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Bracha Ettinger

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Bracha Ettinger

Bracha Lichtenberg Ettinger
Born March 23, 1948
Tel Aviv, Mandatory Palestine (present-day Israel)
Era Art, Contemporary philosophy
Region Western Philosophy
School Psychoanalysis
Main interests Psychoanalysis, art, feminist theory, aesthetics, human rights, ethics, the Maternal
Notable ideas Matrixial gaze, matrixial trans-subjectivity

Bracha Lichtenberg Ettinger (Hebrew: ברכה אטינגר, ברכה ליכטנברג-אטינגר‎), is an international visual artist based in Paris and Tel Aviv. She is considered among the most influential[1][2][3] contemporary painters as well as a prominent philosopher-psychoanalyst writing at the intersection of art, psychoanalysis, ethics and aesthetics.

Her art explores new media, classical painting, modern abstract and lyrical abstraction, and deals with personal and trans-generational memory, consciousness and the Unconscious, individual and historical trauma, the feminine and the maternal. She works mainly in oil on canvas, ink on paper, drawings, notebooks, encounter-events and conversations, photography, and, recently, video art. Exhibitions featuring the work of Bracha L. Ettinger took place at the Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam; Pompidou Centre, Paris; Israel Museum, Jerusalem; Royal Museum of Fine Arts, Antwerp; Musée des Beaux-Arts d'Angers; The Museum of Modern Art, Oxford; Fundació Antoni Tàpies, Barcelona; The Drawing Center, NY; Palais des Beaux-Arts, Brussels; Freud Museum, London; Whitechapel Art Gallery, London; Kiasma, Helsinki.

Bracha L. Ettinger's ideas concerning matrixial borderlinking and borderspacing and trans-subjectivity achieved recognition in cultural theory, psychoanalysis and French feminism (see Feminist theory and psychoanalysis) after the publication of fragments from her notebooks (Moma, Oxford, 1993) and The Matrixial Gaze (1995). Over the last two decades her work has been transforming the contemporary debates in few fields like art history,[4] film studies (including feminist film theory), Aesthetics[5] and Gender Studies. Ettinger's ideas offer the hope that identities might not have to be achieved either sacrificially or at someone else's expense. She offers ways to rethink human subjectivity as informed by a feminine-maternal-matrixial Eros.[6]

Ettinger is a Professor at European Graduate School in Saas-Fee, Switzerland.

Life and work

Bracha Ettinger, Israeli and British who lives mainly in France, was born in Tel Aviv (March 23, 1948).[7] She received her M.A. in Clinical Psychology from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in 1975. She then moved to London and studied, trained and worked between 1976 and 1979 at the London Centre for Psychotherapy, the Tavistock Clinic and the Philadelphia Association with R. D. Laing. Her daughter the actress Lana Ettinger was born in London. She returned to Israel in 1979 and worked at Shalvata Hospital. Ettinger, who painted and drew since early childhood, then decided to dedicate herself fully to painting and art and moved to Paris, where she lived and worked from 1981 to 2003. Her son Itai was born in 1988. Alongside painting she began writing, and received a D.E.A. in Psychoanalysis from the University Paris VII Diderot in 1987, and a Ph.D. in Aesthetics of Art from the University of Paris VIII in 1996.

Her paintings eventually aroused the interest of different curators in French museums, and she had One-person exhibitions at the Pompidou Centre in 1987 and at the Museum of Calais in 1988. In 1995 she had a One-person exhibition at the Israel Museum in Jerusalem, and in 1996 she participated in the Contemporary art section of "Face à l'Histoire. 1933-1996" exhibition in the Pompidou Centre.[8] In 2000 she had a Retrospective at the Centre for Fine Arts (The Palais des Beaux Arts) in Brussels, and in 2001 a Solo exhibition at the Drawing Center in New York.[9] In parallel to working as artist Bracha Ettinger continued to train as psychoanalyst with Françoise Dolto, Piera Auglanier, Pierre Fedida and Jacques-Alain Miller, and has become one of the most influential contemporary French feminists.[10][11][12][13] Around 1988 Ettinger began her Conversation and Photography project. Her personal art notebooks[14][15] have become source for theoretical articulations, and her art has inspired art historians (among them the distinguished art historian Griselda Pollock and international curator Catherine de Zegher) and philosophers (like Jean-François Lyotard, Christine Buci-Glucksmann and Brian Massumi) who dedicated a number of essays to her painting.

Even though she was still based mainly in Paris, Ettinger was Visiting Professor (1997–1998) and then Research Professor (1999–2004) in Psychoanalysis and Aesthetics at the School of Fine Art, History of Art and Cultural Studies at the University of Leeds. Since 2001 she has also been Visiting Professor in Psychoanalysis and Aesthetics at the AHRC Centre for Cultural Analysis, Theory and History (now CentreCATH[16]). Ettinger has partly returned to Israel in 2003, keeping studios in both Paris and Tel Aviv ever since, and became a lecturer at the Bezalel Academy of Art and Design in Jerusalem until 2006. Ettinger is activist against the Israeli occupation of Palestinian territories.

Ettinger is considered now to be a prominent figure among both the French painters' and the Israeli art's scenes. Ettinger's art was recently analysed at length in the book Women Artists at the Millennium[17] and in Griselda Pollock's Encounters in the Virtual Feminist Museum.[18]

Some of her specific academic fields of endeavor are feminist psychoanalysis, art, aesthetics, ethics, the gaze, sexual difference and gender studies, Jacques Lacan, the feminine, early (including pre-birth) psychic impressions, pre-maternal and maternal subjectivity.


From 1981 until 1992, Bracha Ettinger's principal artwork consisted of drawing and mixed media on paper (xerographie and photocopic dust, pigment and ashes with ink and pencil) as well as Notebooks and Artist's books, where alongside notation of thoughts and conversations, the artist developed ink and wash painting and drawing. Since 1992, apart from continual Notebooks' work, most of her artwork consists of mixed media and oil paintings, with series that spread over time like: "Matrix — Family Album", "Autistwork" and "Eurydice", where the artist is engaged with questions of transgenerational transmission of memory, personal and historical trauma, the Shoah and the World Wars, womanhood and maternality, classical painting and abstraction, light and the question of beauty. Images that she obtains by collage and machinical processing of details from a photo of mothers, women and children about to be executed during the WW2 as well as aerial views, topographic maps, family photos and other images disappear in a long process of abstraction, then purely abstract work concerning color, lines and light follows until different phantomic figuralities emerge in a long process of oil painting that takes few years. From 2001 onwards her main work in oil painting on canvas has located Ettinger as one of the major painters of the present New European Painting. Following Monet and Rothko, and in relation to American Lyrical Abstraction, the artist researches color as light and opens possibilities for contemporary painting after the era of photography and video, and anticipating possibilities of digital media in painting. This painting, according to art historian Griselda Pollock, offers a new critical approach to classical painting and to looking at contemporary history. The vibrating quality of the paintings bring to mind a mental "ultrasound". In parallel to painting, the artist has developed the field of installation and archive, and has broadened the idea of artistic activity to include theoretical research and the development of a groundbreaking theory, lecturing-events, encounter-events and conversations. Her paintings, photos, drawings and notebooks have been exhibited extensively in major museums of contemporary art across the world, such as Pompidou Centre (1987, 1996, 2010–2011) and the Stedelijk Museum (1997). In the last decade Ettinger's oil on canvas paintings involve figures like "Medusa", "Demeter and Persephone" and "Eurydice". Her video works convey interior and exterior aquatic body and cosmic atmospheres. The art historian and cultural analyst Griselda Pollock has dedicated since the beginning of the 1990s a continuous research to Ettinger's painting and drawing, from the perspectives of Art history, Modern and Postmodern art, Jewish History after the Shoah, Psychoanalytic theory and Feminism.

Group exhibitions

Among the venues Ettinger presented in:

Solo exhibitions


Bracha L. Ettinger is a regarded theoretician who had proposed an ontology of string-like subject-subject (trans-subjective) and subject-object (transjective) transmissivity, working at the intersections of human subjectivity, feminine sexuality, maternal subjectivity, psychoanalysis, art and aesthetics, who had contributed to psychoanalysis the idea of a feminine-maternal sphere, function and structure with its symbolic and imaginary dimensions based on femaleness in the real (womb). This dimension as symbolic contributes to ethical thinking about human responsibility to one another and to the world. She is a senior clinical psychologist, and a practising psychoanalyst. Her artistic practice and her articulation, since 1985, of what has become known as the matrixial theory of trans-subjectivity have transformed contemporary debates in contemporary art, psychoanalysis, women studies and cultural studies. Bracha L. Ettinger is member of the Tel Aviv Institute for Contemporary Psychoanalysis (TAICP), the New Lacanian School (NLS) and the World Association of Psychoanalysis (AMP / WAP).[28] For Ettinger, the Freudian attitude to psychoanalysis is crucial as it emphasizes the phantasmatic value of materials that arise during regression. To Freud and Lacan she adds, however, a feminie-maternal space-time with its particular structures, functions and dynamics in the Unconscious. She claims that in a similar way to which, when seduction is assigned to the paternal figure during regression it is recognized in most cases as a result of the therapeutic process itself and is worked-through accordingly: without therapist's father-blaming and without a resulting father-hate, therapists must likewise realize that during regression phantasmatic maternal "not-enoughness" appears and must also be recognized as the result of the process itself and be worked-through without mother-hating that she considers as contributing to a "psychotization" of the subject and a block to the passage from rage to sorrow and compassion. To be able to recognize the phantasmatic status of the psychic material arizing during therapy, the Lacanian concepts of Symbolic, Imaginary and Real are useful to her. The idea of a corpo-Real is a part of her symboliseation of a new feminine psychic zone (the matrixial, the womb as time space of psychic encounter-event), in both male and female subjects, and of the feminine-matrixial sexual difference. Thus, even if Ettinger critics the Freudian and Lacanian analysis of the feminine she considers herself as post or neo Freudian and Lacanian, who elaborates the feminine in continuity to these psychoanalysts but claims a supplementary feminine-maternal Eros. Etinger criticises Winnicott and Bollas for offering the patients a "ready-made mother-monster" as a cause for each psychic pain. She considers any practice of archaic-motherhood blaming as an obstacle, as "hystericizing" and even momentarily "psychoticizing" (in the sense of leading to internal splits rather than recognition of differences,) when such "cause" is brought as "explanation" by the analyst, a "cause" attributed to the unremembered early period of life where I and non-I are transconnected. Ettinger agrees with Lacan that the "ultimate" cause is in principle lacking: objet a. She calls for a delicate process of differentiation and differentiation, coemergence and cofading between the generations, especially in analysing the same-sex (daughter-mother, son-father) relationships, with emphasize on transmission, not split. Thus, the process itself helps to negotiate and articulate delicately sexual difference, in the present. To the idea that the self is structured via mirror-like reflection she adds that of primal apperception of the other, through "fascinance" (aesthetic openness to the other and the cosmos), compassion and awe (affective accesses to the other) directed from the beginning to the (m)Other and the outside, not to the self.

Psychoanalytic theory

Major concepts

Ettinger is the initiator of the Matrixial Trans-subjectivity theory (or simply "The Matrixial")[29] and the author of the concepts:[30] subjectivity as encounter, matrixial gaze, matrixial time, matrixial space, co-poiesis, borderlinking (bordureliance), borderspacing (bordurespacement), co-emergence in differentiating and differentiating, transconnectivity, feminine-maternal-prematernal (matrixial) Eros,[31][32] com-passion, primary compassion, primary awe, compassionate hospitality, co/in-habit(u)ation,[33] wit(h)nessing,[34] co-fading, severality, matrixial transformational potentiality, archaic m/Other, fascinance,[35] encounter-event, besideness, primal Mother-phantasies of Not-enoughness, Devouring and Abandonment, empathy within compassion, empathy without compassion, seduction into life, and metramorphosis. Ettinger, a Freudian scholar, follows the late Jacques Lacan, Emmanuel Levinas, "Object-relations" theory and Gilles Deleuze/Félix Guattari and also critiques them, reformulating subject and feminine difference.

The early theory: from 1985 through the 1990s

Ettinger articulated a feminie-maternal (and feminie-prematernal) dimension, space, function, Eros and dynamics in the human Unconscious. She had suggested that pre-natal impressions, connected to the phantasmatic and traumatic real of the pregnant becoming-mother, are trans-inscribed in the emerging subject and form the primary phase and position of the human psyche. "I" and "non-I", without rejection and without symbiotic fusion, conjointly inscribe memory traces that are dispersed asymmetrically but in a trans-subjective mode. Trans-subjective mental and affective unconscious "strings", connecting the prenatal emerging subject to the archaic m/Other, open unconscious routes ("feminine", non phallic, in both males and females) that enable subjectivizing processes all throughout life whenever a new matrixial encounter-event takes place. The matrixial encounter-event forms specific aesthetical and ethical accesses to the Other. Ettinger articulated the 'matrixial gaze' and the process of 'co-poiesis'. This allows new understanding of trans-generational transmission, trauma and artistic processes. Ettinger formulates the woman(girl)-to-woman(mother) difference as the first sexual difference for females to be viewed first of all according to the matrixial parameters. The feminie-maternal Eros informs also the father/son and mother/son relations. According to Ettinger, in parallel but also before expressions of abjection (Julia Kristeva) or rejection (Freud on Narcissism) of the other, primary compassion, awe and fascinance (which are unconscious psychic affective accesses to the other, and which join reattunement and differentiating-in-jointness by borderlinking) occur. The combination of fascinance and primary compassion does not enter the economy of social exchange, attraction and rejection; it has particular forms of Eros and of resistance that can inspire the political sphere and reach action and speech that is ethical-political without entering any political institutional organization. The infant's primary compassion is a proto-ethical psychological means that joins the aesthetical fascinance and creates a feel-knowing that functions at best within maternal (and also parental) compassionate hospitality. Here, one witnesses in jointness: The I wit(h)ness while borderlinking (bordurelaint) to the non-I and borderspacing (bordurespacant) from the other. Ettinger calls for the recognition of the matrixial transference as a dimension in the transferential relationships in psychoanalysis. They must entails besideness to (and not a split from) the archaic the m/Other (Autremere) and parental figures; jointness-in-differentiation rather than their exclusion. She sees in the trans-subjectivity a distinct dimension of human specific linkage and shareability, different from, and supplementary to "inter-subjectivity" and "self" psychology. Her most prominent and comprehensive book regarding this theory is "The Matrixial Borderspace" (reprint of essays from 1994–1999) published in French in 1999[36] and in English in 2006,[37] but her most recent concepts are mainly elaborated in the different essays printed in 2005-2006.[38]

The theory in the 2000s

Her more recent artistic and theoretical work centers around the spiritual in art and ethics. In the domain of psychoanalysis, around the question of same-sex differences, the primary feminine difference is the difference opened between woman (girl) and woman (m/Other), maternal subjectivity, maternal/pregnance Eros of com-passion, the effects of compassion and awe and the passion for borderlinking and borderspacing[39] and the idea that three kinds of fantasy (that she names Mother-fantasies) should be recognized, when they appear in a state of regression aroused by therapy itself, as primal: Mother-fantasies of Not-enoughness, Devouring and Abandonment. Their mis-recognition in psychoanalysis (and analytical therapy), together with the ignorance of maternal Eros of com-passion leads to catastrophic blows to the matrixial daughter-mother tissue and hurts the maternal potentiality of the daughter herself, in the sense that attacking the "non-I" is always also attacking the "I" that dwells inside an "I"-and-"non-I" trans-subjective matrixial (feminine-maternal) tissue. Contributing to Self psychoanalysis after Heinz Kohut, Ettinger articulated the difference between com-passionate borderlinking, compassion (as affect) and empathy, and between "empathy without compassion" and "empathy within compassion", claiming that the analyst's empathy without compassion harms the matrixial psychic tissue of the analysand, while empathy within compassion leads to creativity and to the broadening of the ethical horizon. Ettinger explains how by empathy (toward the patient's complaints) without compassion (toward the patient's surrounding past and present family figures, no less than toward the patient itself), the therapist "produces" the patient's real mother as a "ready-made monster-mother" figure, that serves to absorb complaints of all kinds, and thus, a dangerous splitting is induced between the "good" mother figure (the therapist) and a "bad" mother figure (the real mother). This splitting is destructive in both internal and external terms, and mainly for the daughter-mother relations, since the I and non-I are in any case always trans-connected, and therefore any split and projected hate (toward such figures) will turn into a self-hate in the woman/daughter web. Such a concept of subjectivity, where "non-I" is trans-connected to the "I", has deep ethical implications[40] as well as far-reaching sociological and political implications that have been further developed by Griselda Pollock in order to rethink modern and postmodern art and History.

Other activities

Since 2005 Ettinger is an activist member in "Physicians for Human Rights-Israel" ("PHR-Israel"). Dr. Ettinger contributes to the organization as a clinical psychologist, attending Palestinian patients in needed areas in the Palestinian occupied territories.[42]

Bracha Ettinger is also famous for her portrait photography, taken in the context of conversation projects. Some of her portraits, like those of Jean-François Lyotard, Joyce McDougall, Edmond Jabès, Emmanuel Lévinas, Robert Doisneau and Yeshayahu Leibowitz appear in several official publications and collections.


Ettinger is author of several books and more than eighty psychoanalytical essays elaborating different aesthetical, ethical, psychoanalytical and artistic aspects of the matrixial. She is co-author of volumes of conversation with The journal Theory Culture & Society dedicated an issue to her work [TC&S, Vol.21, n.1] in 2004.

Recent selected publications

  • "The Sublime and Beauty beyond Uncanny Anxiety". In: Intellectual Birdhouse. Artistic Practice as Research. Edited by F. Dombois, U. M. Bauer, C. Marais and M. Schwab. London: Koening Books, 2011.ISBN 978-386335-1918-2
  • "Antigone With(out) Jocaste". In: Interrogating Antigone. Edited by S. E. Wilmer and A. Zukauskaite. Oxford University Press, 2010 (189-214).ISBN 978-0-19-955921-3
  • "Communicaring: Reflexion around Hiroshima mon amour". In: PostGender: Sexuality and Performativeivity in Japanese Culture. Edited by Ayelet Zohar. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2010.ISBN 965-7067-61-8
  • "Diotima and the Matrixial Transference: Psychoanalytical Encounter-Event as Pregnancy in Beauty". In: Across the Threshold (Explorations of Liminality in Literature). Edited by C. N. van der Merwe and H. Viljoen. New York: Peter Lang. 2007. ISBN 978-1-4331-0002-4
  • "Fragilization and Resistance". In: Bracha L. Ettinger: Fragilization and Resistance. Edited by Tero Nauha and Akseli Virtanen. Finnish Academy of Fine Arts with Aivojen yhteistyo, Helsinki, 2009. Printed In: Maternal Studies [2]
  • "From Proto-ethical Compassion to Responsibility: Besidedness, and the three Primal Mother-Phantasies of Not-enoughness, Devouring and Abandonment". Athena: Philosophical Studies. Nr. 2 (Vilnius: Versus). 2006. ISSN 1822-5047 [3]
  • "Com-passionate Co-response-ability, Initiation in Jointness, and the link x of Matrixial Virtuality". In: Gorge(l). Oppression and Relief in Art. Edited by Sofie Van Loo. Royal Museum of Fine Art. Antwerpen, 2006. ISBN 90-76979-35-9
  • "Gaze-and-touching the Not Enough Mother" In: Eva Hesse Drawing. Edited by Catherine de Zegher, NY/New Haven: The Drawing Center/Yale University Press. 2006. ISBN 0-300-11618-7
  • "Matrixial Trans-subjectivity". Theory Culture & Society – TCS, 23:2-3. 2006. ISSN 0263-2764
  • "Art and Healing Matrixial Transference Between the Aesthetical and the Ethical." In Catalogue: ARS 06 Biennale. 68-75; 76-81. Helsinki: Kiasma Museum of Contemporary Art. 2006.
  • "Fascinance. The Woman-to-woman (Girl-to-m/Other) Matrixial Feminine Difference". In: Psychoanalysis and the Image. Edited by Griselda Pollock. Oxford: Blackwell. 2006. ISBN 1-4051-3461-5
  • "Art-and-Healing Oeuvre." 3 X Abstraction. Edited by Catherine de Zegher and Hendel Teicher, 199-231. NY/New Haven: The Drawing Center/Yale University Press. 2005. ISBN 0-300-10826-5

Selected publications

  • The Matrixial Borderspace. (Essays from 1994–1999). University of Minnesota Press, 2006. ISBN 0-8166-3587-0
  • Regard et Espace-de-bord matrixiels. Brussels: La lettre volee, 1999. ISBN 2-87317-102-2
  • "Trenzado y escena primitiva del ser-de-a-tres" (7 June 2000). In: Jacques-Alain Miller, Los usos del lapso, Los cursos psicoanaliticos de Jacques-Alain Miller. Buenos Aires: Paidos. 2004. 466-481. ISBN 950-12-8855-2
  • "Copoiesis." In: Ephemera. 2005
  • "Re - In - De - Fuse." In: Othervoices. 1999
  • "Weaving a Woman Artist With-in the Matrixial Encounter-Event." In: Theory, Culture and Society Journal. No. 21. 2004
  • "Trans-subjective transferential borderspace." (1996) Reprinted in Brian Massumi (ed.), A Shock to Thought. (Expression after Deleuze and Guattari). London & NY: Routeledge, 2002. 215-239. ISBN 0-415-23804-8
  • "The Red Cow Effect." (First printed in 1996 in: Act 2, ISSN 1360-4287). Reprinted in: Mica Howe & Sarah A. Aguiar (eds.), He Said, She Says. Fairleigh Dickinson University press & London: Associated University Press, 2001. 57-88. ISBN 0-8386-3915-1
  • "Matrixial Gaze and Screen: Other than Phallic and Beyond the Late Lacan." In: Laura Doyle (ed.) Bodies of Resistance. Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University Press, 2001. 103-143. ISBN 0-8101-1847-5
  • "Art as the Transport-Station of Trauma." In: Bracha Lichtenberg Ettinger: Artworking 1985-1999, Ghent-Amsterdam: Ludion & Brussels: Palais des Beaux-Arts, 2000. 91-115. ([4]
  • "Transgressing with-in-to the feminine." (1997) Reprinted in: Penny Florence & Nicola Foster (eds.), Differential Aesthetics, London: Ashgate, 2000. 183-210. ISBN 0-7546-1493-X
  • "Trauma and Beauty." In: Kjell R. Soleim [ed.], Fatal Women. Journal of the Center for Women's and Gender Research, Bergen Univ., Vol. 11: 115-128, 1999.
  • "The Feminine/Prenatal Weaving in the Matrixial Subjectivity-as-Encounter." Psychoanalytic Dialogues, VII:3, The Analytic Press, New York, 1997. 363-405. ISSN 1048-1885
  • "Metramorphic Borderlinks and Matrixial Borderspace." In: John Welchman (ed.), Rethinking Borders, Minnesota University Press, 1996. 125-159. ISBN 0-333-56580-0.
  • The Matrixial Gaze. (1994), Feminist Arts & Histories Network, Dept. of Fine Art, Leeds University, 1995. ISBN 0-9524-899. Reprinted as Ch. I in The Matrixial Borderspace.
  • "The Becoming Threshold of Matrixial Borderlines.". In: Robertson et als. (eds.) Travelers' Tales. Routledge, London, 1994. 38-62. ISBN 0-415-07016-3
  • Matrix . Halal(a) — Lapsus. Notes on Painting, 1985-1992. Translated by Joseph Simas. Museum Of Modern Art, Oxford, 1993. ISBN 0-905836-81-2. (Reprinted in Artworking 1985-1999. Ghent: Ludion, 2000. ISBN 90-5544-283-6)
  • "Matrix and Metramorphosis." In: Trouble in the Archives, Special issue of Differences, Vol. 4, n. 3: 176-208, 1992. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
  • Matrix. Carnets 1985-1989 (fragments). In: Chimères, n. 16, 1992.

Bibliography - selected publications on Ettinger's work

  • Catherine de Zegher and Griselda Pollock (eds.), Art as Compassion. Bracha Lichtenberg Ettinger. [Monography]. Ghent: MER. Paper Kunsthalle & Brussels: ASA Publishers, 2011. ISBN 978-94-6117-008-8
  • Patrick le Nouene (ed.), Le Cabinet de Bracha. [English and French]. [Monography]. Musee d'Angers, 2011. ISBN 2-35293-030-8 ISBN 978-2-35293-030-8
  • Christine Buci-Glucksmann, "Le devenir-monde d'Eurydice", published to coincide with the project "Capturing the Moving Mind", Paris: BLE Atelier, 2005. Trans. Eurydice's Becoming-World and reprinted as brochure for "The Aerials of Sublime Transscapes", Breda: Lokaal 01, 2008.
  • Dorota Glowacka, "Lyotard and Eurydice: The Anamnesis of the Feminine." In: Gender After Lyotard. Ed. Margaret Grebowicz. NY: Suny Press, 2007. ISBN 978-0-7914-6956-9.
  • Griselda Pollock, Ch. 6: "The Graces of Catastrophe". in: Encounters in the Virtual Feminist Museum: Time, Space and the Archive. Routledge, 2007. ISBN 0-415-41374-5.
  • Sofie Van Loo, "Eros and Erotiek" in ThRu1. Text / catalogue for virtual solo exhibition at Lokaal01, Antwerp, 2007. [5].
  • Brigid Doherty, "Dwelling on Spaces". In: Women Artists as the Millennium. Edited by Carol Armstrong and Catherine de Zegher. Cambridge Massachusetts: October Books, MIT Press, 2006. ISBN 978-0-262-01226-3.
  • Griselda Pollock, "Rethinking the Artist in the Woman, The Woman in the Artist, and that Old Chestnut, the Gaze." In: Women Artists as the Millennium. Edited by Carol Armstrong and Catherine de Zegher. Cambridge Massachusetts: October Books, MIT Press, 2006. 35–83. ISBN 978-0-262-01226-3.
  • Griselda Pollock, "Beyond Oedipus. Feminist Thought, Psychoanalysis, and Mythical Figurations of the Feminine." In: Laughing with Medusa. Edited by Vanda Zajko and Miriam Leonard. Oxford University Press, 2006. 87–117. ISBN 0-19-927438-X
  • Sofie Van Loo, Gorge(l): Oppression and relief in Art. Royal Museum of Fine Arts, Antwerp & Gynaika, 2006.
  • Sofie Van Loo, "Titian and Bracha L. Ettinger: an artistic dialogue between the 16th and the 20th/21st centuries". In: Antwerp Royal Museum Annual, 2006.
  • Jean-François Lyotard (1995), "Anamnesis: Of the Visible." Theory, Culture and Society, Vol. 21(1), 2004. ISSN 0263-2764
  • Jean-François Lyotard (1993), "Scriptures: Diffracted Traces."(First version of "Anima Minima"). Theory, Culture and Society, Vol. 21(1), 2004.
  • Judith Butler, "Bracha's Eurydice. Theory, Culture and Society'", Vol. 21, 2004. ISSN 0263-2764.
  • Griselda Pollock, "Does Art Think?." In: Dana Arnold and Margaret Iverson (eds.) Art and Thought. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 2003. ISBN 0-631-22715-6.
  • Heinz-Peter Schwerfel, "Matrix und Morpheus" in: Kino und Kunst. DuMont Literatur und Kunst Verlag, Koln. 2003. ISBN 3-8321-7214-9* Catherine de Zegher and Brian Massumi (eds.), "Bracha Lichtenberg Ettinger: The Eurydice Series". Drawing Papers, n.24. NY: The Drawing Center, 2001.
  • Brian Massumi, "Painting: The Voice of the Grain", In: Bracha Lichtenberg Ettinger: The Eurydice Series. [Catherine de Zegher and Brian Massumi (eds.)]. Drawing Papers, n.24. NY: The Drawing Center, 2001.
  • Adrian Rifkin, "... respicit Orpheus", In: Bracha Lichtenberg Ettinger: The Eurydice Series. [Catherine de Zegher and Brian Massumi (eds.)]. Drawing Papers, n.24. NY: The Drawing Center, 2001.
  • Christine Buci-Glucksmann, "Eurydice and her doubles. Painting after Auschwitz." In: Bracha Lichtenberg Ettinger: Artworking 1985–1999. Ghent-Amsterdam: Ludion & Brussels: Palais des Beaux-Arts, 2000. ISBN 90-5544-283-6
  • Griselda Pollock and Penny Florence, Looking Back to the Future: Essays by Griselda Pollock from the 1990s. G&B Arts Press, 2000. ISBN 90-5701-132-8.
  • Paul Vendenbroek, Azetta — L'art de femmes Berberes. Paris: Flammarion, 2000. ISBN 90-5544-282-8
  • Adrien Harris, "Beyond/Outside Gender Dichotomies: New Forms of Constituting Subjectivity and Difference." Psychoanalytic Dialogues, VII:3, 1997. ISSN 1048-1885.
  • Christine Buci-Glucksmann, "Images of Absence in the Inner Space of Painting." In: Catherine de Zegher (ed.), Inside the Visible. MIT Press, Boston, 1996.
  • Griselda Pollock, 'Generations and Geographies in the Visual Arts. London: Routledge, 1996. ISBN 0-415-14128-1.
  • Rosi Huhn, "Die Passage zum Anderen: Bracha Lichtenberg Ettingers äesthetisches Konzept der Matrix und Metramorphose", In: Silvia Baumgart (Hrsg), Denkräum. Zwischen Kunst und Wissenschaft. Reimer, Berlin, 1993. ISBN 3-496-01097-5.
  • Rosi Huhn, Bracha L. Ettinger: La folie de la raison / Wahnsinn der Vernunft. Goethe Institut, Paris, 1990.
  • Bracha L. Ettinger, "From transference to the aesthetic paradigm: a conversation with Felix Guattari." Reprinted in Brian Massumi (ed.), A Shock to Thought. Expression after Deleuze and Guattari. London & NY: Routeledge, 2002. ISBN 0-415-23804-8.
  • Fintan Walsh, "From Enthusiasm to Encounter-Event: Bracha L. Ettinger, Samuel Beckett, and the Theatre of Affect. Parallax, 17:2 (2011), pp. 110-123.


  • "From transference to the aesthetic paradigm: a conversation with Felix Guattari" (1989). Reprinted in Brian Massumi (ed.), A Shock to Thought. London & NY: Routeledge, 2002. ISBN 0-415-23804-8.
  • Matrix et le voyage à Jérusalem de C.B. (1989). Artist book, limited edition, with 60 photos of Christian Boltanski by Ettinger, and Conversation between Ettinger and Boltanski. 1991.
  • Edmond Jabès in conversation with Bracha Ettinger (1990, selection). "This is the Desert, Nothing Strikes Root Here." In: Routes Of Wandering. Edited by Sarit Shapira. The Israel Museum, Jerusalem, 1991. 246–256. ISBN 965-278-116-9.
  • Edmond Jabès in conversation with Bracha L. Ettinger (1990, selection). A Threshold Where We are Afraid. Translated by Annemarie Hamad and Scott Lerner. MOMA, Oxford, 1993. ISBN 0-905836-86-3.
  • Emmanuel Levinas in conversation with Bracha L. Ettinger (1991–93, selection). Time is the Breath of the Spirit. Translated by C. Ducker and J. Simas. MOMA (Museum of Modern Art), Oxford, 1993. ISBN 0-905836-85-5.
  • Emmanuel Levinas in conversation with Bracha L. Ettinger (1991–93, selection). "What would Eurydice Say?"/ "Que dirait Eurydice?" Reprint of Le féminin est cette différence inouïe (livre d'artiste, 1994 that includes the text of Time is the Breath of the Spirit). Trans. C. Ducker and J. Simas. Reprinted to coincide with the Kabinet exhibition, Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, Paris: BLE Atelier, 1997. ISBN 2-910845-08-7. Reprinted in: Athena: Philosophical Studies. Vol. 2 (Vilnius: Versus). ISSN 1822-5047.
  • "Working-Through." A conversation between Bracha Lichtenberg Ettinger and Craigie Horsfield. In: Bracha Lichtenberg Ettinger: Eurydice Series. Drawing Papers, n.24. NY: The Drawing Center. 2001. 37–62.
  • "Conversation: Craigie Horsfield and Bracha L. Ettinger". September 2004. In: Craigie Horsfield, Relation. Edited by Catherine de Zegher. Paris: Jeu de Paume, 2006.
  • Conversation between Bracha L. Ettinger and Akseli Virtanen, "Art, Memory, Resistance." In Framework: The Finnish Art Review 4: Permanent Transience and in Web Journal Ephemera, vol.5, no.X.

Lectures and seminars

  • Bracha L. Ettinger. De Appel at the City Theatre, Amsterdam. 10 February 2009.
  • Bracha Ettinger. University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedras, 2008. Quotes and images.
  • Bracha Ettinger. European Graduate School. 2007. 104 min.
  • Bracha Ettinger. AHRB Centre CATH. July 2004.

See also


External links

  • [7] 2010.
  • Visiting Artist and Scholar at University of Puerto Rico [8], 2008.
  • European Graduate School. Biography, bibliography, photos and video lectures. Last Update: 2010
  • Bracha Ettinger. Flickr.
  • Anne Dagbert. Artforum International. September 1, 1997.
  • Adrian Rifkin. Artforum April 1997.
  • ICI Berlin: Events
  • Griselda Pollock interviews Bracha Ettinger. Crunch Festival Hay-en-Wye, Wales, 19 Nov. 2011.

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