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Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994

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Title: Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Burglary in English law, Public Order Act 1986, Intervasion of the UK, Bolton 7, Video Recordings Act 1984
Collection: Criminal Law of the United Kingdom, United Kingdom Acts of Parliament 1994
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994

Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994
Long title An Act to make further provision in relation to criminal justice (including employment in the prison service); to amend or extend the criminal law and powers for preventing crime and enforcing that law; to amend the Video Recordings Act 1984; and for purposes connected with those purposes.
Citation 1994 c.33
Introduced by Michael Howard
Territorial extent England & Wales; Scotland; Northern Ireland
Royal Assent 3 November 1994
Commencement Multiple dates
Other legislation
Amended by Crime and Disorder Act 1998
Status: Amended
Text of statute as originally enacted
Text of the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994 as in force today (including any amendments) within the United Kingdom, from the UK Statute Law Database

The Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994 (c.33) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It introduced a number of changes to the existing law, most notably in the restriction and reduction of existing rights and in greater penalties for certain "anti-social" behaviours. The Bill was introduced by Michael Howard, home secretary of Prime Minister John Major's Conservative government, and attracted widespread opposition.


  • Changes 1
  • Opposition 2
  • Criticisms 3
  • See also 4
  • Notes 5
    • References 5.1
  • External links 6


Changes which received great public attention included:

  • Sections 34–39, which substantially changed the right to silence of an accused person, allowing for inferences to be drawn from their silence.
  • Sections 54–59, which gave the police greater rights to take and retain intimate body samples.
  • Section 60, which increased police powers of unsupervised "stop and search".
  • Section 80, which repealed the duty imposed on councils by the Caravan Sites Act 1968 to provide sites for gypsy and traveller use. Grant aid for the provision of sites was also withdrawn.

The whole of Part V which covered collective trespass and nuisance on land and included sections against raves (63–67, including the "repetitive beats" definition) and further sections against disruptive trespass, squatters, and unauthorised campers – most significantly the criminalisation of previously civil offences. This affected many forms of protest including hunt sabotage and anti-road protests.

Part VII handled "Obscenity and Pornography", banning simulated child pornography, harshening provisions dealing with the censorship and age restriction of videos, and also increasing the penalty on obscene phone calls.

Part XI dealt with sexual offences. The definition of rape was extended to include anal rape.

Further, the age at which homosexual acts were lawful was reduced from 21 years to 18. During the passage of the Bill, MPs considered an amendment to reduce this age to 16 (thereby equating it with the age of consent for heterosexual sex) but the motion was rejected by 27 votes. Analysis of the division list revealed that 42 Conservative MPs had supported equalisation, and the motion would have carried but for the opposing votes of 38 Labour MPs.[1][2]

Part XII was a miscellany, and included the notice that the "Offence of racially inflammatory publication etc. (was henceforth) to be arrestable", although this was later to be modified by the Serious Organised Crime and Police Act 2005. Part XII also criminalised the use of cells from embryos and foetuses.


When the legislation was still under debate, the Advance Party coordinated a campaign of resistance against the bill. The group was composed of an alliance of

  • Text of the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994 as originally enacted or made within the United Kingdom, from the UK Statute Law Database
  • Text of the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994 as in force today (including any amendments) within the United Kingdom, from the UK Statute Law Database
  • Guide to effective use of enforcement powers, published by the Home Office's Gypsy & Traveller Unit
  • Article by writer George Monbiot about multi-issue politics
  • Football Fans Against the Criminal Justice Act (FFACJA) campaign group

External links

  1. ^ "House of Commons Hansard Debates for 21 Feb 1994". 
  2. ^ "Gay Age of Consent: Currie needed just 14 Labour supporters: 'Noes' from opposition parties that were natural supporters of equality amendment are focus of recriminations".  
  3. ^ Brewster B. & Broughton F. (1999) Last Night a Dj Saved My Life: The History of the Disc Jockey, Page 373, Grove Press, ISBN 0-8021-3688-5
  4. ^ Firsthand account, retrieved November 1, 2006
  5. ^ The Faber Book of Pop (1995), ed. Hanif Koureshi and Jon Savage, p. 799
  6. ^ Gilbert J. (1999)Discographies: Dance Music, Culture, and the Politics of Sound, Page 150, Routledge ISBN 0-415-17032-X
  7. ^ ed. South N. (1999) Drugs: Cultures, Controls and Everyday Life, Page 30, SAGE Publications ISBN 0-7619-5235-7
  8. ^ Meaden, B. (2006) TRANCENational ALIENation Page 19, Lulu, ISBN 1-4116-8543-1
  9. ^
  10. ^ Richard Savill (16 July 2009). "Police close down Facebook barbecue for 15 people". 
  11. ^ "'"BBC NEWS - UK - England - Devon - Police helicopter sent to 'rave. 


^ The Act specifically defines "music" to include "sounds wholly or predominantly characterised by the emission of a succession of repetitive beats."


See also

In 2009, Section 63 of the Act was used by police to shut down a birthday barbecue held on legal property for 15 people.[10][11]

UK garage act The Streets also criticise the legislation in the track "Weak Become Heroes" from their debut album Original Pirate Material, as indicated by the lyric : “and to the government I stick my middle finger up with regards to the Criminal Justice Bill".

The B-side to Zion Train's 1995 "Dance of Life" single included a track entitled "Resist the Criminal Justice Act".

In 1993, the band Dreadzone released a single called "Fight the Power" in opposition to the proposed Criminal Justice Bill.[9] The Dreadzone mix of this song has samples from Noam Chomsky that talk about taking action and "taking control of your lives", advocating political resistance to the proposed bill. The cover artwork for the single has a picture of a young woman with a baby stroller, which has a political poster affixed to it with the words "Kill the Bill".

"Their Law", a song by electronic dance band The Prodigy and Pop Will Eat Itself, was written as a direct response to the bill. A quotation in the booklet of the Prodigy's 1994 album Music for the Jilted Generation read "How can the government stop young people having a good time? Fight this bollocks."

The fifth mix on the Internal version of Orbital's Are We Here? EP was titled "Criminal Justice Bill?". It consisted of approximately four minutes of silence.

In response to the proposed bill, British electronica band Autechre released the three-track Anti EP on Warp Records, stating:

Jon Savage, author of books on youth culture, said of the legislation in Bill form, "It's about politicians making laws on the basis of judging people's lifestyles, and that's no way to make laws."[5] The Act was described as a piece of legislation which was "explicitly aimed at suppressing the activities of certain strands of alternative culture", the main targets being squatting, direct action, football fan culture, hunt sabotage and the free party.[6] The sections which specifically refer to parties or raves are seen as badly defined [7] and drafted in an atmosphere of "clear moral panic" following the Castlemorton Common Festival.[8]


A group called the Zippies launched an online protest against the CJPOA, dubbed the Intervasion, it deployed electronic disruption techniques (which included DDoS), in one of the first examples of hacktivism. The group managed to shut-down John Major's email server and harassed MPs.


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