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Close front rounded vowel

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Close front rounded vowel

Close front rounded vowel
y
IPA number 309
Encoding
Entity (decimal) y
Unicode (hex) U+0079
X-SAMPA y
Kirshenbaum y
Braille ⠽ (braille pattern dots-13456)
Sound
 ·

The close front rounded vowel, or high front rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. Acoustically it is a close front-central rounded vowel.[1] The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is y, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is y. Across many languages, it is most commonly represented orthographically as ü (in German and Turkish) or y, but also as u (in French and a few other Romance languages); iu/yu (in the romanization of various Asian languages); ű (in Hungarian for the long duration version; the short version is the ü found in other European alphabets); or уь (in Cyrillic-based writing systems such as that for Chechen)

Short /y/ and long /yː/ occurred in pre-Modern Greek. In the Attic and Ionic dialects of Ancient Greek, front [y yː] developed by fronting from back /u uː/ around the 6th to 7th century BC. A little later, the diphthong /yi/ when not before another vowel monophthongized and merged with long /yː/. In Koine Greek, the diphthong /oi/ changed to [yː], likely through the intermediate stages [øi] and [øː]. Through vowel shortening in Koine Greek, long /yː/ merged with short /y/. Later, /y/ unrounded to [i], yielding the pronunciation of Modern Greek. For more information, see the articles on Ancient Greek and Koine Greek phonology.

The close front rounded vowel is the vocalic equivalent of the labialized palatal approximant [ɥ]. The two are almost identical featurally. [y] alternates with [ɥ] in certain languages, such as French, and in the diphthongs of some languages, with the non-syllabic diacritic and ɥ are used in different transcription systems to represent the same sound.

The IPA prefers terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a large number of linguists, perhaps a majority, prefer the terms "high" and "low".

In most languages, this rounded vowel is pronounced with compressed lips ('exolabial'). However, in a few cases the lips are protruded ('endolabial').

Contents

  • Close front compressed vowel 1
    • Features 1.1
    • Occurrence 1.2
  • Close front protruded vowel 2
    • Features 2.1
    • Occurrence 2.2
  • See also 3
  • References 4
  • Bibliography 5

Close front compressed vowel

Features

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
ʊ
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
ø̞
əɵ̞
ɤ̞
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
æ
ɐ
aɶ
äɒ̈
ɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
This table contains phonetic symbols, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help]

 •  • chart •  chart with audio •
  • Its vowel height is close, also known as high, which means the tongue is positioned as close as possible to the roof of the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant.
  • Its vowel backness is front, which means the tongue is positioned as far forward as possible in the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant. Note that rounded front vowels are often centralized, which means that often they are in fact near-front.
  • Its roundedness is compressed, which means that the margins of the lips are tense and drawn together in such a way that the inner surfaces are not exposed.

Occurrence

Because front rounded vowels are assumed to have compression, and few descriptions cover the distinction, some examples in the table below may actually have protrusion.

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Afrikaans uur [yːr] 'hour' See Afrikaans phonology
Albanian dy [dy] 'two'
Azeri güllə [ɟylˈlæ] 'bullet'
Basque Souletin hirü [hiɾy] 'three'
Bavarian Amstetten dialect[2] Near-front.[2]
Breton tut [tyːd] 'people'
Catalan Northern[3] but [byt̪] 'aim' Found in Occitan and French loanwords. See Catalan phonology
Chechen уьш / üş [yʃ] 'they'
Chinese Cantonese /syu1 [syː˥] 'book' See Cantonese phonology
Mandarin 绿/lǜ [ly˥˩] 'green' See Mandarin phonology
Wu /gniu [ɲy˩˧] 'soft'
Chuvash ÿс / üs [ys] 'to grow'
Cornish tus [tyːz] 'people' Corresponds to /iː/ in "Late" dialect.
Danish Standard[4] synlig [ˈs̺y̠ːnli] 'visible' Near-front. See Danish phonology
Dutch Standard Belgian[5] fuut     'grebe' Near-front,[5] also described as near-close [ʏ].[6] See Dutch phonology
English General
South African[7]
few [fjyː] 'few' Some younger speakers, especially females. Others pronounce a more central vowel [ʉː].
Multicultural London[8] May be back [] instead.[8]
Scouse[9] May be central [ʉː] instead.
Ulster[10] Long allophone of /u/; occurs only after /j/.[10] See English phonology
Scottish [fjy] Some dialects. Corresponds to [u ~ ʉ] in other dialects. See English phonology
Estonian[11] üks [y̠ks] 'one' Near-front.[11] See Estonian phonology
Finnish[12][13] yksi [ˈy̠ksi] 'one' Near-front.[13] See Finnish phonology
French[14] chute     'fall' See French phonology
German Standard[15] über     'above' Near-front.[15] See German phonology
Hungarian[16] tű [t̪y̠ː] 'pin' Near-front.[16] See Hungarian phonology
Limburgish[17][18][19][20] bruudsje [ˈbʀ̝y̠t͡ʃə] 'breadroll' Near-front.[17][18][19][20] The example word is from the Maastrichtian dialect.
Lombard düü [dyː] 'two'
Mongolian[21] түймэр/tüimer [tʰyːmɘɾɘ̆] 'prairie fire'
North Frisian hüüs [hyːs] 'hoarse'
Occitan Gascon lua [ˈlyo̞] 'moon' See Occitan phonology
Languedocien luna [ˈlyno̞]
Provençal
Piedmontese curt [kyrt] 'short'
Portuguese[22] Brazilian déjà vu [d̪e̞ʒɐ ˈvy] 'déjà vu' Found in French and German loanwords. Speakers may instead use [u] or [i]. See Portuguese phonology
Scots buit [byt] 'boot'
Slovak Standard[23] menu [ˈme̞n̺y] 'menu' Only in loanwords; may be closer to [i] or [u] instead. Reported only by one source from 1988.[24] See Slovak phonology
[25] güneş [ɟy̠ˈneʃ] 'sun' Near-front.[25] See Turkish phonology
West Frisian drúf [dryːf] 'grape' See West Frisian phonology

Close front protruded vowel

Close front protruded vowel

Catford notes that most languages with rounded front and back vowels use distinct types of labialization, protruded back vowels and compressed front vowels. However, a few languages, such as Scandinavian ones, have protruded front vowels. One of these, Swedish, even contrasts the two types of rounding in front vowels (see near-close near-front rounded vowel, with Swedish examples of both types of rounding).

As there are no diacritics in the IPA to distinguish protruded and compressed rounding, an old diacritic for labialization,   ̫, will be used here as an ad hoc symbol for protruded front vowels. Another possible transcription is or (a close front vowel modified by endolabialization), but this could be misread as a diphthong.

Features

  • Its vowel height is close, also known as high, which means the tongue is positioned as close as possible to the roof of the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant.
  • Its vowel backness is near-front. also known as front-central or centralized front, which means the tongue is positioned almost as far forward as a front vowel.
  • Its roundedness is protruded, which means that the corners of the lips are drawn together, and the inner surfaces exposed.

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Norwegian Standard Eastern[26] syd [sy̫ːd] 'south' See Norwegian phonology
Swedish Central Standard[27] yla     'howl' May be a sequence [yɥ] instead.[28] See Swedish phonology

See also

References

  1. ^ Geoff Lindsey (2013) The vowel space, Speech Talk
  2. ^ a b Traunmüller (1982), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:290)
  3. ^ Recasens (1996:69)
  4. ^ Grønnum (2005), p. 268.
  5. ^ a b Verhoeven (2005:245)
  6. ^ Collins & Mees (2003:132)
  7. ^ Lass (2002:116)
  8. ^ a b Gimson (2014:91)
  9. ^ Watson (2007:357)
  10. ^ a b "Irish English and Ulster English" (PDF). p. 6. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 April 2014. 
  11. ^ a b Asu & Teras (2009:368)
  12. ^ Iivonen & Harnud (2005:60, 66)
  13. ^ a b Suomi, Toivanen & Ylitalo (2008:21)
  14. ^ Fougeron & Smith (1993:73)
  15. ^ a b Kohler (1999:87), Mangold (2005:37)
  16. ^ a b Szende (1994:92)
  17. ^ a b Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999:159)
  18. ^ a b Heijmans & Gussenhoven (1998:110)
  19. ^ a b Peters (2006:119)
  20. ^ a b Verhoeven (2007:221)
  21. ^ Iivonen & Harnud (2005:62, 66–67)
  22. ^ (Portuguese) The perception of German vowels by Portuguese-German bilinguals: do returned emigrants suffer phonological erosion? Pages 57 and 68.
  23. ^ Kráľ (1988:64–65)
  24. ^ Kráľ (1988:65)
  25. ^ a b Zimmer & Orgun (1999:155)
  26. ^ Vanvik (1979:13 and 19)
  27. ^ Engstrand (1999:140–141)
  28. ^ Engstrand (1999:141)

Bibliography

  • Asu, Eva Liina; Teras, Pire (2009), "Estonian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 39 (3): 367–372,  
  • Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. (2003), The Phonetics of English and Dutch, Fifth Revised Edition (PDF),  
  • Engstrand, Olle (1999), "Swedish", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the usage of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 140,  
  • Fougeron, Cecile; Smith, Caroline L. (1993), "French", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 23 (2): 73–76,  
  • Gimson, Alfred Charles (2014), Cruttenden, Alan, ed., Gimson's Pronunciation of English (8th ed.), Routledge,  
  • Grønnum, Nina (2005), Fonetik og fonologi, Almen og Dansk (3rd ed.), Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag,  
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos; Aarts, Flor (1999), "The dialect of Maastricht" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association (University of Nijmegen, Centre for Language Studies) 29: 155–166,  
  • Heijmans, Linda; Gussenhoven, Carlos (1998), "The Dutch dialect of Weert" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association 28: 107–112,  
  • Iivonen, Antti; Harnud, Huhe (2005), "Acoustical comparison of the monophthong systems in Finnish, Mongolian and Udmurt", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 35 (1): 59–71,  
  • Kohler, Klaus J. (1999), "German", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 86–89,  
  • Kráľ, Ábel (1988), Pravidlá slovenskej výslovnosti, Bratislava: Slovenské pedagogické nakladateľstvo 
  •  
  • Lass, Roger (2002), "South African English", in Mesthrie, Rajend, Language in South Africa, Cambridge University Press,  
  • Mangold, Max (2005), Das Aussprachewörterbuch, Duden,  
  • Peters, Jörg (2006), "The dialect of Hasselt", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 36 (1): 117–124,  
  • Recasens, Daniel (1996), Fonètica descriptiva del català: assaig de caracterització de la pronúncia del vocalisme i el consonantisme català al segle XX (2nd ed.), Barcelona: Institut d'Estudis Catalans,  
  • Suomi, Kari; Toivanen, Juhani; Ylitalo, Riikka (2008), Finish sound structure,  
  • Szende, Tamás (1994), "Hungarian", Journal of the International Phonetic Alphabet 24 (2): 91–94,  
  • Traunmüller, Hartmut (1982), "Vokalismus in der westniederösterreichischen Mundart.", Zeitschrift für Dialektologie und Linguistik 2: 289–333,  
  • Vanvik, Arne (1979), Norsk fonetik, Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo,  
  • Verhoeven, Jo (2005), "Belgian Standard Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 35 (2): 243–247,  
  • Verhoeven, Jo (2007), "The Belgian Limburg dialect of Hamont", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 37 (2): 219–225,  
  • Watson, Kevin (2007), "Liverpool English" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association 37 (3): 351–360,  
  • Zimmer, Karl; Orgun, Orhan (1999), "Turkish", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet (PDF), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 154–158,  
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