World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Corvus (boarding device)

Article Id: WHEBN0000398499
Reproduction Date:

Title: Corvus (boarding device)  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Navy of ancient Rome, Corvus, Battle of Mylae, Roman navy, Ancient warfare
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Corvus (boarding device)

Boarding-bridge diagram

The corvus (meaning "crow" or "raven" in Latin) or harpago (probably the correct ancient name[1]) was a Roman military boarding device used in naval warfare during the First Punic War against Carthage.

In Chapters 1.22-4-11 of his History, Polybius describes this device as a bridge 1.2 m (4 ft) wide and 10.9 m (36 ft) long, with a small parapet on both sides. The engine was probably used in the prow of the ship, where a pole and a system of pulleys allowed the bridge to be raised and lowered. There was a heavy spike shaped as a bird's beak on the underside of the device. The spike was designed to pierce the enemy ship's deck when the boarding-bridge was lowered. This allowed a firm grip between the vessels and a route for the legionaries to cross to the other ship.

In the 3rd century BC, Rome was not a naval power, and had little or no experience in war at sea. Before the First Punic War, the Roman Republic had not campaigned outside the Italian Peninsula. The Republic's military strength was on land, and her greatest assets were the discipline and courage of her soldiers. The boarding-bridge allowed her to use her marines against the superior Carthaginian naval skills. The Romans' application of boarding tactics worked; they won several battles, most notably those of Mylae, Sulci, Tyndaris, and Ecnomus.

Despite its advantages, the boarding bridge had a serious drawback: it could not be used in rough seas since the stable connection of two working ships endangered each other's structure. Operating in rough seas, the device became useless and was abandoned.[2] According to Bonebaker, Professor of Naval Architecture at Delft, with the estimated weight of one ton for the boarding bridge, it is "most probable that the stability of a quinquereme with a displacement of about 250 m3 (330 cu yd) would not be seriously upset".[2]

Some other historians believe that its weight on the prow compromised the ship's navigability and the Romans lost almost two entire fleets to storms in 255 and in 249 BC, largely due to the instability caused by the device. These losses were probably the main reason for the abandonment of the boarding-bridge in ship design by the end of the war. As Roman naval tactics improved and the Roman crews became more experienced, the boarding-bridge was no longer used in battle. It is not mentioned in period sources after the battle of Ecnomus and apparently the Battle of the Aegates Islands that decided the first Punic war was won without it.

A variant of the boarding bridge, called arpax or harpax, was used in the Battle of Naulochus.


  1. ^ Wallinga p.73-75
  2. ^ a b Wallinga p.77-90


  • Wallinga, Herman Tammo (1956). The boarding-bridge of the Romans. Groningen and Djakarta, J.B. Wolters.
  • Goldsworthy, Adrian (2004). The Fall of Carthage. London, Cassel Publications. ISBN 0-304-36642-0.
  • Gonick, Larry (1994). "The Cartoon History of the Universe II". Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-26520-4.
  • Workman-Davies, Bradley (2006). Corvus - A review of the design and use of the Roman boarding bridge etc.. Self published book by ISBN 978-1-84728-882-0.


  • Polybius' description
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.