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Collection: 1867 Establishments in Canada, Canada, Constitutional Monarchies, English-Speaking Countries and Territories, Federal Countries, Former British Colonies, Former French Colonies, French-Speaking Countries and Territories, G20 Nations, G7 Nations, G8 Nations, Liberal Democracies, Member States of Nato, Member States of the Commonwealth of Nations, Member States of the Organisation Internationale De La Francophonie, Member States of the United Nations, States and Territories Established in 1867
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Vertical triband (red, white, red) with a red maple leaf in the centre
Motto: "A Mari Usque Ad Mare" (Latin)
"From Sea to Sea"
(As seen on the Arms of Canada)
Anthem: "O Canada"
Royal anthem"God Save the Queen"[1]
Projection of North America with Canada in green
Capital Ottawa
Largest city Toronto
Official languages
  • English
  • French
Recognised regional languages
Ethnic groups
Demonym Canadian
Government Federal parliamentary
constitutional monarchy[2]
 -  Monarch Elizabeth II
 -  Governor General David Johnston
 -  Prime Minister Stephen Harper
 -  Chief Justice Beverley McLachlin
Legislature Parliament
 -  Upper house Senate
 -  Lower house House of Commons
Establishment from the United Kingdom
 -  Constitution Act, 1867 July 1, 1867 
 -  Statute of Westminster December 11, 1931 
 -  Patriation April 17, 1982 
 -  Total 9,984,670 km2 (2nd)
3,854,085 sq mi
 -  Water (%) 8.92 (891,163 km2 / 344,080 mi2)
 -  Q3 2015 estimate 35,851,774[3] (37th)
 -  2011 census 33,476,688[4]
 -  Density 3.41/km2 (228th)
8.3/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2015 estimate
 -  Total $1.628 trillion[5] (15th)
 -  Per capita $45,489[5] (20th)
GDP (nominal) 2015 estimate
 -  Total $1.573 trillion[5] (11th)
 -  Per capita $43,935[5] (15th)
Gini (2010) 33.7[6]
medium · 103rd[7]
HDI (2013)  0.902[8]
very high · 8th
Currency Canadian dollar ($) (CAD)
Time zone (UTC−3.5 to −8)
 -  Summer (DST)  (UTC−2.5 to −7)
Date format
  • dd-mm-yyyy
  • mm-dd-yyyy
  • yyyy-mm-dd (CE)
Drives on the right
Calling code +1
ISO 3166 code CA
Internet TLD .ca

Canada () is a country, consisting of ten provinces and three territories, in the northern part of the continent of North America. It extends from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles) in total, making it the world's second-largest country by total area and the fourth-largest country by land area. Canada's common border with the United States forms the world's longest land border. Canada is sparsely populated overall, the majority of its land territory being dominated by forest and tundra as well as the mountain range of the Rocky Mountains; about four-fifths of the population live near to the southern border. The majority of Canada has a cold or severely cold winter climate, but southerly areas are warm in summer.

The land now called Canada has been inhabited for millennia by various Aboriginal peoples. Beginning in the late 15th century, British and French colonies were established on the region's Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various conflicts, the United Kingdom gained and lost North American territories until left, in the late 18th century, with what mostly comprises Canada today. Pursuant to the British North America Act, on July 1, 1867, three colonies joined to form the autonomous federal Dominion of Canada. This began an accretion of provinces and territories to the new self-governing Dominion. In 1931, Britain granted Canada near total independence with the Statute of Westminster 1931 and full sovereignty was attained when the Canada Act 1982 severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament.

Canada is a federal parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy, Queen Elizabeth II being the current head of state. The country is officially bilingual at the federal level. It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many countries, with a population of approximately 35 million as of 2015. Its advanced economy is the eleventh largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture.

Canada is a G8, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.


  • Etymology 1
  • History 2
    • Aboriginal peoples 2.1
    • European colonization 2.2
    • Confederation and expansion 2.3
    • Early 20th century 2.4
    • Modern times 2.5
  • Geography and climate 3
  • Government and politics 4
    • Law 4.1
    • Foreign relations and military 4.2
    • Provinces and territories 4.3
  • Economy 5
    • Science and technology 5.1
  • Demographics 6
    • Religion 6.1
    • Languages 6.2
  • Culture 7
  • See also 8
  • References 9
  • Further reading 10
  • External links 11


While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".[9] In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona.[10] Cartier later used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village, but the entire area subject to Donnacona (the chief at Stadacona);[10] by 1545, European books and maps had begun referring to this region as Canada.[10]

In the 17th and early 18th centuries, "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the St. Lawrence River.[11] In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named The Canadas; until their union as the British Province of Canada in 1841.[12] Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country, and the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title.[13] The transition away from the use of Dominion was formally reflected in 1982 with the passage of the Canada Act, which refers only to Canada. Later that year, the national holiday was renamed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.[14] The term Dominion is also used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion.[15]


Aboriginal peoples

Aboriginal peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Inuit, and Métis,[16] the latter being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers.[16] Archaeological studies and genetic analyses have indicated a human presence in the northern Yukon region from 13,000–12,000 BC and in southern Ontario from 7500 BC.[17][18] These first settlers entered Canada through Beringia by way of the Bering land bridge.[19] The Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada.[20] The characteristics of Canadian Aboriginal societies included permanent settlements, agriculture, complex societal hierarchies, and trading networks.[21][22] Some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.[23]

The aboriginal population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000[24] and two million,[25] with a figure of 500,000 accepted by Canada's Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples.[26] As a consequence of the European colonization, Canada's aboriginal peoples suffered from repeated outbreaks of newly introduced infectious diseases, such as influenza, measles, and smallpox (to which they had no natural immunity), resulting in a forty to eighty percent population decrease in the centuries after the European arrival.[24][27]

Although not without conflict, European Canadians' early interactions with First Nations and Inuit populations were relatively peaceful.[28] The Crown and Aboriginal peoples began interactions during the European colonialization period, though, the Inuit, in general, had more limited interaction with European settlers.[29] From the late 18th century, European Canadians encouraged Aboriginals to assimilate into their own culture.[30] These attempts reached a climax in the late 19th and early 20th centuries with forced integration and relocations.[31]

European colonization

The first known attempt at European colonization began when Norsemen settled briefly at L'Anse aux Meadows in Newfoundland around 1000 AD.[32] No further European exploration occurred until 1497, when Italian seafarer John Cabot explored Canada's Atlantic coast for England.[33] Then Basque and Portuguese mariners established seasonal whaling and fishing outposts along the Atlantic coast in the early 16th century.[34] In 1534, French explorer Jacques Cartier explored the St. Lawrence River, where, on July 24, he planted a 10-metre (33 ft) cross bearing the words "Long Live the King of France" and took possession of the territory in the name of King Francis I.[35]

In 1583, Sir Humphrey Gilbert, by the royal prerogative of Queen Elizabeth I, founded St. John's, Newfoundland, as the first North American English colony.[36] French explorer Samuel de Champlain arrived in 1603 and established the first permanent European settlements at Port Royal (in 1605) and Quebec City (in 1608).[37] Among the colonists of New France, Canadiens extensively settled the St. Lawrence River valley and Acadians settled the present-day Maritimes, while fur traders and Catholic missionaries explored the Great Lakes, Hudson Bay, and the Mississippi watershed to Louisiana.[38] The Beaver Wars broke out in the mid-17th century over control of the North American fur trade.[39]

The English established additional colonies in Cupids and Ferryland, Newfoundland, beginning in 1610.[40] The Thirteen Colonies to the south were founded soon after.[34] A series of four wars erupted in colonial North America between 1689 and 1763; the later wars of the period constituted the North American theatre of the Seven Years' War.[41] Mainland Nova Scotia came under British rule with the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht and the 1763 Treaty of Paris ceded Canada and most of New France to Britain after the Seven Years' War.[42]

The Royal Proclamation of 1763 created the Province of Quebec out of New France, and annexed Cape Breton Island to Nova Scotia.[14] St. John's Island (now Prince Edward Island) became a separate colony in 1769.[43] To avert conflict in Quebec, the British parliament passed the Quebec Act of 1774, expanding Quebec's territory to the Great Lakes and Ohio Valley.[44] It re-established the French language, Catholic faith, and French civil law there. This angered many residents of the Thirteen Colonies, fuelling anti-British sentiment in the years prior to the 1775 outbreak of the American Revolution.[14]

The Constitutional Act of 1791 divided the province into French-speaking Lower Canada (later Quebec) and English-speaking Upper Canada (later Ontario), granting each its own elected legislative assembly.[46]

A copy of Robert Harris's Fathers of Confederation (1884), an amalgamation of the Charlottetown and Quebec conferences of 1864

The Canadas were the main front in the War of 1812 between the United States and Britain. Following the war, large-scale immigration to Canada from Britain and Ireland began in 1815.[25] Between 1825 and 1846, 626,628 European immigrants reportedly landed at Canadian ports.[47] These included Irish immigrants escaping the Great Irish Famine as well as Gaelic-speaking Scots displaced by the Highland Clearances.[48] Infectious diseases killed between 25 and 33 per cent of Europeans who immigrated to Canada before 1891.[24]

The desire for responsible government resulted in the abortive Rebellions of 1837. The Durham Report subsequently recommended responsible government and the assimilation of French Canadians into English culture.[14] The Act of Union 1840 merged the Canadas into a united Province of Canada and responsible government was established for all British North American provinces by 1849.[49] The signing of the Oregon Treaty by Britain and the United States in 1846 ended the Oregon boundary dispute, extending the border westward along the 49th parallel. This paved the way for British colonies on Vancouver Island (1849) and in British Columbia (1858).[50]

Confederation and expansion

refer to caption
An animated map showing the growth and change of Canada's provinces and territories since Confederation in 1867

Following several constitutional conferences, the 1867 Constitution Act officially proclaimed Canadian Confederation on July 1, 1867, initially with four provinces: Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick.[51][52] Canada assumed control of Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory to form the Northwest Territories, where the Métis' grievances ignited the Red River Rebellion and the creation of the province of Manitoba in July 1870.[53] British Columbia and Vancouver Island (which had been united in 1866) joined the confederation in 1871, while Prince Edward Island joined in 1873.[54]

The Canadian parliament passed a bill introduced by the Conservative Cabinet that established a National Policy of tariffs to protect the nascent Canadian manufacturing industries.[52] To open the West, parliament also approved sponsoring the construction of three transcontinental railways (including the Canadian Pacific Railway), opening the prairies to settlement with the Dominion Lands Act, and establishing the North-West Mounted Police to assert its authority over this territory.[55][56] In 1898, during the Klondike Gold Rush in the Northwest Territories, parliament created the Yukon Territory. The Cabinet of Liberal Prime Minister Wilfrid Laurier fostered continental European immigrants settling the prairies and Alberta and Saskatchewan became provinces in 1905.[54]

Early 20th century

Group of armed soldiers march past a wrecked tank and a body
Canadian soldiers and a Mark II tank at the Battle of Vimy Ridge in 1917

Because Britain still maintained control of Canada's foreign affairs under the Confederation Act, its declaration of war in 1914 automatically brought Canada into World War I.[57] Volunteers sent to the Western Front later became part of the Canadian Corps, which played a substantial role in the Battle of Vimy Ridge and other major engagements of the war.[58] Out of approximately 625,000 Canadians who served in World War I, some 60,000 were killed and another 172,000 were wounded.[59] The Conscription Crisis of 1917 erupted when the Unionist Cabinet's proposal to augment the military's dwindling number of active members with conscription was met with vehement objections from French-speaking Quebecers.[60] The Military Service Act brought in compulsory military service, though, it, coupled with disputes over French language schools outside Quebec, deeply alienated Francophone Canadians and temporarily split the Liberal Party.[60] In 1919, Canada joined the League of Nations independently of Britain,[58] and the 1931 Statute of Westminster affirmed Canada's independence.[2]

Canadian crew of a Sherman tank, south of Vaucelles, France, during the battle of Normandy in June 1944

The declared war on Germany during World War II, seven days after Britain. The first Canadian Army units arrived in Britain in December 1939.[58]

In all, over a million Canadians served in the armed forces during World War II and approximately 42,000 were killed and another 55,000 were wounded.[63] Canadian troops played important roles in many key battles of the war, including the failed 1942 Dieppe Raid, the Allied invasion of Italy, the Normandy landings, the Battle of Normandy, and the Battle of the Scheldt in 1944.[58] Canada provided asylum for the Dutch monarchy while that country was occupied and is credited by the Netherlands for major contributions to its liberation from Nazi Germany.[64] The Canadian economy boomed during the war as its industries manufactured military materiel for Canada, Britain, China, and the Soviet Union.[58] Despite another Conscription Crisis in Quebec in 1944, Canada finished the war with a large army and strong economy.[65]

Modern times

At Rideau Hall, Governor General the Viscount Alexander of Tunis (centre) receives the bill finalizing the union of Newfoundland and Canada on March 31, 1949

The financial crisis of the great depression had led the Dominion of Newfoundland to relinquish responsible government in 1934 and become a crown colony ruled by a British governor. After two bitter referendums, Newfoundlanders voted to join Canada in 1949 as a province.[66]

Canada's post-war economic growth, combined with the policies of successive Liberal governments, led to the emergence of a new Canadian identity, marked by the adoption of the current Maple Leaf Flag in 1965,[67] the implementation of official bilingualism (English and French) in 1969,[68] and the institution of official multiculturalism in 1971.[69] Socially democratic programs were also instituted, such as Medicare, the Canada Pension Plan, and Canada Student Loans, though provincial governments, particularly Quebec and Alberta, opposed many of these as incursions into their jurisdictions.[70] Finally, another series of constitutional conferences resulted in the 1982 patriation of Canada's constitution from the United Kingdom, concurrent with the creation of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.[71] In 1999, Nunavut became Canada's third territory after a series of negotiations with the federal government.[72]

At the same time, Quebec underwent profound social and economic changes through the referendum on sovereignty-association in 1980. Attempts to accommodate Quebec nationalism constitutionally through the Meech Lake Accord failed in 1990.[74] This led to the formation of the Bloc Québécois in Quebec and the invigoration of the Reform Party of Canada in the West.[75][76] A second referendum followed in 1995, in which sovereignty was rejected by a slimmer margin of 50.6 to 49.4 percent.[77] In 1997, the Supreme Court ruled that unilateral secession by a province would be unconstitutional and the Clarity Act was passed by parliament, outlining the terms of a negotiated departure from Confederation.[74]

In addition to the issues of Quebec sovereignty, a number of crises shook Canadian society in the late 1980s and early 1990s. These included the explosion of Air India Flight 182 in 1985, the largest mass murder in Canadian history;[78] the École Polytechnique massacre in 1989, a university shooting targeting female students;[79] and the Oka Crisis of 1990,[80] the first of a number of violent confrontations between the government and Aboriginal groups.[81] Canada also joined the Gulf War in 1990 as part of a US-led coalition force and was active in several peacekeeping missions in the 1990s, including the UNPROFOR mission in the former Yugoslavia.[82][83] Canada sent troops to Afghanistan in 2001, but declined to join the US-led invasion of Iraq in 2003.[84] In 2009, Canada's economy suffered in the worldwide Great Recession, but it has since largely rebounded.[85][86] In 2011, Canadian forces participated in the NATO-led intervention into the Libyan civil war[87] and also became involved in battling the Islamic State insurgency in Iraq in the mid-2010s.[88]

Geography and climate

Canada occupies most of the continent of North America, sharing land borders with the contiguous United States to the south (the longest border between two countries in the world) and the US state of Alaska to the northwest. Canada stretches from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west; to the north lies the Arctic Ocean.[89] Greenland is to the northeast. By total area (including its waters), Canada is the second-largest country in the world, after Russia. By land area alone, however, Canada ranks fourth, the difference being due to its large proportion of lakes, which constitute 60% of all the lakes in the world.[89] The country lies between latitudes 41° and 84°N, and longitudes 52° and 141°W.

A satellite composite image containing all of Canada and part of the United States. Boreal forests prevail on the rocky Canadian Shield, while ice and tundra are prominent in the Arctic. Glaciers are visible in the Canadian Rockies and Coast Mountains. The flat and fertile prairies facilitate agriculture. The Great Lakes feed the St. Lawrence River in the southeast, where lowlands host much of Canada's population.

Since 1925, Canada has claimed the portion of the Arctic between 60° and 141°W longitude,[90] but this claim is not universally recognized. Canada is home to the world's northernmost settlement, Canadian Forces Station Alert, on the northern tip of Ellesmere Island – latitude 82.5°N – which lies 817 kilometres (508 mi) from the North Pole.[91] Much of the Canadian Arctic is covered by ice and permafrost. Canada has the longest coastline in the world, with a total length of 202,080 kilometres (125,570 mi);[89] additionally, its border with the United States is the world's longest land border, stretching 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi).[92]

Since the end of the last glacial period, Canada has consisted of eight distinct forest regions, including extensive boreal forest on the Canadian Shield.[93] Canada has around 31,700 large lakes,[94] more than any other country, containing much of the world's fresh water.[95] There are also fresh-water glaciers in the Canadian Rockies and the Coast Mountains. Canada is geologically active, having many earthquakes and potentially active volcanoes, notably Mount Meager, Mount Garibaldi, Mount Cayley, and the Mount Edziza volcanic complex.[96] The volcanic eruption of the Tseax Cone in 1775 was among Canada's worst natural disasters, killing 2,000 Nisga'a people and destroying their village in the Nass River valley of northern British Columbia. The eruption produced a 22.5-kilometre (14.0 mi) lava flow, and, according to Nisga'a legend, blocked the flow of the Nass River.[97] Canada's population density, at 3.3 inhabitants per square kilometre (8.5/sq mi), is among the lowest in the world. The most densely populated part of the country is the Quebec City – Windsor Corridor, situated in Southern Quebec and Southern Ontario along the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River.[98]

Average winter and summer high temperatures across Canada vary from region to region. Winters can be harsh in many parts of the country, particularly in the interior and Prairie provinces, which experience a continental climate, where daily average temperatures are near −15 °C (5 °F), but can drop below −40 °C (−40 °F) with severe wind chills.[99] In noncoastal regions, snow can cover the ground for almost six months of the year, while in parts of the north snow can persist year-round. Coastal British Columbia has a temperate climate, with a mild and rainy winter. On the east and west coasts, average high temperatures are generally in the low 20s °C (70s °F), while between the coasts, the average summer high temperature ranges from 25 to 30 °C (77 to 86 °F), with temperatures in some interior locations occasionally exceeding 40 °C (104 °F).[100]

Government and politics

A building with a central clocktower rising from a block
Parliament Hill in Canada's capital city, Ottawa

Canada has a parliamentary system within the context of a constitutional monarchy, the monarchy of Canada being the foundation of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches.[101][102][103][104] The sovereign is Queen Elizabeth II, who is also monarch of 15 other Commonwealth countries and each of Canada's 10 provinces. As such, the Queen's representative, the Governor General of Canada (at present David Lloyd Johnston), carries out most of the federal royal duties in Canada.[105][106]

The direct participation of the royal and viceroyal figures in areas of governance is limited.[103][107][108] In practice, their use of the executive powers is directed by the Cabinet, a committee of ministers of the Crown responsible to the elected House of Commons and chosen and headed by the Prime Minister of Canada (at present Stephen Harper),[109] the head of government. The governor general or monarch may, though, in certain crisis situations exercise their power without ministerial advice.[107] To ensure the stability of government, the governor general will usually appoint as prime minister the person who is the current leader of the political party that can obtain the confidence of a plurality in the House of Commons.[110] The Prime Minister's Office (PMO) is thus one of the most powerful institutions in government, initiating most legislation for parliamentary approval and selecting for appointment by the Crown, besides the aforementioned, the governor general, lieutenant governors, senators, federal court judges, and heads of Crown corporations and government agencies.[107] The leader of the party with the second-most seats usually becomes the Leader of Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition and is part of an adversarial parliamentary system intended to keep the government in check.[111]

Each of the 338 members of parliament in the House of Commons is elected by simple plurality in an electoral district or riding. General elections must be called by the governor general, either on the advice of the prime minister, within four years of the previous election, or if the government loses a confidence vote in the House.[112] The 105 members of the Senate, whose seats are apportioned on a regional basis, serve until age 75.[113] Five parties had representatives elected to the federal parliament in the 2015 election: the Liberal Party of Canada, the Conservative Party of Canada (governing party and soon to be Official Opposition), the New Democratic Party, the Bloc Québécois, and the Green Party of Canada. The list of historical parties with elected representation is substantial.

Canada's federal structure divides government responsibilities between the federal government and the ten provinces. Provincial legislatures are unicameral and operate in parliamentary fashion similar to the House of Commons.[108] Canada's three territories also have legislatures, but these are not sovereign and have fewer constitutional responsibilities than the provinces.[114] The territorial legislatures also differ structurally from their provincial counterparts.[115]

The Bank of Canada is the central bank of the country.[116] In addition, the Minister of Finance and Minister of Industry utilize the Statistics Canada agency for financial planning and economic policy development.[117]


The Constitution of Canada is the supreme law of the country, and consists of written text and unwritten conventions. The Constitution Act, 1867 (known as the British North America Act prior to 1982), affirmed governance based on parliamentary precedent and divided powers between the federal and provincial governments. The Statute of Westminster 1931 granted full autonomy and the Constitution Act, 1982, ended all legislative ties to the UK, as well as adding a constitutional amending formula and the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. The Charter guarantees basic rights and freedoms that usually cannot be over-ridden by any government—though a notwithstanding clause allows the federal parliament and provincial legislatures to override certain sections of the Charter for a period of five years.[118]

Two sides of a silver medal: the profile of Queen Victoria and the inscription
The Indian Chiefs Medal, presented to commemorate the Numbered Treaties of 1871–1921

Two sides of a silver medal: the profile of Queen Victoria and the inscription "Victoria Regina" on one side, a man in European garb shaking hands with an Aboriginal with the inscription Indian Treaty No. 187 on the other

The Indian Act, various treaties and case laws were established to mediate relations between Europeans and native peoples.[119] Most notably, a series of eleven treaties known as the Numbered Treaties were signed between Aboriginals in Canada and the reigning Monarch of Canada between 1871 and 1921.[120] These treaties are agreements with the Canadian Crown-in-Council, administered by Canadian Aboriginal law, and overseen by the Minister of Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development. The role of the treaties and the rights they support were reaffirmed by Section Thirty-five of the Constitution Act, 1982.[119] These rights may include provision of services, such as health care, and exemption from taxation.[121] The legal and policy framework within which Canada and First Nations operate was further formalized in 2005, through the First Nations–Federal Crown Political Accord.[119]

The Supreme Court of Canada in Ottawa, west of Parliament Hill

Canada's judiciary plays an important role in interpreting laws and has the power to strike down Acts of Parliament that violate the constitution. The Supreme Court of Canada is the highest court and final arbiter and has been led since 2000 by the Chief Justice Beverley McLachlin (the first female Chief Justice).[122] Its nine members are appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister and minister of justice. All judges at the superior and appellate levels are appointed after consultation with nongovernmental legal bodies. The federal Cabinet also appoints justices to superior courts in the provincial and territorial jurisdictions.[123]

Common law prevails everywhere except in Quebec, where civil law predominates. Criminal law is solely a federal responsibility and is uniform throughout Canada.[124] Law enforcement, including criminal courts, is officially a provincial responsibility, conducted by provincial and municipal police forces.[125] However, in most rural areas and some urban areas, policing responsibilities are contracted to the federal Royal Canadian Mounted Police.[126]

Foreign relations and military

David Cameron and Stephen Harper (foreground) with Herman Van Rompuy, Dmitry Medvedev and Naoto Kan (background) at the 36th G8 summit in Muskoka District Municipality, Ontario on June 25, 2010

Canada currently employs a professional, volunteer military force of 68,250 active personnel and approximately 51,000 reserve personnel.[127] The unified Canadian Forces (CF) comprise the Canadian Army, Royal Canadian Navy, and Royal Canadian Air Force. In 2013, Canada's military expenditure totalled approximately C$19 billion, or around 1% of the country's GDP.[128][129]

Canada and the United States share the world's longest undefended border, co-operate on military campaigns and exercises, and are each other's largest trading partner.[130][131] Canada nevertheless has an independent foreign policy, most notably maintaining full relations with Cuba from 1961–2014 and declining to officially participate in the Francophonie.[132] Canada is noted for having a positive relationship with the Netherlands, owing, in part, to its contribution to the Dutch liberation during World War II.[64]

Canada's strong attachment to the British Empire and Commonwealth led to major participation in British military efforts in the Second Boer War, World War I and World War II. Since then, Canada has been an advocate for multilateralism, making efforts to resolve global issues in collaboration with other nations.[133][134] Canada was a founding member of the United Nations in 1945 and of NATO in 1949. During the Cold War, Canada was a major contributor to UN forces in the Korean War and founded the North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) in co-operation with the United States to defend against potential aerial attacks from the Soviet Union.[135]

Canadian Army soldiers from the Royal 22nd Regiment deploying in Florida during UNITAS exercises in April 2009

During the Suez Crisis of 1956, future Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson eased tensions by proposing the inception of the United Nations Peacekeeping Force, for which he was awarded the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize.[136] As this was the first UN peacekeeping mission, Pearson is often credited as the inventor of the concept. Canada has since served in over 50 peacekeeping missions, including every UN peacekeeping effort until 1989,[58] and has since maintained forces in international missions in Rwanda, the former Yugoslavia, and elsewhere; Canada has sometimes faced controversy over its involvement in foreign countries, notably in the 1993 Somalia Affair.[137]

The Halifax-class frigate HMCS Regina, a warship of the Royal Canadian Navy, near Hawaii during the 2004 RIMPAC exercises

In 2001, Canada deployed troops to Afghanistan as part of the US stabilization force and the UN-authorized, NATO-led International Security Assistance Force. In all, Canada lost 158 soldiers, one diplomat, two aid workers, and one journalist during the ten-year mission,[138] which cost approximately C$11.3 billion.[139]

In February 2007, Canada, Italy, the United Kingdom, Norway, and Russia announced their joint commitment to a $1.5-billion project to help develop vaccines for developing nations, and called on other countries to join them.[140] In August 2007, Canada's territorial claims in the Arctic were challenged after a Russian underwater expedition to the North Pole; Canada has considered that area to be sovereign territory since 1925.[141] Between March and October 2011, Canadian forces participated in a UN-mandated NATO intervention into the 2011 Libyan civil war.[142] In late 2014, Canadian ground and air units joined the international effort to defeat the Islamic State insurgency in Iraq.[88][143]

Canada is recognized as a Windsor, Ontario, in June 2000 and the third Summit of the Americas in Quebec City in April 2001.[147] Canada seeks to expand its ties to Pacific Rim economies through membership in the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum (APEC).[148]

Provinces and territories

Canada is a federation composed of ten provinces and three territories. In turn, these may be grouped into four main regions: Western Canada, Central Canada, Atlantic Canada, and Northern Canada (Eastern Canada refers to Central Canada and Atlantic Canada together). Provinces have more autonomy than territories, having responsibility for social programs such as health care, education, and welfare.[149] Together, the provinces collect more revenue than the federal government, an almost unique structure among federations in the world. Using its spending powers, the federal government can initiate national policies in provincial areas, such as the Canada Health Act; the provinces can opt out of these, but rarely do so in practice. Equalization payments are made by the federal government to ensure that reasonably uniform standards of services and taxation are kept between the richer and poorer provinces.[150]

A clickable map of Canada exhibiting its ten provinces and three territories, and their capitals.


Nations that have Free Trade Agreements with Canada as of 2009 are in dark blue, while nations in negotiations are in cyan. Canada is green.

Canada is the world's trading nations, with a highly globalized economy.[152][153] Canada is a mixed economy, ranking above the US and most western European nations on the Heritage Foundation's index of economic freedom,[154] and experiencing a relatively low level of income disparity.[155] The country's average household disposable income per capita is over US$23,900, higher than the OECD average.[156] Furthermore, the Toronto Stock Exchange is the seventh largest stock exchange in the world by market capitalization, listing over 1,500 companies with a combined market capitalization of over US$2 trillion as of 2015.[157]

In 2014, Canada's exports totalled over C$528 billion, while its imported goods were worth over $523 billion, of which approximately $349 billion originated from the United States, $49 billion from the European Union, and $35 billion from China.[158] The country's 2014 trade surplus totalled C$5.1 billion, compared with a C$46.9 billion surplus in 2008.[159][160]

Since the early 20th century, the growth of Canada's manufacturing, mining, and service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy to an urbanized, industrial one. Like many other developed nations, the Canadian economy is dominated by the service industry, which employs about three-quarters of the country's workforce.[161] However, Canada is unusual among developed countries in the importance of its primary sector, in which the logging and petroleum industries are two of the most prominent components.[162]

Canada is one of the few developed nations that are net exporters of energy.[163] Atlantic Canada possesses vast offshore deposits of natural gas, and Alberta also hosts large oil and gas resources. The vastness of the Athabasca oil sands and other assets results in Canada having a 13% share of global oil reserves, comprising the world's third-largest share after Venezuela and Saudi Arabia.[164] Canada is additionally one of the world's largest suppliers of agricultural products; the Canadian Prairies are one of the most important global producers of wheat, canola, and other grains.[165] Canada's Ministry of Natural Resources provides statistics regarding its major exports; the country is a leading exporter of zinc, uranium, gold, nickel, aluminum, steel, iron ore, coking coal and lead.[163][166][167] Many towns in northern Canada, where agriculture is difficult, are sustainable because of nearby mines or sources of timber. Canada also has a sizeable manufacturing sector centred in southern Ontario and Quebec, with automobiles and aeronautics representing particularly important industries.[168]

Canada's economic integration with the United States has increased significantly since World War II.[169] The Automotive Products Trade Agreement of 1965 opened Canada's borders to trade in the automobile manufacturing industry. In the 1970s, concerns over energy self-sufficiency and foreign ownership in the manufacturing sectors prompted Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau's Liberal government to enact the National Energy Program (NEP) and the Foreign Investment Review Agency (FIRA).[170] In the 1980s, Prime Minister Brian Mulroney's Progressive Conservatives abolished the NEP and changed the name of FIRA to Investment Canada, to encourage foreign investment.[171] The Canada – United States Free Trade Agreement (FTA) of 1988 eliminated tariffs between the two countries, while the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) expanded the free-trade zone to include Mexico in 1994.[165] In the mid-1990s, Jean Chrétien's Liberal government began to post annual budgetary surpluses, and steadily paid down the national debt.[172]

The global financial crisis of 2008 caused a major recession, which led to a significant rise in unemployment in Canada.[173] By October 2009, Canada's national unemployment rate had reached 8.6 percent, with provincial unemployment rates varying from a low of 5.8 percent in Manitoba to a high of 17 percent in Newfoundland and Labrador.[174] Between October 2008 and October 2010, the Canadian labour market lost 162,000 full-time jobs and a total of 224,000 permanent jobs.[175] Canada's federal debt was estimated to total $566.7 billion for the fiscal year 2010–11, up from $463.7 billion in 2008–09.[176] In addition, Canada's net foreign debt rose by $41 billion to $194 billion in the first quarter of 2010.[177] However, Canada's regulated banking sector (comparatively conservative among G8 nations), the federal government's pre-crisis budgetary surpluses, and its long-term policies of lowering the national debt, resulted in a less severe recession compared to other G8 nations.[178] As of 2015, the Canadian economy has largely stabilized and has seen a modest return to growth, although the country remains troubled by volatile oil prices, sensitivity to the Eurozone crisis and higher-than-normal unemployment rates.[179][180] The federal government and many Canadian industries have also started to expand trade with emerging Asian markets, in an attempt to diversify exports; Asia is now Canada's second-largest export market after the United States.[181][182] Widely debated oil pipeline proposals, in particular, are hoped to increase exports of Canadian oil reserves to China.[183][184]

Science and technology

A shuttle in space, with Earth in the background. A mechanical arm labelled
The Canadarm robotic manipulator in action on Space Shuttle Discovery during the STS-116 mission in 2006.

In 2012, Canada spent approximately C$31.3 billion on domestic research and development, of which around $7 billion was provided by the federal and provincial governments.[185] As of 2015, the country has produced thirteen Nobel laureates in physics, chemistry, and medicine,[186][187] and was ranked fourth worldwide for scientific research quality in a major 2012 survey of international scientists.[188] It is furthermore home to the headquarters of a number of global technology firms.[189] Canada has one of the highest levels of Internet access in the world, with over 33 million users, equivalent to around 94 percent of its total 2014 population.[190]

The Canadian Space Agency operates a highly active space program, conducting deep-space, planetary, and aviation research, and developing rockets and satellites. Canada was the third country to launch a satellite into space after the USSR and the United States, with the 1962 Alouette 1 launch.[191] In 1984, Marc Garneau became Canada's first astronaut. As of 2015, nine Canadians have flown into space, over the course of seventeen manned missions.[192]

Canada is a participant in the International Space Station (ISS), and is a pioneer in space robotics, having constructed the Canadarm, Canadarm2 and Dextre robotic manipulators for the ISS and NASA's Space Shuttle. Since the 1960s, Canada's aerospace industry has designed and built numerous marques of satellite, including Radarsat-1 and 2, ISIS and MOST.[193] Canada has also produced one of the world's most successful and widely used sounding rockets, the Black Brant; over 1,000 Black Brants have been launched since the rocket's introduction in 1961.[194]


The 2011 Canadian census counted a total population of 33,476,688, an increase of around 5.9 percent over the 2006 figure.[195] By December 2012, Statistics Canada reported a population of over 35 million, signifying the fastest growth rate of any G8 nation.[196] Between 1990 and 2008, the population increased by 5.6 million, equivalent to 20.4 percent overall growth. The main drivers of population growth are immigration and, to a lesser extent, natural growth.[197]

Largest metropolitan areas in Canada by population (2011 Census)
Name Province Population Name Province Population
Toronto Ontario 5,583,064 London Ontario 474,786
Montreal Quebec 3,824,221 St. CatharinesNiagara Ontario 392,184
Vancouver British Columbia 2,313,328 Halifax Nova Scotia 390,328
OttawaGatineau OntarioQuebec 1,236,324 Oshawa Ontario 356,177
Calgary Alberta 1,214,839 Victoria British Columbia 344,615
Edmonton Alberta 1,159,869 Windsor Ontario 319,246
Quebec Quebec 0765,706 Saskatoon Saskatchewan 260,600
Winnipeg Manitoba 0730,018 Regina Saskatchewan 210,556
Hamilton Ontario 0721,053 Sherbrooke Quebec 201,890
KitchenerCambridgeWaterloo Ontario 0477,160 St. John's Newfoundland and Labrador 196,966

Self-reported ethnic origins of Canadians (as per 2011 census data)[198]

  European (76.7%)
  Asian (14.2%)
  Aboriginal (4.3%)
  Black (2.9%)
  Latin American (1.2%)
  Multiracial (0.5%)
  Other (0.3%)

About four-fifths of the population lives within 150 kilometres (93 mi) of the contiguous United States border.[199] Approximately 80 percent of Canadians live in urban areas concentrated in the Quebec City–Windsor Corridor, the British Columbia Lower Mainland, and the Calgary–Edmonton Corridor in Alberta.[200] Canada spans latitudinally from the 83rd parallel north to the 41st parallel north, and approximately 95% of the population is found below the 55th parallel north. In common with many other developed countries, Canada is experiencing a demographic shift towards an older population, with more retirees and fewer people of working age. In 2006, the average age was 39.5 years;[201] by 2011, it had risen to approximately 39.9 years.[202] As of 2013, the average life expectancy for Canadians is 81 years.[203]

According to a 2012 NBC report, Canada is the most educated country in the world;[204] the country ranks first worldwide in the number of adults having tertiary education, with 51% of Canadian adults having attained at least an undergraduate college or university degree, according to a 2012 OECD survey.[205] Canadian provinces and territories are responsible for education provision. The mandatory school age ranges between 5–7 to 16–18 years,[206] contributing to an adult literacy rate of 99 percent.[89] As of 2014, 89 percent of adults aged 25 to 64 have earned the equivalent of a high-school degree, compared to an OECD average of 75 percent.[156] In 2002, 43 percent of Canadians aged 25 to 64 possessed a post-secondary education; for those aged 25 to 34, the rate of post-secondary education reached 51 percent.[207] The Programme for International Student Assessment indicates that Canadian students perform well above the OECD average, particularly in mathematics, science, and reading.[208][209]

Canada has one of the highest per-capita immigration rates in the world,[210] driven by economic policy and family reunification. In 2010, a record 280,636 people immigrated to Canada.[211] The Canadian government anticipated between 260,000 and 285,000 new permanent residents in 2015,[212] a similar number of immigrants as in recent years.[213] New immigrants settle mostly in major urban areas like Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver.[214] Canada also accepts large numbers of refugees,[215] accounting for over 10 percent of annual global refugee resettlements.[216]

According to the 2006 census, the country's largest self-reported ethnic origin is Canadian (accounting for 32% of the population), followed by English (21%), French (15.8%), Scottish (15.1%), Irish (13.9%), German (10.2%), Italian (4.6%), Chinese (4.3%), First Nations (4.0%), Ukrainian (3.9%), and Dutch (3.3%).[217] There are 600 recognized First Nations governments or bands, encompassing a total of 1,172,790 people.[218]

Canada's aboriginal population is growing at almost twice the national rate, and four percent of Canada's population claimed aboriginal identity in 2006. Another 16.2 percent of the population belonged to a non-aboriginal visible minority.[219] In 2006, the largest visible minority groups were South Asian (4.0%), Chinese (3.9%) and Black (2.5%). Between 2001 and 2006, the visible minority population rose by 27.2 percent.[220] In 1961, less than two percent of Canada's population (about 300,000 people) were members of visible minority groups.[221] By 2007, almost one in five (19.8%) were foreign-born, with nearly 60 percent of new immigrants coming from Asia (including the Middle East).[222] The leading sources of immigrants to Canada were China, the Philippines and India.[223] According to Statistics Canada, visible minority groups could account for a third of the Canadian population by 2031.[224]


Canada is religiously diverse, encompassing a wide range of beliefs and customs. According to the 2011 census, 67.3% of Canadians identify as Christian; of these, Catholics make up the largest group, accounting for 38.7% of the population. The largest Protestant denomination is the United Church of Canada (accounting for 6.1% of Canadians), followed by Anglicans (5.0%), and Baptists (1.9%). In 2011, about 23.9% declared no religious affiliation, compared to 16.5% in 2001.[225] The remaining 8.8% are affiliated with non-Christian religions, the largest of which are Islam (3.2%) and Hinduism (1.5%).[226] Although the majority of Canadians consider religion to be unimportant in their daily lives, they still believe in God.[227]

The "practice of religion" is generally considered a private matter throughout society and the state.[228] Canada has no established religion, and the government is officially committed to religious pluralism.[229]


Canada's two official languages are English and French, pursuant to Section 16 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and the Federal Official Languages Act. Canada's federal government practices official bilingualism, which is applied by the Commissioner of Official Languages. English and French have equal status in federal courts, parliament, and in all federal institutions. Citizens have the right, where there is sufficient demand, to receive federal government services in either English or French and official-language minorities are guaranteed their own schools in all provinces and territories.[230]

Approximately 98% of Canadians can speak English and/or French.[231]
  English – 56.9%
  English and French (Bilingual) – 16.1%
  French – 21.3%
  Sparsely populated area ( < 0.4 persons per km2)

English and French are the first languages of 59.7 and 23.2 percent of the population respectively. Approximately 98 percent of Canadians speak English or French: 57.8 percent speak English only, 22.1 percent speak French only, and 17.4 percent speak both.[231] The English and French official-language communities, defined by the first official language spoken, constitute 73.0 and 23.6 percent of the population respectively.[232]

The 1977 Charter of the French Language established French as the official language of Quebec.[233] Although more than 85 percent of French-speaking Canadians live in Quebec, there are substantial Francophone populations in Ontario, Alberta, and southern Manitoba; Ontario has the largest French-speaking population outside Quebec.[234] New Brunswick, the only officially bilingual province, has a French-speaking Acadian minority constituting 33 percent of the population. There are also clusters of Acadians in southwestern Nova Scotia, on Cape Breton Island, and through central and western Prince Edward Island.[235]

Other provinces have no official languages as such, but French is used as a language of instruction, in courts, and for other government services, in addition to English. Manitoba, Ontario, and Quebec allow for both English and French to be spoken in the provincial legislatures, and laws are enacted in both languages. In Ontario, French has some legal status, but is not fully co-official.[236] There are 11 Aboriginal language groups, composed of more than 65 distinct dialects.[237] Of these, only the Cree, Inuktitut and Ojibway languages have a large enough population of fluent speakers to be considered viable to survive in the long term.[238] Several aboriginal languages have official status in the Northwest Territories.[239] Inuktitut is the majority language in Nunavut, and is one of three official languages in the territory.[240]

In 2011, nearly 6.8 million Canadians listed a non-official language as their mother tongue.[241] Some of the most common non-official first languages include Chinese (mainly Cantonese; 1,072,555 first-language speakers), Punjabi (430,705), Spanish (410,670), German (409,200), and Italian (407,490).[242]


Bill Reid's 1980 sculpture Raven and The First Men. The Raven is a figure common to many of Canada's Aboriginal mythologies

Canada's culture draws influences from its broad range of constituent nationalities, and policies that promote multiculturalism are constitutionally protected.[243] In Quebec, cultural identity is strong, and many French-speaking commentators speak of a culture of Quebec that is distinct from English Canadian culture.[244] However, as a whole, Canada is in theory a cultural mosaic—a collection of several regional, aboriginal, and ethnic subcultures.[245] Government policies such as publicly funded health care, higher taxation to redistribute wealth, the outlawing of capital punishment, strong efforts to eliminate poverty, strict gun control, and the legalization of same-sex marriage are further social indicators of Canada's political and cultural values.[246]

Historically, Canada has been influenced by British, French, and aboriginal cultures and traditions. Through their language, art and music, aboriginal peoples continue to influence the Canadian identity.[247] Many Canadians value multiculturalism and see Canada as being inherently multicultural.[71] American media and entertainment are popular, if not dominant, in English Canada; conversely, many Canadian cultural products and entertainers are successful in the United States and worldwide.[248] The preservation of a distinctly Canadian culture is supported by federal government programs, laws, and institutions such as the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), the National Film Board of Canada (NFB), and the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC).[249]

Oil on canvas painting of a tree dominating its rocky landscape during a sunset.
The Jack Pine by Tom Thomson. Oil on canvas, 1916, in the collection of the National Gallery of Canada

Canadian visual art has been dominated by figures such as Tom Thomson – the country's most famous painter – and by the Group of Seven. Thomson's career painting Canadian landscapes spanned a decade up to his death in 1917 at age 39.[250] The Group were painters with a nationalistic and idealistic focus, who first exhibited their distinctive works in May 1920. Though referred to as having seven members, five artists—Lawren Harris, A. Y. Jackson, Arthur Lismer, J. E. H. MacDonald, and Frederick Varley—were responsible for articulating the Group's ideas. They were joined briefly by Frank Johnston, and by commercial artist Franklin Carmichael. A. J. Casson became part of the Group in 1926.[251] Associated with the Group was another prominent Canadian artist, Emily Carr, known for her landscapes and portrayals of the indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast.[252] Since the 1950s, works of Inuit art have been given as gifts to foreign dignitaries by the Canadian government.[253]

The Canadian music industry has produced internationally renowned composers, musicians and ensembles.[254] Music broadcasting in the country is regulated by the CRTC. The Canadian Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences presents Canada's music industry awards, the Juno Awards, which were first awarded in 1970.[255] Patriotic music in Canada dates back over 200 years as a distinct category from British patriotism, preceding the first legal steps to independence by over 50 years. The earliest, The Bold Canadian, was written in 1812.[256] The national anthem of Canada, "O Canada", was originally commissioned by the Lieutenant Governor of Quebec, the Honourable Théodore Robitaille, for the 1880 St. Jean-Baptiste Day ceremony, and was officially adopted in 1980.[257] Calixa Lavallée wrote the music, which was a setting of a patriotic poem composed by the poet and judge Sir Adolphe-Basile Routhier. The text was originally only in French, before it was translated to English in 1906.[258]

Hockey players and fans celebrating
Canada's ice hockey victory at the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver



  • Canada's official website for travel and tourism
  • Official website of Destination Canada


  • Official website of the Government of Canada
  • Official website of the Governor General of Canada
  • Official website of the Prime Ministers of Canada



External links


  • Francis, RD; Jones, Richard; Smith, Donald B (2009). Journeys: A History of Canada. Nelson Education.  
  • Taylor, Martin Brook; Owram, Doug (1994). Canadian History. 1 & 2. University of Toronto Press.  ISBN 978-0-8020-5016-8, ISBN 978-0-8020-2801-3

Geography and climate

  • Thomas A. Rumney (2009). Canadian Geography: A Scholarly Bibliography. Plattsburgh State University.  
  • Stanford, Quentin H, ed. (2008). Canadian Oxford World Atlas (6th ed.). Oxford University Press (Canada).  

Government and law

  • Malcolmson, Patrick; Myers, Richard (2009). The Canadian Regime: An Introduction to Parliamentary Government in Canada (4th ed.). University of Toronto Press.  
  • Morton, Frederick Lee (2002). Law, politics, and the judicial process in Canada. Frederick Lee.  


  • Granatstein, JL (2011). Canada's Army: Waging War and Keeping the Peace (2nd ed.). University of Toronto Press.  


  • 2014 Economic Survey. OECD Economic Surveys. 2015.  - (Previous surveys)
  • Council of Canadian Academies (2012). The State of Science and Technology in Canada, 2012. Council of Canadian Academies.  

Demography and statistics

  • Statistics Canada (2008). Canada Year Book (CYB) annual 1867–1967. Federal Publications (Queen of Canada). 
  • Statistics Canada (December 2012). Canada Year Book. Federal Publications (Queen of Canada).  


  • Magocsi, Paul R (1999). Encyclopedia of Canada's peoples. Society of Ontario, University of Toronto Press.  

Further reading

  1. ^ D. Michael Jackson (Chief of protocol for the Government of Saskatchewan) (2013). The Crown and Canadian Federalism. Dundurn. p. 199.  
  2. ^ a b Hail, M; Lange, S (February 25, 2010). "Federalism and Representation in the Theory of the Founding Fathers: A Comparative Study of US and Canadian Constitutional Thought". Publius: the Journal of Federalism 40 (3): 366–388.  
  3. ^ "CANSIM – 051-0005 – Estimates of population, Canada, provinces and territories". Statistics Canada. June 22, 2015. Retrieved June 22, 2015. 
  4. ^ Statistics Canada (January 30, 2013). "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, 2011 and 2006 censuses". Retrieved December 2, 2013. 
  5. ^ a b c d [2].IMF country report
  6. ^ "GINI index". The World Bank. Retrieved October 23, 2014. 
  7. ^ "Country Comparison: Distribution Of Family Income – Gini Index". World Factbook. CIA. Retrieved May 1, 2013. 
  8. ^ "Table 1: Human Development Index and its components". UNDP. Retrieved October 5, 2014. 
  9. ^ James Stuart Olson; Robert Shadle (1991). Historical Dictionary of European Imperialism. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 109.  
  10. ^ a b c Alan Rayburn (2001). Naming Canada: Stories about Canadian Place Names. University of Toronto Press. pp. 14–22.  
  11. ^ Paul R. Magocsi (1999). Encyclopedia of Canada's Peoples. University of Toronto Press. p. 1048.  
  12. ^ Victoria (1841), An Act to Re-write the Provinces of Upper and Lower Canada, and for the Government of Canada, J.C. Fisher & W. Kimble, p. 20 
  13. ^ O'Toole, Roger (2009). "Dominion of the Gods: Religious continuity and change in a Canadian context". In Hvithamar, Annika; Warburg, Margit; Jacobsen, Brian Arly. Holy nations and global identities: civil religion, nationalism, and globalisation. Brill. p. 137.  
  14. ^ a b c d Buckner, Philip, ed. (2008). Canada and the British Empire. Oxford University Press. pp. 37–40, 56–59, 114, 124–125.  
  15. ^ John Courtney; David Smith (2010). The Oxford Handbook of Canadian Politics. Oxford Handbooks Online. p. 114.  
  16. ^ a b Christoph Beat Graber; Karolina Kuprecht; Jessica C. Lai (2012). International Trade in Indigenous Cultural Heritage: Legal and Policy Issues. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 366.  
  17. ^ Linda S. Cordell; Kent Lightfoot; Francis McManamon; George Milner (2008). Archaeology in America: An Encyclopedia 4. ABC-CLIO. p. 3.  
  18. ^ Timothy R. Pauketat (2012). The Oxford Handbook of North American Archaeology. Oxford University Press. p. 96.  
  19. ^ Thomas D. Dillehay (2008). The Settlement of the Americas: A New Prehistory. Basic Books. p. 61.  
  20. ^ Center for Archaeological Sciences Norman Herz Professor of Geology and Director; Society of Archaelogical Sciences both at University of Georgia Ervan G. Garrison Associate Professor of Anthropology and Geology and President (1997). Geological Methods for Archaeology. Oxford University Press. p. 125.  
  21. ^ Hayes, Derek (2008). Canada: an illustrated history. Douglas & Mcintyre. pp. 7, 13.  
  22. ^ Macklem, Patrick (2001). Indigenous difference and the Constitution of Canada. University of Toronto Press. p. 170.  
  23. ^ Sonneborn, Liz (January 2007). Chronology of American Indian History. Infobase Publishing. pp. 2–12.  
  24. ^ a b c Wilson, Donna M; Northcott, Herbert C (2008). Dying and Death in Canada. University of Toronto Press. pp. 25–27.  
  25. ^ a b Thornton, Russell (2000). "Population history of Native North Americans". In Haines, Michael R; Steckel, Richard Hall. A population history of North America. Cambridge University Press. pp. 13, 380.  
  26. ^ O'Donnell, C. Vivian (2008). "Native Populations of Canada". In Bailey, Garrick Alan. Indians In Contemporary Society. Handbook of North American Indians 2. Government Printing Office. p. 285.  
  27. ^ True Peters, Stephanie (2005). Smallpox in the New World. Marshall Cavendish. p. 39.  
  28. ^ Preston, David L. (2009). The Texture of Contact: European and Indian Settler Communities on the Frontiers of Iroquoia, 1667–1783. U of Nebraska Press. pp. 43–44.  
  29. ^ Tanner, Adrian (1999). "'"3. Innu-Inuit 'Warfare. Innu Culture. Department of Anthropology, Memorial University of Newfoundland. Retrieved May 23, 2011. 
  30. ^ Asch, Michael (1997). Aboriginal and Treaty Rights in Canada: Essays on Law, Equity, and Respect for Difference. UBC Pres. p. 28.  
  31. ^ Kirmayer, Laurence J.; Guthriefirst2=Gail Valaskakis (2009). Healing Traditions: The Mental Health of Aboriginal Peoples in Canada. UBC Press. p. 9.  
  32. ^ Reeves, Arthur Middleton (2009). The Norse Discovery of America. BiblioLife. p. 82.  
  33. ^ "John Cabot's voyage of 1497". Memorial University of Newfoundland. 2000. Retrieved August 15, 2012. 
  34. ^ a b Hornsby, Stephen J (2005). British Atlantic, American frontier: spaces of power in early modern British America. University Press of New England. pp. 14, 18–19, 22–23.  
  35. ^ Cartier, Jacques; Biggar, Henry Percival; Cook, Ramsay (1993). The Voyages of Jacques Cartier. University of Toronto Press. p. 26.  
  36. ^ Rose, George A (October 1, 2007). Cod: The Ecological History of the North Atlantic Fisheries. Breakwater Books. p. 209.  
  37. ^ Ninette Kelley; Michael J. Trebilcock (September 30, 2010). The Making of the Mosaic: A History of Canadian Immigration Policy. University of Toronto Press. p. 27.  
  38. ^ Howard Roberts LaMar (1977). The Reader's Encyclopedia of the American West. University of Michigan. p. 355.  
  39. ^ Tucker, Spencer C; Arnold, James; Wiener, Roberta (September 30, 2011). The Encyclopedia of North American Indian Wars, 1607–1890: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. p. 394.  
  40. ^ Phillip Alfred Buckner; John G. Reid (1994). The Atlantic Region to Confederation: A History. University of Toronto Press. pp. 55–56.  
  41. ^ Nolan, Cathal J (2008). Wars of the age of Louis XIV, 1650–1715: an encyclopedia of global warfare and civilization. ABC-CLIO. p. 160.  
  42. ^ Allaire, Gratien (May 2007). "From "Nouvelle-France" to "Francophonie canadienne": a historical survey". International Journal of the Sociology of Language 2007 (185): 25–52.  
  43. ^ Hicks, Bruce M (March 2010). "Use of Non-Traditional Evidence: A Case Study Using Heraldry to Examine Competing Theories for Canada's Confederation". British Journal of Canadian Studies 23 (1): 87–117.  
  44. ^ Eric Nellis (2010). An Empire of Regions: A Brief History of Colonial British America. University of Toronto Press – University of British Columbia. p. 331.  
  45. ^ Todd Leahy; Raymond Wilson (September 30, 2009). Native American Movements. Scarecrow Press. p. 49.  
  46. ^ McNairn, Jeffrey L (2000). The capacity to judge. University of Toronto Press. p. 24.  
  47. ^ "Immigration History of Canada". Marianopolis College. 2004. Archived from the original on December 16, 2007. Retrieved May 23, 2011. 
  48. ^ "The Irish Emigration of 1847 and Its Canadian Consequences". 
  49. ^ Romney, Paul (Spring 1989). "From Constitutionalism to Legalism: Trial by Jury, Responsible Government, and the Rule of Law in the Canadian Political Culture". Law and History Review (University of Illinois Press) 7 (1): 128.  
  50. ^ Evenden, Leonard J; Turbeville, Daniel E (1992). "The Pacific Coast Borderland and Frontier". In Janelle, Donald G. Geographical snapshots of North America. Guilford Press. p. 52.  
  51. ^ Dijkink, Gertjan; Knippenberg, Hans (2001). The Territorial Factor: Political Geography in a Globalising World. Amsterdam University Press. p. 226.  
  52. ^ a b Bothwell, Robert (1996). History of Canada Since 1867. Michigan State University Press. pp. 31, 207–310.  
  53. ^ Bumsted, JM (1996). The Red River Rebellion. Watson & Dwyer.  
  54. ^ a b "Building a nation". Canadian Atlas. Canadian Geographic. Retrieved May 23, 2011. 
  55. ^ "Sir John A. Macdonald". Library and Archives Canada. 2008. Retrieved May 23, 2011. 
  56. ^ Cook, Terry (2000). "The Canadian West: An Archival Odyssey through the Records of the Department of the Interior". The Archivist. Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved May 23, 2011. 
  57. ^ Tennyson, Brian Douglas (2014). Canada's Great War, 1914–1918: How Canada Helped Save the British Empire and Became a North American Nation. Scarecrow Press (Cape Breton University). p. 4.  
  58. ^ a b c d e f Morton, Desmond (1999). A military history of Canada (4th ed.). McClelland & Stewart. pp. 130–158, 173, 203–233, 258.  
  59. ^ Granatstein, J. L. (2004). Canada's Army: Waging War and Keeping the Peace. University of Toronto Press. p. 144.  
  60. ^ a b McGonigal, Richard Morton (1962). The Conscription Crisis in Quebec – 1917: a Study in Canadian Dualism. Harvard University. p. Intro. 
  61. ^ Bryce, Robert B. (June 1, 1986). Maturing in Hard Times: Canada's Department of Finance through the Great Depression. McGill-Queens. p. 41.  
  62. ^ Mulvale, James P (July 11, 2008). "Basic Income and the Canadian Welfare State: Exploring the Realms of Possibility". Basic Income Studies 3 (1).  
  63. ^ Humphreys, Edward (2013). Great Candian Battles: Heroism and Courage Through the Years. Arcturus Publishing. p. 151.  
  64. ^ a b Goddard, Lance (2005). Canada and the Liberation of the Netherlands. Dundurn Press. pp. 225–232.  
  65. ^ Bothwell, Robert (2007). Alliance and illusion: Canada and the world, 1945–1984. UBC Press. pp. 11, 31.  
  66. ^ Boyer, J. Patrick (1996). Direct Democracy in Canada: The History and Future of Referendums. Dundurn. p. 119.  
  67. ^ Mackey, Eva (2002). The house of difference: cultural politics and national identity in Canada. University of Toronto Press. p. 57.  
  68. ^ Landry, Rodrigue; Forgues, Éric (May 2007). "Official language minorities in Canada: an introduction". International Journal of the Sociology of Language 2007 (185): 1–9.  
  69. ^ Esses, Victoria M; Gardner, RC (July 1996). "Multiculturalism in Canada: Context and current status". Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science 28 (3): 145–152.  
  70. ^ Sarrouh, Elissar (January 22, 2002). "Social Policies in Canada: A Model for Development". Social Policy Series, No. 1. United Nations. pp. 14–16, 22–37. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 1, 2010. Retrieved May 23, 2011. 
  71. ^ a b Bickerton, James; Gagnon, Alain, ed. (2004). Canadian Politics (4th ed.). Broadview Press. pp. 250–254, 344–347.  
  72. ^ Légaré, André (2008). "Canada's Experiment with Aboriginal Self-Determination in Nunavut: From Vision to Illusion". International Journal on Minority and Group Rights 15 (2–3): 335–367.  
  73. ^ Munroe, HD (2009). "The October Crisis Revisited: Counterterrorism as Strategic Choice, Political Result, and Organizational Practice". Terrorism and Political Violence 21 (2): 288–305.  
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  76. ^ Betz, Hans-Georg; Immerfall, Stefan (1998). The new politics of the Right: neo-Populist parties and movements in established democracies. St. Martinʼs Press. p. 173.  
  77. ^ Schmid, Carol L. (2001). The Politics of Language : Conflict, Identity, and Cultural Pluralism in Comparative Perspective: Conflict, Identity, and Cultural Pluralism in Comparative Perspective. Oxford University Press. p. 112.  
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See also

are influenced by natural, historical, and Aboriginal sources. The use of the maple leaf as a Canadian symbol dates to the early 18th century. The maple leaf is depicted on Canada's current and previous flags, and on the Arms of Canada.[263] Other prominent symbols include the beaver, Canada goose, common loon, the Crown, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police,[263] and more recently, the totem pole and Inuksuk.[264] Canadian coins feature many of these symbols: the loon on the $1 coin, the Arms of Canada on the 50¢ piece, the beaver on the nickel. The penny, removed from circulation in 2013, featured the maple leaf.

Canada's national symbols

[262].Whistler, British Columbia in Vancouver and 2010 Winter Olympics, and the 2007 FIFA U-20 World Cup, the 1994 Basketball World Championship in Calgary, the 1988 Winter Olympics in Montreal, the 1976 Summer Olympics, and has hosted several high-profile international sporting events, including the its Olympic debut in 1900. Canada has participated in almost every Olympic Games since Montreal Impact and the Vancouver Whitecaps FC, Toronto FC teams, Major League Soccer and three Toronto Raptors, one professional basketball team, the Toronto Blue Jays Canada does have one professional baseball team, the [261] are widely played at youth and amateur levels, but professional leagues and franchises are not and soccer, rugby union, volleyball, cricket, skiing, baseball, tennis, Golf (CFL). Canadian Football League; the latter is played professionally in the Canadian football and curling include sports in Canada until they relocated to Colorado in 1995 . Other popular spectator Quebec Nordiques had the Quebec City (NHL) while National Hockey League Seven of Canada's eight largest metropolitan areas – Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Ottawa, Calgary, Edmonton and Winnipeg – have franchises in the [260].lacrosse and ice hockey Canada's official national sports are [259]

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