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Christian terrorism

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Title: Christian terrorism  
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Subject: Domestic terrorism in the United States, Jewish religious terrorism, Terrorism, Ku Klux Klan, Religious terrorism
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Christian terrorism

Christian terrorism comprises terrorist acts by groups or individuals who use Christian motivations or goals for their actions. As with other forms of religious terrorism, Christian terrorists have relied on interpretations of the tenets of faith – in this case, the Bible. Such groups have cited Old Testament and New Testament scriptures to justify violence and killing or to seek to bring about the "end times" described in the New Testament.[1]

Global ideologies

Christian views on abortion have been cited by Christian individuals and groups that are responsible for threatening, assaulting and murdering doctors, and for bombing their abortion clinics across the United States and Canada.

militia movement possessed more weapons than the combined weapons holdings of all Islamic terror defendants charged in the US since the September 11 attacks.[6]



The early modern period in Britain saw religious conflict resulting from the Reformation and the introduction of Protestant state churches.[7] The 1605 Gunpowder Plot was a failed attempt to blow up the Palace of Westminster, the English seat of government. Peter Steinfels characterizes this plot as a notable case of religious terrorism.[8]


Orthodox Christian movements in Romania, such as the Iron Guard and Lăncieri, which have been characterized by Yad Vashem and Stanley G. Payne as anti-semitic and fascist, respectively, were responsible for involvement in the Bucharest pogrom, and political murders during the 1930s.[9][10][11][12](p37)[13]

United States

Ku Klux Klan with a burning cross
The End. Victoriously slaying Catholic influence in the U.S. Illustration by Rev. Branford Clarke from Klansmen: Guardians of Liberty 1926 by Bishop Alma White, published by the Pillar of Fire Church in Zarephath, NJ.

After the arson, beatings, cross burnings, destruction of property, lynching, murder, rape, tar-and-feathering, and whipping. They targeted African Americans, Jews, Catholics, and other social or ethnic minorities.

Klan members had an explicitly Christian terrorist ideology, basing their beliefs in part on a "religious foundation" in Christianity.[15] The goals of the KKK included, from an early time onward, an intent to "reestablish Protestant Christian values in America by any means possible", and they believed that "


According to terrorism expert David C. Rapoport, a "religious wave", or cycle, of terrorism dates from approximately 1979 to the present.[18]

Central African Republic

After the predominantly Muslim Seleka militia took control of the Central African Republic under President Michel Djotodia in 2013, a period of lawlessness and sectarian violence continued. Following warnings of "genocide" by the UN and a controversial intervention force by MISCA, Djotodia resigned. Despite neutral Catherine Samba-Panza being made president, the Anti-balaka Christian militants continued sectarian violence, including reported targeted killings, against Muslim civilians.[19]


Christian terrorism has appeared in various contiguous states in North-East India.[20] In 2000, John Joseph, a member of India's National Minority Commission, described Christian militancy as rampant in the northeastern states.[20]


The [25] The state government contends that the Baptist Church of Tripura supplies arms and gives financial support to the NLFT.[26][27][28] Reports from the state government and Indian media describe activities such as the acquisition by the NLFT of explosives through the Noapara Baptist Church in Tripura,[28] and threats of killing Hindus celebrating religious festivals.[29] Over 20 Hindus in Tripura were reported to have been killed by the NLFT from 1999 to 2001 for resisting forced conversion to Christianity.[30] According to Hindus in the area, there have also been forced conversions of tribal villagers to Christianity by armed NLFT militants.[30] These forcible conversions, sometimes including the use of "rape as a means of intimidation", have also been noted by academics outside of India.[31] In 2000, the NLFT broke into a temple and gunned down a popular Hindu preacher popularly known as Shanti Kali.[23]


In 2007 a tribal spiritual Hindu monk, Justice on Trial disputed that there had been Maoist involvement, and quoted the Swami as claiming that Christian missionaries had earlier attacked him eight times.[37][38]


Nagaland is a Christian majority state in India. Many terrorist incidents have been documented there as a result of an insurgency against the government. This insurgency was originally led by the National Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN), who has indulged in terrorist activities varying from kidnapping, illegal drug trafficking, extortion, etc.[39] The group has committed religious violence, as a part of NSCN's described mission of forcibly converting the animist Naga to Christianity, which has been described by B. B. Kumar as Christian terrorism.[22] Other goals include the formation of a greater Nagaland. There are occasional reports of the NSCN using force to convert locals of neighboring states to Christianity.[40]


The National Socialist Council of Nagaland, Issac-Muivah faction (slogan: "Nagaland for Christ"), is accused of carrying out the 1992–1993 ethnic cleansing of Kuki tribes in Manipur, said to have leave over 900 people dead. During that NSCN-IM operation, 350 Kuki villages were driven out and about 100,000 Kukis were turned into refugees.[41]


Maronite Christian militias perpetrated the Karantina and Tel al-Zaatar massacres of Palestinians and Lebanese Muslims during Lebanon's 1975–1990 civil war. The 1982 Sabra and Shatila massacre, which targeted unarmed Palestinian refugees for rape and murder, was considered to be genocide by the United Nations General Assembly.[42] A British photographer present during the incident said that "People who committed the acts of murder that I saw that day were wearing [crucifixes] and were calling themselves Christians."[43] After the end of the civil war, Christian militias refused to disband, concentrating in the Israeli-occupied south of the country, where they terrorized Muslim and Druze villages and forcefully recruited men and boys from those communities into their groups.[44]

Northern Ireland

Terrorist acts, with various motives, were committed by Loyalists and Republicans during the Troubles in Northern Ireland. Although most Loyalists were Protestant and most Republicans Catholic, it is widely seen as an ethno-nationalist conflict that was not religious in nature.[45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55][56][57][58] For example, Richard Jenkins noted that "the majority of participants see the situation as primarily concerned with matters of politics and nationalism, not religion".[47] However, some scholars argue that it was a "religious conflict" in some sense.[59] Professor Mark Juergensmeyer and Philip Purpura also argue that some terrorist acts were "religious terrorism" or justified by religion.[60]:19–20[61]

One Loyalist paramilitary group cited religion as a motivation: the Orange Volunteers, who described themselves as Protestant fundamentalists. Their leader, pastor Clifford Peeples, defended their attacks on Catholic churches on the basis that they were "bastions of the Antichrist".[62][63] Journalist Susan McKay explored the Protestant fundamentalist element within militant Loyalism, noting that some Loyalists described the conflict as a battle of Protestantism against Catholicism.[64] Professor Steve Bruce also wrote that some preachers—such as Ian Paisley—incited Loyalist violence with religious language.[65] The Provisional IRA's campaign is not widely seen as religious terrorism,[46][47][54][55][66][67][68] although some sources disagree.[69][60][70][69]


In July 2011, Anders Behring Breivik was arrested and charged with terrorism after a car bombing in Oslo and a mass shooting on Utøya island that killed 77 people. Hours prior to the events, Breivik released a 1,500-page manifesto detailing his beliefs that immigrants were undermining Norway's traditional Christian values, and identifying himself as a "Christian crusader" while describing himself as not very religious.[71][72] Although initial news reports described him as a Christian fundamentalist,[73][74] subsequent analyses of his motivations have noted that he did not only display Christian terrorist inclinations, but also had non-religious, right-wing beliefs.[75][76] Mark Juergensmeyer and John Mark Reynolds have stated that the events were Christian terrorism,[77][78] whereas Brad Hirschfield has rejected the Christian terrorist label.[79]


The Lord's Resistance Army, a cult and guerrilla army, was engaged in an armed rebellion against the Ugandan government in 2005. It has been accused of using child soldiers and of committing numerous crimes against humanity; including massacres, abductions, mutilation, torture, rape, and using forced child labourers as soldiers, porters, and sex slaves.[80] A quasi-religious movement that mixes some aspects of Christian beliefs with its own brand of spiritualism,[81][82] it is led by Joseph Kony, who proclaims himself the spokesperson of God and a spirit medium, primarily of the "Holy Spirit" which the Acholi believe can represent itself in many manifestations.[83][83][84][85] LRA fighters wear rosary beads and recite passages from the Bible before battle.[81][86][87][88][89][90]

United States

After 1981, members of groups such as the Army of God began attacking abortion clinics and doctors across the United States.[91][92][93] A number of terrorist attacks were attributed by Bruce Hoffman to individuals and groups with ties to the Christian Identity and Christian Patriot movements, including the Lambs of Christ.[94] A group called Concerned Christians was deported from Israel on suspicion of planning to attack holy sites in Jerusalem at the end of 1999; they believed that their deaths would "lead them to heaven".[95][96]

The motive for anti-abortionist [97][98] The group supporting Roeder proclaimed that any force used to protect the life of a born child is "legitimate to protect the life of an unborn child", and called on all Christians to "rise up" and "take action" against threats to Christianity and to unborn life.[99] Eric Robert Rudolph carried out the Centennial Olympic Park bombing in 1996, as well as subsequent attacks on an abortion clinic and on a lesbian nightclub. Michael Barkun, a professor at Syracuse University, considers Rudolph to likely fit the definition of a Christian terrorist. James A. Aho, a professor at Idaho State University, argues that religious considerations inspired Rudolph only in part.[100]

Terrorism scholar Aref M. Al-Khattar has listed The Covenant, The Sword, and the Arm of the Lord, Defensive Action, The Freemen Community, and some "Christian militia" as groups that "can be placed under the category of far-right-wing terrorism" that "has a religious (Christian) component".[101]

See also


  1. ^ B. Hoffman, "Inside Terrorism", Columbia University Press, 1999, pp. 105–120. ISBN 978-0231126991
  2. ^ Mark S. Hamm (2001). In Bad Company: America's Terrorist Underground. Northeastern.  
  3. ^ James Alfred Aho (1995). The Politics of Righteousness: Idaho Christian Patriotism. University of Washington Press. p. 86.  
  4. ^ Alan Cooperman (2 June 2003). "Is Terrorism Tied To Christian Sect?". Washington Post. 
  5. ^ Martin Schönteich and Henri Boshoff (2003). 'Volk' Faith and Fatherland: The Security Threat Posed by the White Right. Pretoria, South Africa, Institute for Security Studies.  
  6. ^ Shane, Scott (July 24, 2011). "Killings in Norway Spotlight Anti-Muslim Thought in U.S.". The New York Times. Retrieved November 3, 2014. 
  7. ^ The Reformation in England and Scotland and Ireland: The Reformation Period & Ireland under Elizabeth I, Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
  8. ^ Peter Steinfels (5 November 2005). "A Day to Think About a Case of Faith-Based Terrorism". New York Times. 
  9. ^ Paul Tinichigiu (January 2004). "Sami Fiul (interview)". The Central Europe Center for Research and Documentation. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  10. ^ Radu Ioanid (2004). "The Sacralised Politics of the Romanian Iron Guard". Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions 5 (3): 419–453(35).  
  11. ^ Leon Volovici. Nationalist Ideology and Antisemitism. p. 98.  
  12. ^ "Roots of Romanian Antisemitism: The League of National Christian Defense and Iron Guard Antisemitism" (PDF). Background and precursors to the Holocaust (Yad Vashem – The Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority). 
  13. ^ Payne, Stanley G. (1995). A History of Fascism 1914–1945. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press (pp. 277–289) ISBN 0-299-14874-2
  14. ^ Al-Khattar, Aref M. (2003). Religion and terrorism: an interfaith perspective. Westport, CT: Praeger. pp. 21, 30. 
  15. ^ Al-Khattar, Aref M. (2003). Religion and terrorism: an interfaith perspective. Westport, CT: Praeger. pp. 21, 30, 55, 91. 
  16. ^ Michael, Robert, and Philip Rosen. Dictionary of antisemitism from the earliest times to the present. Lanham, Maryland, USA: Scarecrow Press, 1997 p. 267.
  17. ^ Wade, Wyn Craig (1998). The fiery cross: the Ku Klux Klan in America. USA: Oxford University Press. p. 185.  
  18. ^ Rapoport, David C. The Four Waves of Modern Terrorism. p. 47. Retrieved October 22, 2014. 
  19. ^ Andrew Katz (May 29, 2014). "‘A Question of Humanity’: Witness to the Turning Point In Central African Republic". Time. 
  20. ^ a b Radhakrishnan Kuttoor for The Hindu. 10 July 2000 Sections of X'ians torpedoing peace initiative
  21. ^ Adam, de Cordier, Titeca, and Vlassenroot (2007). "In the Name of the Father? Christian Militantism in Tripura, Northern Uganda, and Ambon". Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 30 (11): 963.  
  22. ^ a b Kumar, B.B. (2007). Problems of Ethnicity in North-East India. New Delhi, India: Concept Publishing Company. p. 23.  
  23. ^ a b "Hindu preacher killed by Tripura rebels". BBC News. August 28, 2000. Retrieved 18 September 2014. 
  24. ^ ""Analysis: Tripura's tribal strife"". BBC News. 21 May 2000. Retrieved 23 November 2014. 
  25. ^ "The Prevention of Terrorism Act, 2002". Republic of India. South Asia Terrorism Portal. 2002. Retrieved 1 March 2009. 
  26. ^ "Constitution of National Liberation Front Of Tripura". South Asia Terrorism Portal. 
  27. ^ "National Liberation Front of Tripura, India". South Asia Terrorism Portal. 
  28. ^ a b Bhaumik, Subhir (18 April 2000). "'Church backing Tripura rebels'". BBC News. Retrieved 26 August 2006. 
  29. ^ "Separatist group bans Hindu festivities". BBC News. 2 October 2000. 
  30. ^ a b Tribals unite against conversions in Tripura
  31. ^ Adam, de Cordier, Titeca, and Vlassenroot (2007). "In the Name of the Father? Christian Militantism in Tripura, Northern Uganda, and Ambon". Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 30 (11): 965, 966, 967.  
  32. ^ "RSS wing blames Cong MP for triggering communal tension in Kandhamal". The Pioneer Archive. 27 December 2007. Retrieved 28 October 2013. 
  33. ^ "Attack on Laxmanananda by Christian mob in Orissa-I". Retrieved 5 October 2014. 
  34. ^ Net closes in on Cong MP for Orissa swami’s murder - Indian Express
  35. ^ Why Swami Laxmanananda was killed
  36. ^ "Advani, Singhal, Togadia natural targets of Maoists". The Times Of India. 5 October 2008. 
  37. ^ Swami Laxmanananda feared for his life: NGO : Latest Headlines: News India Today
  38. ^ [1]
  39. ^ "Encyclopaedia Of Manipur (3 Vol.)", p. 490
  40. ^ "Encyclopaedia of Scheduled Tribes in India: In Five Volume", p. 253, by P. K. Mohanty.
  41. ^ "'Is this the India we should be proud of?'". 17 May 2010. Retrieved 18 December 2013. 
  42. ^  
  43. ^   The transcription actually says "crucifixions" instead of "crucifixes".
  44. ^
  46. ^ a b Interview with Bruce Hoffman; "A Conversation with Bruce Hoffman and Jeffrey Goldberg" in Religion, Culture and International Conflict: A Conversation, edited by Michael Cromartie. Rowman & Littlefield, 2005. p.30. Quote: "I define terrorism as 'religious' when some liturgy, scripture, or clerical authority is involved in sanctioning the violent act. Now there are all sorts of groups around the world that use force and can be identified using religious terms but are not 'religious' in the sense that I am using the term. In Northern Ireland, for instance, Protestants and Catholics fight using terrorist (or as they say locally, 'paramilitary') tactics, but theological justifications play little or no role."
  47. ^ a b c Jenkins, Richard (1997). Rethinking Ethnicity: Arguments and Explorations. SAGE Publications. p. 120. It should, I think, be apparent that the Northern Irish conflict is not a religious conflict […] Although religion has a place—and indeed an important one—in the repertoire of conflict in Northern Ireland, the majority of participants see the situation as primarily concerned with matters of politics and nationalism, not religion. And there is no reason to disagree with them. 
  48. ^ Griffin, Emily (2012). "12: In Violence and in Peace – the role of religion and human security in Northern Ireland". Religion and Human Security: A Global Perspective. Oxford University Press. p. 214. Many scholars like Richardson believe that the religious nature of the dispute has been overemphasized. Richard Jenkins et al (1986) believe that although religion has a place in the “repertoire of conflict” in Northern Ireland, it is apparent that the situation was primarily concerned with matters of politics and nationalism, not religious issues. Edna Longley has argued that it is better described as a culture war in which both sides have been merely defined by their religious denominations. In an editorial column in the National Catholic Reporter, Eoin McKiernan told readers that the “religious conflict in Northern Ireland is a misnomer for political strife”. In 2007, William Cardinal Conway, former archbishop of Armagh, referred to the issues as “basically political, social and economic” in nature. Hayes and McAllister suggest that the terms ‘Protestant’ and ‘Catholic’ play no greater role in shaping the conflict beyond providing convenient identifying labels for the protagonists. 
  49. ^ Mitchell, Claire (2013). Religion, Identity and Politics in Northern Ireland. Ashgate Publishing. p. 5. The most popular school of thought on religion is encapsulated in McGarry and O'Leary's Explaining Northern Ireland (1995), and is echoed by Coulter (1999) and Clayton (1998). The central argument is that religion is an ethnic marker, but that it is not generally politically relevant in and of itself. Instead, ethnonationalism lies at the root of the conflict. Hayes and McAllister (1999a) point out that this represents something of an academic consensus. 
  50. ^ Tannam, Etain (2014). International Intervention in Ethnic Conflict. Palgrave Macmillan. In 1983 the European Parliament's Political Affairs Committee commissioned a report, chaired by the Dutch Member of the European Parliament (MEP) Nils Haagerup, on resolving the conflict in Northern Ireland. […] The Haagerup Report […] aimed to explain the situation of conflict in Northern Ireland to non-British and non-Irish MEPs […] The report defined the conflict as being one of ‘conflicting national identities’, not a religious conflict between the two communities… 
  51. ^ Moore, Margaret (2001). "3:Globalization, Cosmopolitanism, and Minority Nationalism". Minority Nationalism and the Changing International Order. Oxford University Press. p. 50. In Northern Ireland, where there are two distinct and mutually antagonistic national communities on the same territory, the conflict between the two groups is not about some objective cultural difference. Despite a common misconception, it is not religious in nature. The groups are not arguing over the details of doctrinal interpretation. Religious leaders – priests, nuns, ministers – are not targets for violence… 
  52. ^ Murray, Dominic (1995). "Families in Conflict: Pervasive Violence in Northern Ireland". War: A Cruel Necessity?. I.B.Tauris. p. 68. At the outset, it is essential to state that the conflict in the province is not principally a religious one. It is true that it has been presented as such throughout the world but this is both misleading and not very productive. 
  53. ^ Reuter, Tina (2010). "17: Ethnic Conflict". 21st Century Political Science: A Reference Handbook. SAGE Publications. p. 144. The conflicts in Northern Ireland or Israel/Palestine, for example, are not religious conflicts, but political conflicts, because the goals at stake are political, not religious in nature. 
  54. ^ a b Patterson, Eric (2013). "Religion, war and peace: leavening the levels of analysis". The Routledge Handbook of Religion and Security. Routledge. p. 120. Northern Ireland has a long history of difference and discrimination, but no one there was fighting over the number of books in the Bible, about theology, about the nature of communion, about the infallibility of the pope, or any of the things about which Catholics and Protestants differ theologically and ecclesiastically. [...] The Irish Republican Army (IRA) and its political wing Sinn Féin are not religious – although supposedly they were defenders of the Catholics. The IRA judged the institutional Catholic Church as taking a quietistic role, with its head in the sand and consequently supportive of the status quo. In contrast, the IRA and Sinn Féin's intellectual roots are in left of-center, secularist, twentieth-century nationalism rather than in the ideology of a Catholic-inspired insurgency. 
  55. ^ a b Kearney, Richard (1988). Transitions: Narratives in Modern Irish Culture. Manchester University Press. p. 237. In the face of such 'outside' opinion, many Irish citizens would respond: 'but you foreigners don't really understand us; you don't appreciate that the conflict in Northern Ireland, for instance, is not in fact a religious war at all - the IRA or the UDA don't care about the theological doctrines of their religious traditions – the violence is really about opposed tribal fidelities'. 
  56. ^ McGarry, John; Brendan O'Leary (15 June 1995). Explaining Northern Ireland. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 18.  
  57. ^ Northern Ireland hears an echo of itself in Israeli-Palestinian conflict. 31 July 2014. Quote: "Ed Moloney, a journalist and scholar of Irish history, says that while the conflict in Northern Ireland and the one between Israelis and Palestinians share many deep similarities, there are differences that make the latter much harder to resolve.“The Northern Irish conflict is not a religious conflict,” Moloney said."
  58. ^ BBC History – The Troubles. Quote: "This was a territorial conflict, not a religious one. At its heart lay two mutually exclusive visions of national identity and national belonging."
  59. ^ Richard Jenkins. Rethinking Ethnicity: Arguments and Explorations. pp. 112–127. Retrieved December 8, 2014. A strong version of the thesis that the 'troubles' in Northern Ireland are, indeed, a conflict of religion has been defended vigorously by John Fulton (1991); more moderate versions have been put forward by John Hickey (1984), Maurice Irvine (1991) and Claire Mitchell (2006). 
  60. ^ a b Mark Juergensmeyer. Terror in the Mind of God: The Global Rise of Religious Violence. University of California Press.  
    "Like residents of Belfast and London, Americans were beginning to learn to live with acts of religious terrorism: shocking, disturbing incidents of violence laced with the passion of religion - in these cases, Christianity"
  61. ^ Purpura, Philip (2007). Terrorism and Homeland Security: An Introduction with Applications. Butterworth-Heinemann/Elsevier. p. 17.  
  62. ^ Claire Mitchell (2006). Religion, Identity and Politics in Northern Ireland. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 51.  
  63. ^ "Self-styled loyalist pastor jailed". BBC News. 8 March 2001. 
  64. ^ Susan McKay (17 November 2001). "Faith, hate and murder". London: The Guardian. 
    As early as 1912, McKay quotes a pastor as saying "the Irish question is at bottom a war against Protestantism". In 1997, another preacher said that conflicts with Catholics were "the ancient battle between the true church, Protestantism, and the Whore, the Beast and the Baal worshippers within Catholicism." In 2001, activist Mark Harbinson told a rally: "The Orange Order is the last bastion of our defence. The order was not set up as a Christian organisation but as a defender for the Protestant faith."
  65. ^ Bruce, Steve (2014). "Religion and violence: The case of Paisley and Ulster evangelicals". The Irish Association. Retrieved December 8, 2014. 
  66. ^ Goodspeed, Michael (2002). When Reason Fails: Portraits of Armies at War : America, Britain, Israel, and the Future. Greenwood Publishing. p. 78. The war waged by the IRA was not a religious war, nonetheless it was a war that divided society along religious lines. The Loyalist cause in Ireland is exclusively a Protestant cause and the Republican cause is almost entirely Catholic. 
  67. ^ Moghadam, Assaf (2009). The Roots of Terrorism. Infobase Publishing. p. 106. Finally, religious terrorists differ from secular terrorists in the scale of their goals. The goals of secular groups such as the IRA are limited. Were the IRA, for instance, to succeed in their goals of removing British forces from Northern Ireland and unifying Ireland, then presumably the IRA would no longer have any reason to continue using violence. For religious terrorists, however, the struggle against the “infidels” is almost limitless. 
  68. ^ Armstrong, Karen. "The label of Catholic terror was never used about the IRA". The Guardian. 11 July 2005. "We rarely, if ever, called the IRA bombings 'Catholic' terrorism because we knew enough to realise that this was not essentially a religious campaign."
  69. ^ a b Matusitz, Jonathan (2015). Symbolism in Terrorism: Motivation, Communication, and Behavior. Rowan & Littlefield. pp. 157–158.  
  70. ^ Schbley, Ayla Hammond (2014). "Chapter 4. Toward a Common Profile of Religious Terrorism: Some Psychosocial Determinants of Christian and Islamic Terrorists". In Lowe, David; Turk, Austin; Das, Dilip K. Examining Political Violence: Studies of Terrorism, Counterterrorism, and Internal War. Taylor & Francis: CRC Press. p. 74.  
  71. ^ Schwirtz, Michael (14 August 2011). "Suspect in Norway Reconstructs Killings for Police". New York Times. Retrieved 17 August 2011. 
  72. ^ "Anders Breivik Manifesto: Shooter/Bomber Downplayed Religion, Secular Influence Key". International Business Times. (25 July 2011). Accessed 26 July 2011.
  73. ^ "Scores killed in Norway attack". BBC (UK). 23 July 2011. Retrieved 23 July 2011. 
  74. ^ Thistlethwaite, Susan Brooks (25 July 2011). "When Christianity becomes lethal". Washington Post. Retrieved 17 August 2011. 
  75. ^ Washington, Jesse (31 July 2011). Christian terrorist'? Norway case strikes debate"'". Associated Press. Retrieved 3 October 2014. 
  76. ^ Sheppard, Robert (24 July 2011). "Norway's shooter: Delusional loner or far-right conspirator?". CBC News. Retrieved 17 August 2011. 
  77. ^  
  78. ^ Reynolds, John Mark (28 July 2011). "Breivik betrays Christianity". Washington Post. 
  79. ^  
  80. ^ Xan Rice (20 October 2007). "Background: the Lord's Resistance Army". London: The Guardian. 
  81. ^ a b Marc Lacey (4 August 2002). "Uganda's Terror Crackdown Multiplies the Suffering". New York Times. 
  82. ^ [2] The scars of death: children abducted by the Lord's Resistance Army in Uganda By Human Rights Watch/Africa 1997 page 72
  83. ^ a b Ruddy Doom and Koen Vlassenroot (1999). "Kony's message: A new Koine? The Lord's Resistance Army in northern Uganda". African Affairs (Oxford Journals / Royal African Society) 98 (390): 5–36.  
  84. ^ "Ugandan rebels raid Sudanese villages". BBC News. 8 April 2002. Retrieved 2 January 2010. 
  85. ^ K. Ward (2001). "The Armies of the Lord: Christianity, Rebels and the State in Northern Uganda, 1986–1999". Journal of Religion in Africa 31 (2): 187.  
  86. ^ "In pictures: Ugandan rebels come home". BBC News. Retrieved 2 January 2010. One of the differences on the LRA pips is a white bible inside a heart 
  87. ^ David Blair (3 August 2005). "I killed so many I lost count, says boy, 11". London: The Telegraph. 
  88. ^ Matthew Green (8 February 2008). "Africa’s Most Wanted". Financial Times. 
  89. ^ Christina Lamb (2 March 2008). "The Wizard of the Nile: The Hunt for Africa’s Most Wanted by Matthew Green". London: The Times. 
  90. ^ Marc Lacey (18 April 2005). "Atrocity Victims in Uganda Choose to Forgive". New York Times. 
  91. ^ Frederick Clarkson (2 December 2002). "Kopp Lays Groundwork to Justify Murdering Abortion Provider Slepian". National Organization for Women. 
  92. ^ Laurie Goodstein and Pierre Thomas (17 January 1995). "Clinic Killings Follow Years of Antiabortion Violence". Washington Post. 
  93. ^ Army Of God' Anthrax Threats"'". CBS News. 9 November 2001. 
  94. ^ Bruce Hoffman (1998). Inside Terrorism. Columbia University Press.  
  95. ^ "Apocalyptic Christians detained in Israel for alleged violence plot". CNN. 3 January 1999. 
  96. ^ "Cult members deported from Israel". BBC News. 9 January 1999. Retrieved 2 January 2010. 
  97. ^ "George Tiller's killer has no regrets, doesn't ask for forgiveness". Houston Belief. 9 February 1999. Retrieved 28 February 2010. 
  98. ^ Davey, Monica (28 January 2010). "Doctor’s Killer Puts Abortion on the Stand". New York Times. Retrieved 10 May 2011. 
  99. ^ Leach, David. "Defensive Action Statement (3rd Edition)". Retrieved 27 October 2013. 
  100. ^ Cooperman, Alan (2 June 2003). "Is Terrorism Tied To Christian Sect? Religion May Have Motivated Bombing: Suspect". Washington Post. Retrieved 10 August 2011. 'Based on what we know of Rudolph so far, and admittedly it's fragmentary, there seems to be a fairly high likelihood that he can legitimately be called a Christian terrorist,' said Michael Barkun, a professor of political science at Syracuse University who has been a consultant to the FBI on Christian extremist groups. 
  101. ^ Al-Khattar, Aref M. (2003). Religion and terrorism: an interfaith perspective. Westport, CT: Praeger. pp. 21, 30.  


  • Mason, Carol. 2002. Killing for Life: The Apocalyptic Narrative of Pro-Life Politics. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
  • Zeskind, Leonard. 1987. The ‘Christian Identity’ Movement, [booklet]. Atlanta, Georgia: Center for Democratic Renewal/Division of Church and Society, National Council of Churches.
  • Al-Khattar, Aref M. Religion and terrorism: an interfaith perspective. Greenwood. January 2003. ISBN 978-0-275-96923-3

Further reading

  • Rodney Stark God’s Battalions: The Case for the Crusades, HarperOne, 2010,
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