World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Curry tree

Article Id: WHEBN0000851852
Reproduction Date:

Title: Curry tree  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Murraya, Chaunk, Curry, Cayenne pepper, Paprika
Collection: Herbs, Indian Spices, Murraya, Plants Used in Ayurveda
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Curry tree

Curry tree
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Sapindales
Family: Rutaceae
Genus: Murraya
Species: M. koenigii
Binomial name
Murraya koenigii
(L.) Sprengel[1]

The curry tree (Murraya koenigii or Bergera koenigii) is a tropical to sub-tropical tree in the family Rutaceae (the rue family, which includes rue, citrus, and satinwood), which is native to India and Sri Lanka.

Its leaves are used in many dishes in India and neighbouring countries. Often used in curries, the leaves are generally called by the name 'curry leaves,' although they are also literally 'sweet neem leaves' in most Indian languages (as opposed to ordinary neem leaves which are very bitter and in the family Meliaceae, not Rutaceae).

Contents

  • Description 1
  • Uses 2
  • Propagation 3
  • Chemical constituents 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6

Description

The small flowers are white and fragrant.
Ripe and unripe fruits
Curry leaves in a tree in Assam

It is a small tree, growing 4–6 m (13–20 feet) tall, with a trunk up to 40 cm (16 in) diameter. The aromatic leaves are pinnate, with 11-21 leaflets, each leaflet 2–4 cm (0.79–1.57 in) long and 1–2 cm (0.39–0.79 in) broad. The plant produces small white flowers which can self-pollinate to produce small shiny-black berries containing a single, large viable seed. Though the berry pulp is edible—with a sweet but medicinal flavor—in general, neither the pulp nor seed are used for culinary purposes.[2]

The species name commemorates the botanist Johann König. The genus Murray commemorates Johann Andreas Murray who died in 1791. [2]

Uses

The leaves are highly valued as seasoning in southern and west-coast Indian cooking, and Sri Lankan cooking ( කරපිංචා), especially in curries, usually fried along with the chopped onion in the first stage of the preparation. They are also used to make thoran, vada, rasam and kadhi. In their fresh form, they have a short shelf life and do not keep well in the refrigerator. They are also available dried, though the aroma is largely inferior. They do however, keep quite well frozen if well wrapped. Leaves can also be harvested from home-raised plants as it is also fairly easily grown in warmer areas of the world, or in containers where the climate is not supportive outdoors.

The leaves of Murraya koenigii are also used as an herb in Ayurvedic medicine. They are believed to possess anti-diabetic properties.[3][4][5]

Although most commonly used in curries, leaves from the curry tree can be used in many other dishes to add flavor. In Cambodia, Khmer toast the leaves in an open flame or roast it until crispy and then crush it into a soured soup dish called Maju Krueng.

Murraya Koenigii due to its aromatic characteristic properties find use and application in soap making ingredient, body lotions, diffusers, potpourri, scent, air fresheners, body fragrance, perfume, bath and massage oils, aromatherapy, towel scenting, spas and health clinics, incense, facial steams, hair treatments etc..

In the absence of tulsi leaves, curry leaves are used for rituals and pujas.

Propagation

Seeds must be ripe and fresh to plant; dried or shriveled fruits are not viable. One can plant the whole fruit, but it is best to remove the pulp before planting in potting mix that is kept moist but not wet.

Stem cuttings can be also used for propagation.

Chemical constituents

Girinimbine structure

Some of the primary alkaloids found in the curry tree leaves, stems, and seeds are as follows: Mahanimbine [6], girinimbine [7], koenimbine [8], isomahanine [9], mahanine [10], Undecalactone, 2-methoxy-3-methyl-carbazole.[6]

A 2011 study of girinimbine, a carbazole alkaloid isolated from this plant, found that it inhibited the growth and induced apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma, HepG2 cells in vitro.[7]

References

  1. ^ "Murraya koenigii information from NPGS/GRIN". www.ars-grin.gov. Retrieved 2008-03-11. 
  2. ^ a b Henry, Trimen (1893). A hand-book to the flora of Ceylon. London: Dulau & Co. p. 219. Retrieved 1 August 2015. 
  3. ^ Arulselvan P, Senthilkumar GP, Sathish Kumar D, Subramanian S (Oct 2006). "Anti-diabetic effect of Murraya koenigii leaves on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats". Pharmazie 61 (10): 874–7.  
  4. ^ Rashmee Z Ahmed (30 September 2004). "Traditional diabetes remedy offers hope". The Times Of India. 
  5. ^ Arulselvan P, Subramanian SP (Jan 2007). "Beneficial effects of Murraya koenigii leaves on antioxidant defense system and ultra structural changes of pancreatic beta-cells in experimental diabetes in rats".  
  6. ^ Jain, Vandana; et al. (2012). "Murraya Koenigii: An Updated Review" (PDF). International Journal Of Ayurvedic And Herbal Medicine 2 (2): 607:627.  
  7. ^ Syam, Suvitha; Abdul, Ahmad Bustamam; Sukari, Mohd. Aspollah; Mohan, Syam; Abdelwahab, Siddig Ibrahim; Wah, Tang Sook (2011). "The Growth Suppressing Effects of Girinimbine on Hepg2 Involve Induction of Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest". Molecules 16 (8): 7155–70.  

External links

  • Gernot Katzer's Herb Pages on curry leaves
  • Plant Cultures: botany, history and uses of curry leaf plant
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.