World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Circuit (administrative division)

Article Id: WHEBN0000230200
Reproduction Date:

Title: Circuit (administrative division)  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Hedong, Jiangxi, Hokurikudō, Saikaidō, Wu'an Circuit
Collection: Administrative Divisions of Ancient China
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Circuit (administrative division)

The Tang dynasty territory and inspection circuits (道 dào) in 742, according to the Cambridge History of China.

Contents

  • China 1
  • Japan 2
  • Korea 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5

China

Circuits originated in China during the Han dynasty, and were used as a lower tier administrative division, comparable to the county (, also translated as "districts"), but only to be used in areas in the fringes of the Empire, that were either primarily inhabited by non-Han Chinese peoples, or too geographically isolated from the rest of the Han centers of power. The system fell into disuse after the collapse of the Western Jin dynasty. The administrative division was revived in 627 when Tang Emperor Taizong made it the highest level administrative division, and subdivided China into ten circuits. These were originally meant to be purely geographic and not administrative. Emperor Xuanzong added a further five and slowly, the circuits strengthened their own power, until they became powerful regional forces that tore the country apart during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. During the Later Jin and Song dynasties, circuits were renamed from dao to lu (), both of which literally mean "road" or "path". Dao were revived during the Yuan dynasty.

Circuits were demoted to the second-level after the Yuan dynasty established provinces at the very top, and remained there for the next several centuries.

During the Republic of China era, circuits still existed as high-level, though not top-level, administrative divisions such as Qiongya Circuit (now Hainan province). In 1928, all circuits were replaced with committees or simply abandoned.

Japan

During the Gokishichidō (5 ki 7 dō), as part of a legal and governmental system borrowed from the Chinese.[1] Though these units did not survive as administrative structures beyond the Muromachi period (1336–1573), they did remain important geographical entities up until the 19th century. The seven circuits spread over the islands of Honshū, Shikoku, and Kyūshū:

  • Tōkaidō (東海道) "East Sea Circuit": 15 provinces (kuni)
  • Nankaidō (南海道) "South Sea Circuit": 6 provinces
  • Saikaidō (西海道) "West Sea Circuit": 8 provinces
  • Hokurikudō (北陸道) "North Land Circuit": 7 provinces
  • San'indō (山陰道) "Shaded-side Circuit": 8 provinces
  • San'yōdō (山陽道) "Sunny-side Circuit": 8 provinces
  • Tōsandō (東山道) "East Mountain Circuit": 13 provinces

In the mid-19th century, the northern island of Ezo was settled, and renamed Hokkaidō (北海道, "North Sea Circuit"). It is currently the only prefecture of Japan named with the (circuit) suffix.

Korea

Since the late 10th century, the do (“province”) has been the primary administrative division in Korea. See Eight Provinces, Provinces of Korea, Subdivisions of South Korea and Administrative divisions of North Korea for details.

See also

References

  1. ^ Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Goki-shichidō" in , p. 255Japan Encyclopedia, p. 255, at Google Books; n.b., Louis-Frédéric is pseudonym of Louis-Frédéric Nussbaum, see Deutsche Nationalbibliothek Authority File.
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.