World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Bureaucrat

Article Id: WHEBN0000266502
Reproduction Date:

Title: Bureaucrat  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Official, Takeshi Watanabe (bureaucrat), Amrit Abhijat, Civil service, Pradeep Kumar Dubey
Collection: Government Occupations, Public Administration
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Bureaucrat

A bureaucrat is a member of a government. Some usages restrict the term so that it only embraces lower-ranked staff members in an agency, excluding higher-ranked managers, or so that it only signifies officials who perform certain functions, such as those who work "desk jobs" (the French word for "desk" being bureau, though bureau can also be translated as "office").

Contents

  • History 1
  • Importance in society 2
  • Different types of Bureaucrat 3
  • Notable Bureaucrats and Bureaucratic philosophers 4
  • The arts related to Bureaucrat 5
  • See also 6
  • References 7
  • Further reading 8
  • External links 9

History

The term bureaucrat was first used in print during the French Revolution, by the journalist Fouilloux in the Père Duchesne in 1791, writing that the object most deserving of his disgust was the bureaucrat, harbinger of a "new mode of servitude". The job of a bureaucrat has been around for many generations, from

  • John Kilcullen, Mq.edu.au, Lecture—Max Weber: On Bureaucracy
  • Ludwig von Mises, Mises.org, Bureaucracy

External links

  •  
  •  
  •  

Further reading

  1. ^ a b c d Nelson, M. (1982). A Short, Ironic History of American National Bureaucracy. Journal Of Politics, 44(3), 747.
  2. ^ Al-Hegelan, Abdelrahman. "Bureaucracy and Development in Saudi Arabia". jstor. The Middle East Journal. Retrieved 13 August 2015. 
  3. ^ Lankov, Andrei (6 October 2014). "The North Korean bureaucracy is here to stay". NKNews.org. Retrieved 13 August 2015. 
  4. ^ "Who Are the Bureaucrats?". US History American Government. Independence Hall Association in Philadelphia. Retrieved 13 August 2015. 
  5. ^  
  6. ^  

References

See also

The arts related to Bureaucrat

Thurman Arnold (Assistant Attorney General)

Lloyd K. Garrison (First Chair of the National Labor Relations Board)

Harry Hopkins (Head of Works Progress Administration)

Hugh S. Johnson (Director of the NRA)

Franklin D. Roosevelt (US President)

Franz Kafka (Philosopher/Author)

As an academic, Woodrow Wilson(US President) professed:[6]

  • He is personally free and appointed to his position on the basis of conduct.
  • He exercises the authority delegated to him in accordance with impersonal rules, and his loyalty is enlisted on behalf of the faithful execution of his official duties.
  • His appointment and job placement are dependent upon his technical qualifications.
  • His administrative work is a full-time occupation.
  • His work is rewarded by a regular salary and prospects of advancement in a lifetime career.
  • He must exercise his judgment and his skills, but his duty is to place these at the service of a higher authority. Ultimately he is responsible only for the impartial execution of assigned tasks and must sacrifice his personal judgment if it runs counter to his official duties.
  • Bureaucratic control is the use of rules, regulations, and formal authority to guide performance. It includes such things as budgets, statistical reports, and performance appraisals to regulate behavior and results.

German sociologist Max Weber defined a bureaucratic official as the following:[5]

Notable Bureaucrats and Bureaucratic philosophers

5. Modern Bureaucrat-Bureaucrats gained increasingly negative reputations throughout the second half of the 20th century. As populations grow it becomes harder for bureaucratic systems to work because it often involves a lot of paperwork, which increases processing times, which eventually will be nearly impossible to manage. The digital age and the Internet has revolutionized Bureaucrats and the modern Bureaucrat has a different skill set than before. Also, the internet lowers the corruption levels of some Bureaucratic entities such as the Police Force due to social media and pro-am journalism.

4. European Bureaucrat- Originally referred to as “Mandarins” stemming from the Chinese word for government employee. Bureaucracy didn’t catch on in Europe very much due to the many different governments in the region, and constant change and advancement, and relative freedom of the upper class. In 1958, though, after the formation of the European Union the job of the Bureaucrat became extremely important to help organize and govern such a large and diverse community. In 1961 the term Eurocrat was coined by Richard Mayne, a journalist at the time. A Eurocrat is a bureaucrat of the European Union.

3. American Bureaucrats are different from other types of bureaucrats because they operate within a Woodrow Wilson (in office 1902-1910), an expert in public administration before his rise to power; and Franklin Roosevelt (1933-1945) who raised the regulation of business to unprecedented levels after the Great Depression. Other significant expansions in the size of government took place under Democrats Lyndon B. Johnson, who undertook a War on Poverty in his effort to bring about the Great Society, and Barack Obama (who took office in January 2009), whose Affordable Health Care for America Act vastly expanded government regulation of healthcare and health insurance. A major opponent of this style of government was President Ronald Reagan (1980-1988), elected from the Republican Party; he believed in government deregulation and shrinking the federal bureaucracy.

2. Chinese Bureaucrat- Also called “Mandarin” which was given to them by the Portuguese in a letter written from a Portuguese prisoner in China in 1525. Mandarins were used for about 1,300 years from 605 to 1905. Most high-ranking officials were given to nobility and family members. The Zhou Dynasty is the earliest recording of Chinese bureaucrats. There was a 9 rank system, each rank having more power than the lower rank. This type of bureaucrat went on until the Qing Dynasty. These mandarins worked for the various emperors’ government. After 1905 the Mandarins were replaced by modern civil servants. In 1921 the communist party took over China and in theory all people are bureaucrats and work for the government, but Mao Zedong (In office 1945-1976) ruled with unofficial of a standing army.

1. Classical Bureaucrat-Someone who starts at a low level of some kind of public work for the government, and has no opinion of their own, purely following guidelines and very slowly gaining increasing ranks within the system. This person is not interested in anything other than getting along his or her life. There is no party affiliation or personal opinion about the work you do. Tax collectors, Government accountants, Police officers, Fire Fighters, and Military personnel are all considered bureaucrats. This type of civil or business servant is very important when it first becomes necessary.

Bureaucrats can be split into different categories based on the system, nationality, and time they come from.

Different types of Bureaucrat

Bureaucrats play a vital role in modern society, holding administrative and managerial positions throughout governments worldwide.[2][3] Bureaucrats today hold a variety of administrative and functional positions in government, and are largely tasked with the day-to-day implementation of enacted policies. They form the core of most central government agencies, as well as postal services, education and healthcare administration, and various regulatory bodies. [4]

Importance in society

, high demands of the war led to more agencies and bureaucrats. After the war, the number of bureaucrats decreased but still remained at a higher level than when it first initiated in the United States. The number of bureaucrats working has not increased after the war and remains around the same number today in the 21st century but the influence of bureaucrats has increased much higher after Franklin Roosevelt's presidency and are recognized as an important part of American government. World War II that brought more bureaucratic jobs in the United States because of bigger government. Then when the United States entered New Deal's presidency when Congress enacted the Franklin Roosevelt and the expansion of the country to the west caused more need of bureaucrats on the job. The biggest shift for bureaucrats was during industrial revolution that replaced the patronage system in assigning bureaucrats. The Pendleton Act for not receiving a position as a bureaucrat which resulted in the Charles Guiteau did not agree with the patronage system because bureaucrats weren't getting assigned for their skills or experience. Garfield's ideals led to his assassination by James Garfield President [1] for bureaucrats in getting hired. Bureaucrats would have the job based on their alliance with Jackson as opposed to their skills as bureaucrats. This led to popular resentment of the emerging administrative independence, specifically of the social privilege associated with agency staffing and the corruption that were by-products of this independence.patronage system era he established the Andrew Jackson Early American bureaucrats had to follow the president's ideals of administrative duties and authorities to the country. Presidents like Adams and Jefferson assigned bureaucratic spots for the people who had their same political belief system. Then during the [1]

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.