World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Contemporary slavery

Article Id: WHEBN0017168143
Reproduction Date:

Title: Contemporary slavery  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: American Anti-Slavery Group, Not My Life, Slavery, Abolition of slavery timeline, Debt bondage
Collection: Contemporary Slavery, Slavery
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Contemporary slavery

Modern incidence of slavery, as a percentage of the population, by country. Estimates from the Walk Free Foundation. Estimates by sources with broader definitions of slavery will be higher.

Contemporary slavery, also known as modern slavery, refers to the institutions of [5]

Modern slavery is a multi-billion dollar industry with estimates of up to $35 billion generated annually. The United Nations estimates that roughly 27 to 30 million individuals are currently caught in the slave trade industry.[6] The Global Slavery Index 2013 states that 10 nations account for 76 percent of the world's enslaved. India has the most slaves of any country, at 14 million (over 1% of the population). China has the second-largest number with 2.9 million slaves, followed by Pakistan with 2.1 million, Nigeria with 701,000, Ethiopia with 651,000, Russia with 516,000, Thailand with 473,000, Congo with 462,000, Myanmar with 384,000, and Bangladesh with 343,000.[7]

Mauritania was the last nation to officially abolish slavery, doing so in 2007; yet 4.3% of the population still remains enslaved.[7][8] Despite being illegal in every nation, slavery is still prevalent in many forms today.

Slavery also exists on a smaller scale in advanced democratic nations, for example the UK where Home Office estimates suggest 10,000 to 13,000 victims. This includes, forced work of various kinds, such as forced prostitution.[9]

Contents

  • Causes 1
  • Types of contemporary slavery 2
    • Slavery by descent 2.1
    • Bonded labor 2.2
    • Forced migrant labor 2.3
    • Sex slavery 2.4
    • Early or forced marriage 2.5
    • Child labor 2.6
    • Islamist 2.7
  • Trafficking 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6

Causes

Slaves can be an attractive investment because the slave-owner only needs to pay for sustenance and enforcement. This is sometimes lower than the wage-cost of free labourers, as free workers earn more than sustenance; in these cases slaves have positive price. When the cost of sustenance and enforcement exceeds the wage rate, slave-owning would no longer be profitable, and owners would simply release their slaves. Slaves are thus a more attractive investment in high-wage environments, and environments where enforcement is cheap, and less attractive in environments where the wage-rate is low and enforcement is expensive.[10]

Free workers also earn compensating differentials, whereby they are paid more for doing unpleasant work. Neither sustenance nor enforcement costs rise with the unpleasantness of the work, however, so slaves' costs do not rise by the same amount. As such, slaves are more attractive for unpleasant work, and less for pleasant work. Because the unpleasantness of the work is not internalised, being borne by the slave rather than the owner, it is a negative externality and leads to over-use of slaves in these situations.[10]

Modern slavery can be quite profitable[11] and corrupt governments will tacitly allow it, despite it being outlawed by international treaties such as Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery and local laws. Total annual revenues of traffickers were estimated in 2004 to range from US $5 billion to US $9 billion,[12] though profits are substantially lower. American slaves in 1809 were sold for around $40,000 (in today's money). Today, a slave can be bought for $90.[13] The conscription of child soldiers by some governments is often viewed as a form of government-endorsed slavery.

Modern slavery is often seen as a by-product of poverty. Countries that lack education, economic freedoms and the rule of law, and which have poor societal structure can create an environment that fosters the acceptance and propagation of slavery.

Professor Remington Crawford III of the University of Toronto said:

Slavery is something that's with us always. We need to keep it in view and think about it when we buy our clothes, to question where they are sourced. Governments and CEOs need to think more carefully about what they are doing and what they are inadvertently supporting.[2]

Types of contemporary slavery

Slavery by descent

This is the form most often associated with the word "slavery". It stems historically from either conquest, where a conquered person is enslaved, as in the Roman Empire, or from slave raiding, as in the Atlantic slave trade. The enslaved become their own social class, or caste, one that may suffer discrimination long after they've been freed. This form of slavery is prevalent in the Sahel, particularly in Mauritania, where governments may deny that it exists.

Bonded labor

Millions of people today work as bonded laborers. The cycle begins when people take extreme loans under the condition that they work off the debt. The "loan" is designed so that it can never be paid off, and is often passed down for generations. This form of slavery is prevalent in South Asia. People become trapped in this system working ostensibly towards repayment though they are often forced to work far past the original amount they owe. They work under the force of threats and abuse, their helplessness is reinforced due to the large power differential between the 'creditor' and the 'debtor'.

Forced migrant labor

People may be enticed to migrate with the promise of work, only to have their documents seized and to be forced to work under the threat of violence to them or their families.[14] Illegal immigrants may also be taken advantage of; without legal residency, they often have no recourse to the law. Along with sex slavery this is the form of slavery most often encountered in wealthy countries such as the United States, in Western Europe, and in the Middle East.

Sex slavery

Along with migrant slavery, forced prostitution is the form of slavery most often encountered in wealthy regions such as the United States, in Western Europe, and in the Middle East. It is the primary form of slavery in Eastern Europe and Southeast Asia, particularly in Moldova and Laos. Many child sex slaves are trafficked from these areas to the West and Middle East. An estimated 22% of slaves to date are active in the sex industry.[15]

Early or forced marriage

Mainly driven by the culture in certain regions, early or forced marriage is a form of slavery that affects millions of women and girls all over the world. When families cannot support their children, the daughters are often married off to the males of wealthier, more powerful families. These men are often significantly older than the girls. The females are forced into lives whose main purpose is to serve their husbands. This oftentimes fosters an environment for physical, verbal and sexual abuse.

Child labor

Children comprise about 26% of the slaves today.[16] Most are domestic workers or work in cocoa, cotton or fishing industries. Many are trafficked and sexually exploited. In war-torn countries, children have been kidnapped and sold to political parties to be used as child soldiers. Forced child labor is the dominant form of slavery in Haiti.

Islamist

In the early 21st century some scholars[17] had noted an "ominous and disturbing development" of "reopening" of the issue of slavery by some conservative Islamic scholars[18] after its "closing" earlier in the 20th century.[19] In 2003 Shaykh Saleh Al-Fawzan, a member at that time of the Senior Council of Clerics, Saudi Arabia’s highest religious body, issued a fatwa stating “Slavery is a part of Islam. Slavery is part of jihad, and jihad will remain as long there is Islam,” and that anyone who says otherwise "is an infidel.”[20]

Two Islamist groups, Boko Haram and the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, have supported the practice of slavery.[21][22] In 2014, both groups were reported to have kidnapped large numbers of girls and younger women.[23][24] According to an August 2015 story in The New York Times, in territory of the Islamic State, "the trade in Yazidi women and girls has created a persistent infrastructure, with a network of warehouses where the victims are held, viewing rooms where they are inspected and marketed, and a dedicated fleet of buses used to transport them."[25]

Trafficking

The United Nations have defined human trafficking as follows:
The recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs.[26]

According to United States Department of State data, an "estimated 600,000 to 820,000 men, women, and children [are] trafficked across international borders each year, approximately 70 percent are women and girls and up to 50 percent are minors. The data also illustrates that the majority of transnational victims are trafficked into commercial sexual exploitation."[27] However, "the alarming enslavement of people for purposes of labor exploitation, often in their own countries, is a form of human trafficking that can be hard to track from afar." It is estimated that 50,000 people are trafficked every year in the United States.[13]

See also

References

  1. ^
  2. ^ a b Andrew Forrest signs up religious forces to fight slavery and trafficking
  3. ^
  4. ^
  5. ^
  6. ^
  7. ^ a b
  8. ^
  9. ^ 'Oliver Twist' children used in crime, warns anti-slavery commissioner
  10. ^ a b
  11. ^ Siddarth Kara, Sex Trafficking: Inside the Business of Modern Slavery (New York: Columbia University Press, 2010).
  12. ^
  13. ^ a b
  14. ^
  15. ^
  16. ^
  17. ^ Khaled Abou El Fadl and William Clarence-Smith
  18. ^ Abou el Fadl, Great Theft, HarperSanFrancisco, c2005. p.255
  19. ^ "Islam and Slavery", William G. Clarence-Smith (dead link)
  20. ^ Shaikh Salih al-Fawzan "affirmation of slavery" was found on page 24 of "Taming a Neo-Qutubite Fanatic Part 1" when accessed on February 17, 2007 http://www.salafipublications.com/sps/downloads/pdf/GRV070005.pdf
  21. ^
  22. ^
  23. ^
  24. ^
  25. ^
  26. ^
  27. ^

External links

  • UN Human Rights Council Special Rapporteur on Contemporary forms of slavery - Ohvhr.org
  • The CNN Freedom Project: Ending Modern-Day Slavery, CNN
  • Slavery collected news and commentary at The Guardian
  • Slave Labor collected news and commentary at The New York Times
  • Slave Labor collected news and commentary at The Wall Street Journal
  • Report on trafficking in human beings in Europe European Commission
  • [1] Nomi Network - Buy Her Bag Not Her Body
  • Historians Against Slavery
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.