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Crithmum

Samphire
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Apiales
Family: Apiaceae
Genus: Crithmum
Species: C. maritimum
Binomial name
Crithmum maritimum
L.
C. maritimum
C. maritimum (habitat)
Crithmum maritimum - MHNT

Crithmum is a genus of flowering plant with the sole species Crithmum maritimum, known as samphire,[1] rock samphire,[1][2] or sea fennel.[1] Rock samphire is an edible wild plant. It is found on southern and western coasts of Britain and Ireland, on mediterranean and western coasts of Europe including the Canary Islands, North Africa and the Black Sea. "Samphire" is a name also used for several other unrelated species of coastal plant.

Contents

  • History, trade and cultivation 1
  • Culinary use 2
  • References 3
  • External links 4

History, trade and cultivation

In the 17th century, Shakespeare referred to the dangerous practice of collecting rock samphire from cliffs. "Half-way down, Hangs one that gathers samphire; dreadful trade!"[3] In the 19th century, samphire was being shipped in casks of seawater from the Isle of Wight to market in London at the end of May each year.[4] Rock samphire used to be cried in London streets as "Crest Marine".[5]

In England, rock samphire was cultivated in gardens,[6] where it grows readily in a light, rich soil. Obtaining seed commercially is now difficult, and in the United Kingdom the removal of wild plants is illegal under the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981.

The reclaimed piece of land adjoining Dover, called Samphire Hoe, is named after rock samphire. The land was created from spoil from the Channel Tunnel, and rock samphire used to be harvested from the neighbouring cliffs.

Culinary use

Rock samphire has fleshy, divided aromatic leaves that Culpeper described as having a "pleasant, hot and spicy taste"[7]

The stems, leaves and seed pods may be pickled in hot, salted, spiced vinegar, or the leaves used fresh in salads.

Richard Mabey gives several recipes for samphire,[8] although it is possible that at least one of these may refer to marsh samphire or glasswort (Salicornia europaea), a very common confusion.

References

  1. ^ a b c "USDA GRIN Taxonomy". Retrieved 13 March 2014. 
  2. ^ "BSBI List 2007". Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 2015-02-25. Retrieved 2014-10-17. 
  3. ^ Shakespeare, William (1623). The Tragedy of King Lear. London.  Act IV, scene VI, lines 14b-15
  4. ^ Grigson, Geoffrey (1958). The Englishman's Flora. London: The Readers' Union, Phoenix House. 
  5. ^ Phillips, Roger (1983). Wild Food. Pan.  
  6. ^ Phillips, Roger (1983). Wild Food. Pan.  
  7. ^ Culpeper, Nicholas (1653). The Complete Herbal. London. 
  8. ^  

External links

  • BBC Gardeners' Question Time – where there is apparently some confusion between the glasswort (marsh samphire, found in Suffolk) and the rock samphire (found in Dorset).
  • Biff Vernon discusses the common confusion between marsh samphire and rock samphire, and reproduces a poem on the subject by William Logan.
  • Botanical.com
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