. 2008. Retrieved July 4, 2008. 
  81. ^ "Aloha Council". Aloha Council, BSA. Archived from the original on May 1, 2008. Retrieved July 3, 2008. 
  82. ^ "Utah National Parks Council Executive Board". List of Executive Board Members and Assignments. Utah National Parks Council. Retrieved September 29, 2011. 
  83. ^ "How the Council Functions to Carry Out the Purpose of the BSA". THE COUNCIL. Boy Scouts of America. Retrieved February 12, 2013. 
  84. ^ Boy Scouts of America Fact Sheet. Last updated December 31, 2013. Originally retrieved July 22, 2012 and again April 9, 2014 for comparison.
  85. ^ National Camping School Resource Center. National Camping School Boy Scouts of America. Retrieved March 5, 2012.
  86. ^ National Camping Schools 2012. National Camping School Boy Scouts of America. Retrieved March 5, 2012.
  87. ^ Boy Scouts of America > Information Center > Insignia Guide > National Camping School. Retrieved March 5, 2012.
  88. ^ The Training Times. Spring 2011. Retrieved March 5, 2012.
  89. ^ a b "Charity Review of Boy Scouts of America".  
  90. ^ "Top 25 compensation packages". American Institute of Philanthropy. Archived from the original on January 16, 2007. Retrieved June 28, 2008. 
  91. ^ "CEO compensation". Charity Navigator. Retrieved June 24, 2008. 
  92. ^ "NPT's Power and Influence Top 50 2006". Non-Profit Times. August 1, 2006. Retrieved July 22, 2008. 
  93. ^ a b Charity Rating Guide and Watchdog Report, Volume Number 59, December 2011
  94. ^ Birkey, Andy (September 18, 2012). "Corporations Giving Big Money to Boy Scouts Despite Antigay Policy". The Advocate. Retrieved January 4, 2013. 
  95. ^ A History of Wood Badge in the United States. Boy Scouts of America. 1990.  
  96. ^ "Powder Horn Training". Retrieved March 29, 2006. 
  97. ^ "Sea Scouts BSA: Seabadge". Sea Scout Internet Service. 2003. Retrieved April 30, 2010. 
  98. ^ "The Youth Leadership Training Continuum: A Guide for Scout Leaders and Parents". Supplemental Training Modules. Boy Scouts of America. Retrieved January 5, 2008. 
  99. ^ "Adult". Boy Scouts of America. Retrieved April 30, 2010. 
  100. ^ "Central Region NLS Page". Central Region, Order of the Arrow, Boy Scouts of America. Retrieved July 3, 2014. 
  101. ^ Simon, Scott (June 14, 2008). "Remembering the Boy Scouts".  
  102. ^ McBride, Joseph (1999). Steven Spielberg. New York: Da Capo Press. p. 43.  
  103. ^ Freeze, Di (October 1, 2007). "Steve Fossett: Always Scouting for New Adventures". Airport Journals. Retrieved July 23, 2008. 
  104. ^ "NASA and Scouting: A Strong Alliance". NASA. Archived from the original on October 11, 2006. Retrieved March 19, 2008. 
  105. ^ "Astronauts and the BSA". Boy Scouts of America. Retrieved June 24, 2008. 
  106. ^ Cowing, Keith. "Celestron and Boy Scouts Venture Where NASA cannot (Or will not)". Nasawatch. Retrieved April 27, 2008. 
  107. ^ "Best Mother-Son Finish". Reader's Digest. 2006. Retrieved February 29, 2008. 
  108. ^  
  109. ^ a b c  
  110. ^ "Rockwell and Csatari: A tour de force".  
  111. ^ Perry, Rick (February 12, 2008). On My Honor: Why the American Values of the Boy Scouts Are Worth Fighting For. Stroud & Hall.  
  112. ^ "Leading the Way".  
  113. ^ a b  
  114. ^ "The New York Institute for Special Education". Retrieved September 3, 2009. 
  115. ^ "A Brief History of Halloween in America". DeliriumsRealm. October 9, 2007. Retrieved September 3, 2009. 
  116. ^ "Wilson Enlists Boy Scouts" (PDF). The New York Times. May 22, 1917. Retrieved September 23, 2009. 
  117. ^ "Take Pride in America". Department of the Interior. Retrieved June 24, 2008. 
  118. ^ "Service to America". U.S. Scouting Service Project. Retrieved July 22, 2008. 
  119. ^ Patrick, Boyle (1991). "Scouts Honor". The Washington Times. 
  120. ^ a b Barrick, Frances (June 26, 2012). "Pain continues for family of boy abused by scout leader". Retrieved August 10, 2012. 
  121. ^ a b Felch, Jason; Christensen, Kim (August 5, 2012). "Boy Scout files reveal repeat child abuse by sexual predators". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 10, 2012. 
  122. ^ Goodale, Gloria. (October 19, 2012) "Boy Scouts child abuse files: Can the organization withstand their release?" MinnPost. Retrieved October 21, 2012.
  123. ^ Janet Saul and Natalie C. Audage (2007). "Preventing Child Sexual Abuse Within Youth-serving Organizations: Getting Started on Policies and Procedures" (PDF). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. pp. 1–55. Retrieved November 18, 2010. 
  124. ^ "National Jamboree".  
  125. ^ "The Summit: Bechtel Family National Scout Reserve". Boy Scouts of America. Retrieved April 8, 2010. 


A Scout who attains this rank is called an medal and a badge that visibly recognizes the accomplishments of the Scout. Additional recognition can be earned through Eagle Palms, awarded for completing additional tenure, leadership, and merit badge requirements. Many famous Americans are Eagle Scouts: Astronaut Neil Armstrong, Academy Award-winning (2002) film director Michael Moore, TV host Mike Rowe, Mayor Michael Bloomberg, Secretary of Defense Robert Gates, and President Gerald Ford are just a small sample of Eagle Scouts.

Eagle Scout

Current high-adventure bases of the Boy Scouts of America include Philmont Scout Ranch, Northern Tier National High Adventure Bases, Florida National High Adventure Sea Base, and The Summit Bechtel Family National Scout Reserve which was the site of the 2013 Jamboree.

The Boy Scouts of America operates several high adventure bases at the national level. Each offers a wide range of programs and training— a typical core program may include sailing, wilderness canoeing or wilderness backpacking trips. These bases are administered by the High Adventure Division of the National Council.

High adventure bases

The national Scout jamboree is a gathering of Boy Scouts from across the US. It is usually held every four years, with some adjustment for special years such as the 2010 National Scout Jamboree that celebrated the BSA centennial. The first jamboree was held in 1937 at the Washington Monument in Washington, D.C.[124] Since then, jamborees have been held in varying locations. Beginning in 1981, the jamboree has been held at Fort A.P. Hill, Virginia. A permanent location owned by the BSA was sought in 2008 for future jamborees, high adventure programs and training. The Summit Bechtel Family National Scout Reserve near Beckley, West Virginia is now the permanent site beginning with the 2013 National Scout Jamboree.[125]

Anthony Thomas, the two millionth Eagle Scout, addressees a crowd of over 45,000 scouts at the 2010 National Scout Jamboree, held at Fort A.P. Hill, Virginia.

National Scout jamboree

In the 1980s BSA developed its Youth Protection program, to educate youth, leaders and parents about the problem as a whole, and to introduce barriers to sexual abuse of children using the Scout program to reach victims. "Two deep" leadership dictates that no adult member can be alone with any youth member (other than their own child). Before joining, youth must discuss with their parents a pamphlet on sexual abuse and adults must take youth protection training and, since 2003, new adult members must pass a criminal background check (adults who were already members had to pass a background check by 2008). The Youth Protection Plan from the organization is linked to in a CDC report on such programs.[123]

[122] On October 19, 2012, the Boy Scouts of America were forced by court order to release over 20,000 pages of documentation on 1200 alleged [121][120] There have also been several high profile court cases that resulted in convictions and settlements involving such incidents.[121][120] Several reports have surfaced over the years regarding incidents of sexual abuse within the Boy Scouts of America to include incidents of repeat offenders.[119] Scouting sex abuse cases are situations where youth involved in scouting programs have been sexually abused by someone who is also involved in the Scouting program. J.L. Tarr, a Chief Scout Executive in the United States, was quoted in the 1980s in an article regarding sexual assault cases against Scout leaders across all 50 states: "That's been an issue since the Boy Scouts began."

Sex abuse cases

Service to America became Good Turn for America in 2004 and expanded to address the problems of hunger, homelessness, and inadequate housing and poor health in conjunction with the Salvation Army, the American Red Cross, Habitat for Humanity, and other organizations.[118]

From the inception of the Scouting movement, Scouts have been urged to "Do a Good Turn Daily", as it is the slogan for the Boy Scouts of America. The first national Good Turn was the promotion of a safe and sane Fourth of July in 1912. During World War I, Every Scout to Save a Soldier was a slogan used to motivate children involved in Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts to help sell War savings stamps.[116] Scouting for Food is an on-going annual program begun in 1986 that collects food for local food banks. In 1997, the BSA developed Service to America with a commitment to provide 200 million hours of service by youth members by the end of the year 2000. As part of Service to America, the BSA provided service projects in conjunction with the National Park Service (NPS). In October 2003, the Department of the Interior expanded the program with the creation of Take Pride in America, opening service to all Americans.[117]

Smokey Bear with members of the Boy Scouts of America and the Camp Fire Girls celebrating the 50th anniversary of their founding in 1960.

Good Turns

The Boy Scouts of America are quite particular about how and when the Scout uniforms and insignia may be used in film and other portrayals; and for that reason, most films and television productions made in the U.S. utilize "ersatz" Scouting organizations. Examples of this include the "Order of the Straight Arrow", portrayed in the King of the Hill cartoon series, and the "Indian Guides" depicted in the 1995 Chevy Chase film, Man of the House. A notable exception to this policy is the final scene of The Sopranos television show, where Tony Soprano sits down to dinner in a restaurant. At another table, several Cub Scouts, in full uniform, are seated.

[115] At the turn of the 20th century,

Peter Applebome, an editor of The New York Times, wrote in 2003 of his experience as an adult participating with his son in Scouting activities, "I feel lucky to have had this unexpected vehicle to share my son's youth, to shape it, and to be shaped by it as well."[113] He concluded that, although Scouting is viewed by some as old-fashioned, "Scouting's core values ... are wonderful building blocks for a movement and a life. Scouting's genuinely egalitarian goals and instincts are more important now than they've ever been. It's one of the only things that kids do that's genuinely cooperative, not competitive."[113]:319–320

Mayor of New York City and business tycoon Michael Bloomberg, said that the BSA's Scout Law required of all Boy Scouts—a Scout is trustworthy, loyal, helpful, friendly, courteous, kind, obedient, cheerful, thrifty, brave, clean, and reverent—are "all the American values ... Americans have quaintly simplistic ways and direct ways of phrasing things ... I think it's one of the great strengths of this country."[3]:116

Mark Mays, CEO of Clear Channel Communications, told a magazine interviewer in May 2008 that, "Particularly in the very impactful ages of youth 11 to 14 years old, when they can really go astray and you're taking the time to spend with them and focus on cultural core values like reverent, trustworthy, loyal, and helpful —all of those different things ... Scouting has a huge positive impact on boys and their lives, and that in turn positively impacts our communities and society as a whole."[112]

Alvin Townley wrote in Legacy of Honor about the large positive impact of Eagle Scouts in America. Townley cited such examples as how Scouts, especially Eagle Scouts, were disproportionately represented among Hurricane Katrina's volunteer relief workers; just as they are disproportionately represented among members of the United States Senate.[3]:152 Governor Rick Perry of Texas is an Eagle Scout who defended BSA policies and restrictions against ACLU criticisms in his book, On My Honor: Why the American Values of the Boy Scouts Are Worth Fighting For.[111]

In 1969, as a tribute to Rockwell's 75th birthday, officials of Brown & Bigelow and the Boy Scouts of America asked Rockwell to pose in Beyond the Easel for a calendar illustration. As part of the U.S. Bicentennial celebrations in 1976, Rockwell's Scouting paintings toured the nation and were viewed by 280,000 people.[109]:155 In 2008, a twelve-city U.S. tour of Rockwell's works was scheduled.[110]

:89[109] Famed American illustrator

Norman Rockwell's Beyond the Easel

President Gerald Ford said, "I can say without hesitation, because of Scouting principles, I know I was a better athlete, I was a better naval officer, I was a better Congressman, and I was a better prepared President."[108]

Prominent Americans in diverse walks of life, from filmmaker Steven Spielberg (who helped launch a merit badge in cinematography) to adventurer Steve Fossett to politicians, were BSA members as youths.[102][103] Over two-thirds of all astronauts have had some type of involvement in Scouting,[104] and eleven of the twelve men to walk on the Moon were Scouts, including Eagle Scouts Neil Armstrong and Charlie Duke.[105][106] The pinewood derby—a wood car racing event for Cub Scouts—has been declared "a celebrated rite of spring" and was named part of "America's 100 Best" by Reader's Digest.[107]

Scouting and Boy Scouts are well known throughout American culture. The term "Boy Scout" is used to generally describe someone who is earnest and honest, or who helps others cheerfully; it can also be used as a pejorative term for someone deemed to be overly idealistic.[101]

Impact on American life

Order of the Arrow members may attend the National Leadership Seminar, run multiple times each year by each region.[100]

Venturers and Sea Scouts may attend the unit-level Venturing Leadership Skills Course. Crew officers can attend Crew Officer Orientation, and then a council-provided Kodiak leadership training program.[99]

Boy Scout and Varsity Scout youth leaders may attend the unit-level Troop Leadership Training. Local councils offer the advanced National Youth Leadership Training and the National Council offers the National Advanced Youth Leadership Experience conducted at Philmont Training Center. The Boy Scouts of America also offers the NYLT Leadership Academy which trains youth staff members from across the country for council-level NYLT courses.[98]

Youth leadership training

The highest level of BSA training is Wood Badge,[95] which is focused on helping participants develop leadership skills while participating in an outdoor program over two weekends. Some councils offer high-adventure training for adults using the Powder Horn program.[96] Sea Scouting leaders can take the Seabadge advanced leadership and management course.[97]

Supplemental skill-specific training is also available to BSA volunteers to gain knowledge in outdoors skills including camping, hiking, first aid, Leave No Trace, swim safety, climbing safety, hazardous weather, and other skills.

Every adult leader must complete Youth Protection Training, and then is strongly encouraged to complete a general overview training called This is Scouting, and a Fast Start training specific to his/her program level. Position-specific training is then offered for all direct-contact leaders. Upon completion of basic training, a leader may wear the Trained emblem on his/her BSA uniform.

Adult leadership training

The BSA offers a wide variety of mandatory and optional training programs in youth protection, outdoor skills and leadership.

Leadership training

In addition to donations from individuals, the BSA receives extensive donations from major corporations. In 2010, their top corporate donors were, in order, Intel, Emerson, Verizon, 3M, Bank of America, Wells Fargo, Pfizer, Valero, UPS, U.S. Bank, Eli Lilly, GE, and Monsanto.[94] However, Intel[47] and UPS cut funding to BSA in 2012.[48][49][50]

Corporate funding

Robert Mazzuca, Chief Scout Executive of Boy Scouts of America, received $1,211,572 in salary and compensation. This is the 4th highest compensation package given by any charity to the head of the charity, according to Charity Watch.[93] Charity Watch rates BSA an "A".[93]

Source: Better Business Bureau.[89]
The above numbers are for National Council operations and do not include local council income or expenses.
2010 Income
Fees $118,688,000
Net investment gain $72,556,000
Contributions and bequests $65,405,000
Supply operations $35,502,000
Retirement benefits trust $8,566,000
Primary trading post sales $7,702,000
Magazine publications $2,099,000
Total Income $310,518,000
2010 Expenses
Program expenses $195,619,000
Fund raising expenses $3,699,000
Administrative expenses $19,059,000
Total expenses $218,377,000
[92].Non-Profit Times Williams was honored in 2005 and 2006 as one of the top fifty most effective non-profit leaders by the [91] In 2005, Williams' pay was 0.26% of total expenses, whereas the national average among charities was a higher 0.34%.[90] as having the fifth-highest compensation of any nonprofit chief in the United States, at $916,028.Roy WilliamsThe National Council is incorporated as a


The Boy Scouts of America operates a National Camping School program, which trains people how to run various departments or areas at the Boy Scout summer camps. Some online training is offered, but most areas require an in-person week-long training program at one of the National Camping Schools.[85][86] After successfully completing a week-long program, a person is entitled to wear the National Camp School patch. The regular size patch may be worn on the right breast shirt pocket, in the temporary patch spot.[87] National Camping School certification is valid for five years.[88]

National Camping School

Top 10 Chartered Organizations associated with the Boy Scouts of America, by Total Youth[84]
Name of Organization Total Units (2012 / 2013) Total Youth (2012 / 2013)
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints 37,882 / 37,933 420,977 / 437,160
United Methodist Church 11,078 / 10,703 371,491 / 349,614
Catholic Church 8,570 / 8,131 283,642 / 259,297
Parent-teacher groups other than PTAs 3,712 / 3,076 153,214 / 126,207
Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) 3,663 / 3,520 127,931 / 119,879
Lutheran 3,902 / 3,728 119,701 / 111,483
Baptist 4,099 / 3,532 109,298 / 91,526
Groups of Citizens 3,445 / 2,633 106,852 / 84,497
Private schools 2,837 / 2,579 101,563 / 91,828
Parent Teacher Organization 1,661 / 1,473 69,812 / 60,171

Within each chartered organization, there may be one or more "units". A unit is a group of youth and adults which are collectively designated as a Cub Scout pack, Boy Scout troop, Varsity Scout team, or Venturing crew/Sea Scout ship. Each chartered organization may charter as many units as it wishes, but usually only 3 or 4 (one unit for each program level). The BSA council provides the leader training, inter-unit activities, camping programs, volunteer and professional support, and insurance coverage. Units also create their own activities (such as monthly camping trips, outings, or service projects), and most meet weekly at the place of the chartered organization for youth to learn basic skill development and practice leadership in small groups known as dens and patrols.

The Boy Scouts of America partners with community organizations, such as religious congregations, fraternal groups, service clubs, and other community associations, to provide the Scouting program for the particular neighborhood or community in which the particular organization wishes to outreach to youth and families. These organizations hold charters issued by the BSA and are known then as chartered organizations. Each chartered organization provides the meeting place for BSA youth, oversees the volunteer leaders, and agrees to follow the basic BSA safety policies and values-based program, and the organization is considered the "owner" of its local program, much like a franchise.

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints was the first sponsor of the BSA and today contributes the most Scouts of any chartered organization.

Chartered organizations and units

Councils are divided into districts with leadership provided by the district executive, district chairman, and the district commissioner.[78] Districts are directly responsible for the operation of Scouting units and, except for the district executive, are mostly staffed with volunteers.[79] The voting members of each district consist of volunteer representatives from each chartered organization having at least one BSA unit, plus annually elected members-at-large who in turn elect the district chairman. Boroughs and districts are subdivisions of the local council and do not have a separate corporate status.[83]

The Greater New York Councils are unique in that they are divided into five boroughs with each led by a borough Scout executive and each borough then divided into districts. Similarly, due to scouting population and geographic distance, the Utah National Parks Council is divided into 12 Sectors with each led by a volunteer assistant Vice president and assistant council commissioner with each sector then divided into districts.[82]

The BSA charters two councils for American Scouts living overseas, largely on military bases in Europe and Asia. The Transatlantic Council, headquartered in Livorno,Italy, serves BSA units in much of Europe, and the Far East Council, headquartered in Japan, serves units in the western Pacific areas. The Direct Service branch makes the Scouting movement available to U.S. citizens and their dependents living in countries outside these jurisdictions or in isolated areas. The Aloha Council in Hawaii also serves BSA units in the American territories of American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands and in the sovereign countries of the Federated States of Micronesia, the Marshall Islands, and Palau.[81]

The Scout executive manages council operations—including finance, property management, advancement and awards, registrations, and Scout Shop sales—with a staff of other professionals and para-professionals. Volunteer commissioners lead the unit service functions of the council, help maintain the standards of the BSA, and assures a healthy unit program.[80]

The council level organization is similar to that of the National Council. The council executive board is headed by the council president and is made up of annually elected local community leaders.[79] The board establishes the council program and carries out the resolutions, policies, and activities of the council. Board members serve without pay and some are volunteer Scouters working at the unit level. Youth members may be selected to the council executive board according to the council by-laws.

The BSA program is administered through 273 local councils, with each council covering a geopolitical area that may vary from a single city to an entire state. Councils receive an annual charter from the National Council and are usually incorporated as a charitable organization.[78]

"The Ideal Scout," a statue by R. Tait McKenzie in front of the Bruce S. Marks Scout Resource Center in the Cradle of Liberty Council in Philadelphia

Local councils

  • Central Region covers all of Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, North Dakota, Ohio, Wisconsin, and parts of Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Montana, Nebraska, South Dakota, Virginia, and West Virginia.
  • Northeast Region covers all of Connecticut, District of Columbia, Delaware, Massachusetts, Maine, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Puerto Rico, Rhode Island, Vermont, Virgin Islands (U.S.), parts of Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia, and members of the BSA Transatlantic Council.
  • Southern Region covers all of Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, and Tennessee, and parts of Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia.
  • Western Region covers all of Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, New Mexico, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, Washington, Wyoming, most of Montana, parts of Nebraska, South Dakota, and Texas, territories located in the Pacific Ocean, and members of the BSA Far East Council.

Each region has a volunteer president, assisted by volunteer officers, board members, and committee members. The day-to-day work of Scouting is managed by the regional director, assistant and associate regional directors, and area directors. Regions and areas are subdivisions of the National Council and do not have a corporate status separate from the BSA.[79]

For administrative purposes, the BSA is divided into four regions—[78] Each region is then subdivided into areas.

Boy Scouts of America regions as of 2011

Regions and areas

The National Court of Honor certifies the BSA's highest awards: lifesaving and meritorious action awards, Distinguished service awards, Eagle Scout and Quartermaster.

The National Scouting Museum is located in Irving, Texas. Exhibits include Norman Rockwell paintings, high adventure sections, hands-on learning experiences, interactive exhibits, and a historical collection tracing uniforms, themes, and documents from the beginning of the Scouting movement in America. Among the museum's artifacts are the Eagle Scout medal of Arthur Rose Eldred, the first Eagle Scout.

The National Supply Group is responsible for developing and selling uniforms, apparel, insignia, literature, and equipment. It sells equipment and supplies through National Scout Shops, local council trading posts, authorized independent resellers, and online at Supply Group also licenses trademarks for use by other commercial vendors. The Administrative Group provides internal administration service and support. It includes the Marketing and Communications Division responsible for marketing the BSA program, administering the national websites, and publishing Scouting for adult leaders and Boys' Life for youth.

Other divisions provides support for the Lions International, Rotary International, Kiwanis International, American Legion, Elks, VFW, and all religious denominations chartering BSA units.

The Outdoor Adventure Division oversees four "High Adventure" bases Philmont Scout Ranch, Northern Tier National High Adventure Bases, the The Summit Bechtel Family National Scout Reserve, and Florida National High Adventure Sea Base, as well as other special programs and the Order of the Arrow.

The Program Impact Division is responsible for developing the Scouting program and includes the volunteer committees and staff working on volunteer training, youth development, and other program impact needs. The All Markets membership emphasis includes focus groups and special committees working to improve outreach to youth and families in various underserved ethnic populations, with literature and marketing materials targeting Hispanic/Latino families, Asian-American families, and African-American families. The BSA also participates in the American Indian Scouting Association in partnership with the Girl Scouts of the USA.

Boy Scouts canoeing on the Blackwater River, Virginia

Groups and divisions

Present and past members of the National Executive Board include former presidential nominee Mitt Romney,[75] Ernst & Young CEO James Turley and AT&T CEO Randall Stephenson.[76] Other members include LDS Church President Thomas S. Monson.[77]

The board is led by the national president, a volunteer elected by the National Council. Board members included regular elected members, regional presidents, and up to five appointed youth members. The Chief Scout Executive is the board secretary and non-voting member. The National Executive Board has a number of standing committees that correspond to the professional staff organization of the National Council.

The BSA National Executive Board governs the organization. One source reports that there were 72 members of the NEB in 2001,[74] while the BSA's 2011 report lists 77 members.

Governance and the National Executive Board

[73] Finally, since the founding of the BSA in 1910, the

The charter authorized and set standards for the incorporation of the BSA and provided for the "exclusive right to use emblems, badges, descriptive or designating marks, and words or phrases" that they adopt.

promote, through organization, and cooperation with other agencies, the ability of boys to do things for themselves and others, to train them in scoutcraft, and to teach them patriotism, courage, self-reliance, and kindred virtues, using the methods that were in common use by boy scouts on June 15, 1916.

The BSA was granted a 36 USC 309),[72] stating that their purpose is to:

The National Council is the corporate membership of the Boy Scouts of America and consists of volunteer Scouters who meet annually. The day-to-day operations of the National Council are administered by the Chief Scout Executive and other national professional staff. National Council members include volunteers who are elected National Officers and Executive Board members, regional presidents, the local council representatives, members at large, and honorary members. The National Headquarters has been in Irving, Texas since 1979.

BSA National Office in Irving, Texas

National Council


In October 2012, the National Council announced that, as a result of the findings and recommendations of a select committee made up of volunteer Scouters, the Cub Scout and Venturing programs would transition to use of the Boy Scout Oath and Promise, and in the case of the Venturers, the Boy Scout three-finger salute and sign as well. The Venturing change will occur in late 2013 or early 2014; the Cub Scout change will take effect in mid-2015.

Venturers are expected to know and live by the Venturing Oath and Venturing Code.[70] They associate and work directly with adults as partners, but the crew is led by elected youth officers who are given opportunities to learn and apply leadership skills. Venturers plan and participate in interdependent group experiences dependent on cooperation. An emphasis on high adventure provides opportunities for team-building and practical leadership applications. A series of awards provide opportunities for recognition and personal growth.[71] Each award requires the Venturer to teach what they have learned to others returning the skill and knowledge back to the community and enabling the Venturer to master those skills.

"As an American, I will do my best to be clean in my outdoor manner, to be careful with fire, to be considerate in the outdoors, and to be conservation minded."

Outdoor Code

"A scout is trustworthy, loyal, helpful, friendly, courteous, kind, obedient, cheerful, thrifty, brave, clean, and reverent."

Scout Law

"On my honor, I will do my best, to do my duty, to God and my country, and to obey the Scout Law, to help other people at all times, to keep myself physically strong, mentally awake, and morally straight."

Scout Oath

Boy Scouts learn to use the ideals spelled out in the Scout Oath, the Scout Law, the Outdoor Code, the Scout motto ("Be prepared"), and the Scout slogan ("Do a good turn daily"). They wear a uniform and work together in patrols of four to ten boys with an elected patrol leader. Scouts share responsibilities, apply skills learned at meetings and live together in the outdoors. The advancement system provides opportunities for personal growth and self-reliance.[69] Scouts interact with adult leaders who act as role models and mentors, but they are expected to plan their own activities within the troop and to participate in community service. Opportunities are provided for leadership training with practical application.

Cub Scouts wear a uniform that gives each boy a level of identity within the den, the pack and the community. The boys learn teamwork by meeting and working together in a den of four to ten boys under adult leadership. They learn and apply the ideals codified in the Cub Scout Promise and the Law of the Pack,[66] and in the Character Connections program that develops the core values of citizenship, compassion, cooperation, courage, faith, health and fitness, honesty, perseverance, positive attitude, resourcefulness, respect and responsibility.[67] The advancement system uses both age-based ranks and an optional Academics and Sports Program designed for the development of physical, mental and emotional fitness.[28][68] Most advancement is done in the home and is intended to involve the entire family and many Cub Scout activities include family members.

The objectives of the BSA are referred to as Aims of Scouting: moral character development; citizenship training; and development of physical, mental, and emotional fitness.[64] The BSA pursues these aims through an informal education system called the Scout method, with variations that are designed to be appropriate for the age and maturity of each membership division.[4][65] Each unit is sponsored by a community organization as part of their youth program and is involved in the neighborhood and community.

Boy Scout, 1969, wearing uniform cap of the time

Aims, methods, and ideals

On May 23, 2013, 61% of the 1,400-member BSA National Council voted to remove the restriction denying membership to youth on the basis of sexual orientation while emphasizing that any sexual conduct, whether heterosexual or homosexual, is not allowed. The resolution went into effect on January 1, 2014.[54][55] Scout leaders who are "open and avowed homosexuals" are still prohibited. The policy specifically states that BSA does not inquire into a person's sexuality.[56] Gay rights groups hailed the decision, but vowed to press on until all gay members were accepted. Some churches and conservative members threatened to quit the Boy Scouts in response.[57] On June 12, 2013, the Southern Baptist Convention passed non-binding resolutions urging the BSA not to change their policy.[58][59] In September 2013, a new scouting group called Trail Life USA was created.[60][61][62] Subsequently, some Christian denomination congregations replaced their Boy Scouts of America troops with those of Trail Life USA.[63]

About a year later, the Boys Scouts dropped the ban on gay scouts, as of January 1, 2014. However, openly gay leaders will still be banned from the Boy Scouts. [53] [46][45] However in July 2012, at the culmination of a review started in 2010, an 11 person committee convened by the BSA reached a "unanimous consensus" recommending retaining the current policy.[44][43] At the Scouts annual meeting in April 2012, a leader from the Northeast presented a resolution that "would allow individual units to accept gays as adult leaders".

[42] In 2004, the BSA adopted a new policy statement, including a "Youth Leadership" policy that disallowed members to continue in leadership positions in the event they were to hold themselves out as "open and avowed homosexuals."[41] In 2000, the Supreme Court ruled in

Unlike the BSA's Learning for Life, membership in the traditional BSA programs is more restricted and controversial. Girls may not join Cub Scouting or Boy Scouting, but may join Venturing and Sea Scouting; women can be adult volunteers in all programs. The BSA prohibits "open and avowed" gay and lesbian adults from participation. The BSA takes a similar prohibitive stance toward both children and adults who are atheist and agnostic, citing its "Duty to God" principle.[37][38][39][40]

Membership controversies

Learning for Life is not considered a traditional Scouting program; it does not use the Scout Promise, Scout Law, uniforms, or insignia of traditional Scouting. All Learning for Life programs are open to youth and adults without restriction based on gender, residence, sexual orientation, or other considerations other than age requirements.[35][36]

Learning for Life is a school and work-site based program that is a subsidiary of the BSA. It utilizes programs designed for schools and community-based organizations that are designed to prepare youth for the complexities of contemporary society and to enhance their self-confidence, motivation, and self-esteem.[34] Exploring is the worksite-based program of Learning for Life with programs based on five areas of emphasis: career opportunities, life skills, citizenship, character education, and leadership experience.[35]

Learning for life

There are about 100,000 physically or mentally disabled Scouts throughout the United States. Anyone certified as disabled "may enroll in Scouting and remain in its program beyond the regulation age limits. This provision allows all members to advance in Scouting as far as they wish."[7] Advancement is measured by the achievement to the best of the Scout's abilities.

  • Cub Scouting is the largest of the three programs, available to boys from first to fifth-grade or 7 to 11 years.[27] The program is designed to pursue the aims of character development, citizenship training, and personal fitness. Cub Scouting is divided into age-based levels of Tiger Cubs, Wolf, Bear, and Webelos Scouts.[4][28]
  • Boy Scouting is the flagship program of the BSA for boys ages 11 to 18. (Boys who have achieved the Cub Scout Arrow of Light Award or have completed the 5th grade can join as young as 10 years old) [27] It uses outdoor activities such as camping, aquatics and hiking to achieve the aims of character, citizenship and personal fitness training.[29]
    • Varsity Scouting is a sub-division of Boy Scouting available to boys ages 14 to 18; it adds a program of high adventure and sporting activities.[30]
    • The Order of the Arrow is the Boy Scouting national honor society for experienced campers, based on American Indian traditions and is dedicated to the ideals of brotherhood and cheerful service.[31]
  • Venturing is the program for young men and women ages 14 through 21.[27] Its purpose is to provide positive experiences to help youth mature and to prepare them to become responsible adults.[32]
    • Sea Scouting is a sub-division of Venturing focused on nautical activities.[33]

In the BSA, Scouting is considered to be one movement with three main programs:

Varsity Scouts preparing to go backpacking

Traditional membership


That the purpose of this corporation shall be to promote, through organization and cooperation with other agencies, the ability of boys to do things for themselves and others, to train them in Scoutcraft, and to teach them patriotism, courage, self-reliance, and kindred values, using the methods which are now in common use by Boy Scouts.

Paul Sleman, Colin H. Livingstone, Ernest S. Martin and James E. West successfully lobbied Congress for a federal charter for the BSA–partly as a way to deal with competition from the Lone Scouts of America,[25] which President Woodrow Wilson signed on June 15, 1916. It reads:[26]

[24] The special recognition neither implies nor accords Congress any special control over the BSA, which remains free to function independently.[23]

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