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Delta Upsilon

Delta Upsilon
ΔΥ
The official coat of arms of Delta Upsilon
Founded November 4, 1834 (1834-11-04)
Williams College, Williamstown, Massachusetts
Type Social
Scope International
Mission statement "Building Better Men"
Motto Δικαια Υποθηκη ("Justice, Our Foundation")
Slogan "A DU in Everything, Every DU in Something"
Colors      Sapphire blue
     Old gold
Flag
Publication The Delta Upsilon Quarterly
Chapters 76 active chapters (2012)[1]
155 chapters since founding
Members 3,954 undergraduate
80,000 living alumni collegiate
110,000+ lifetime
Animal Duck (unofficial)[2][3][4]
Headquarters 8705 Founders Road,
Indianapolis, Indiana, United States
Homepage Delta Upsilon fraternity website

Delta Upsilon (ΔΥ) is the seventh oldest extant, all-male, college Williams College in Williamstown, Massachusetts, it is popularly and informally known as "Delta U" or "DU" and its members sometimes called "DUs". Though historically set at New England private universities, as of 2012 it had 76 chapters across the United States and Canada.[1][5] A number of its buildings are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

In 2013, Order of Merit, and the Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav.[5][7][8][9]

Contents

  • History 1
    • Founding and early history 1.1
    • Abandoning "anti-secrecy" 1.2
    • 20th century 1.3
    • 21st century 1.4
    • Secessionist chapters 1.5
      • Delta Psi 1.5.1
      • D.U. Club and Oak Club 1.5.2
      • Kappa Delta Upsilon 1.5.3
    • "Four Founding Principles" 1.6
  • Symbols 2
    • Badge 2.1
    • Coat of arms 2.2
    • Colors 2.3
    • Flag 2.4
    • Hat band 2.5
    • Motto 2.6
    • Ribbon 2.7
    • Seal 2.8
    • Songs 2.9
  • Organization 3
    • Chapters 3.1
    • Governance 3.2
    • Headquarters 3.3
    • Publications 3.4
  • Notable members 4
  • In popular culture 5
  • References 6
  • External links 7
    • Official sites 7.1
    • Media 7.2

History

Founding and early history

Delta Upsilon's mother chapter was founded in 1834 in the West College building (pictured) at Williams College.

Delta Upsilon considers its founding to be 1834, when thirty freshman, sophomore, and junior students at

  • House tour of the Delta Upsilon chapter at Cornell University
  • Lou Holtz welcome video for pledge class of University of Tennessee at Chattanooga chapter of Delta Upsilon
  • Delta Upsilon's Georgia Tech chapter defeats Delta Chi's Georgia Tech chapter at tug of war in 2013

Media

  • Delta Upsilon International Fraternity
  • Delta Upsilon Educational Foundation

Official sites

External links

  1. ^ a b c "College Rankings 2012: Top Fraternities".  
  2. ^ "Undergraduate Chapter". wiudu.com. Delta Upsilon Western Illinois University Chapter. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  3. ^ "Delta Upsilon". gvsu.edu. Grand Valley State University. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  4. ^ "Delta Upsilon North Dakota chapter". und.edu. University of North Dakota. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f Anson, Jack (1991). Baird's Manual of American College Fraternities. Bairds Manual Foundation.  
  6. ^ La Roche, Julie (13 February 2013). "17 Fraternities With Top Wall Street Alumni".  
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Baird, William (1905). Baird's Manual of American College Fraternities (6th Edition). Alcolm. pp. 165–168. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  8. ^ a b Rothschild, Scott (24 September 2012). "Colombian President Juan Manuel Santos recalls years at KU, discusses importance of diplomacy". Lawrence Journal-World ( 
  9. ^ "Medal of Honor Recipients". nicindy.org.  
  10. ^ a b c Spring, Leverett (1917). A History of Williams College. Houghton Mifflin. pp. 286–287. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i Miller, Thomas (1934). Delta Upsilon One Hundred Years 1834-1934. Delta Upsilon. 
  12. ^ a b Robson, John (1968). Baird's Manual of American College Fraternities (18th Edition). George Banta Company. p. 281. 
  13. ^ "From Troubled Times, New Strengths". deltau.org. Delta Upsilon fraternity. Retrieved 17 December 2014. 
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k The Cornerstone: Delta Upsilon's Guide to College and Beyond. Delta Upsilon International Fraternity. 1991. 
  15. ^ Stevens, Albert (1907). The Cyclopædia of Fraternities. E.B. Treat and Co. p. 331. 
  16. ^ Porter, J.A. (February 1889). "College Fraternities".  
  17. ^ "Secret Societies in Colleges".  
  18. ^ Wurgraft, Benjamin (2013). Jews at Williams: Inclusion, Exclusion, and Class at a New England Liberal Arts College.  
  19. ^ Petition of the Zeta Chi Fraternity of Baker University to the Delta Upsilon Fraternity. Zeta Chi. 1926. 
  20. ^ "Heads Fraternity". Lethbridge Herald. 4 October 1943. 
  21. ^ "John Arthur Clark 1886-1976". Delta Upsilon Quarterly. Spring 1976. 
  22. ^ "Previous Recipients". ncindy.org. North American Interfraternit Conference. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  23. ^ a b Naline, Lai (7 February 1986). "KDU is Now Delta Upsilon". Brown Daily Herald. 
  24. ^ Edwards, Victoria. "Memorial Number: 24075-047". forces.gc.ca. National Defence Canada Directorate of History and Heritage. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  25. ^ "Mackenzie King Scholarships". mcgill.ca.  
  26. ^ "Campus Life: Rutgers; Two Fraternities Are Suspended For Violations".  
  27. ^ Killackey, Jill (13 December 1990). "Ban for "Despicable' Hazing Stands".  
  28. ^ "Union Suspends Students". Daily Gazette. 27 May 1995. Retrieved 14 December 2014. 
  29. ^ Friedman, Jordan (20 September 2011). "Strahine Shares Hazing Experiences". Emory Wheel. Retrieved 16 December 2014. 
  30. ^  
  31. ^ a b "Delta Upsilon International Fraternity Suspends Technology Chapter". deltau.org. Delta Upsilon International Fraternity. Retrieved 16 December 2014. 
  32. ^ a b Bent, Drew (2 December 2014). "Behind the suspension of MIT Delta Upsilon". The Tech. 
  33. ^ "Webster Chapter Installed". DU Quarterly (Delta Upsilon Fraternity). 2009. p. 7. Retrieved 2009-07-29. 
  34. ^ Thomas, John (2005). University of Vermont. Arcadia. p. 30.  
  35. ^ Chase, William (1884). The Delta Upsilon Quinquennial Catalogue. Delta Upsilon. p. 320. 
  36. ^ Olsen, Sarah (30 September 2014). "New Fraternity to Join UVM". The Vermont Cynic ( 
  37. ^ "D. U. MEMBERS IN COURT ON DISPUTE OVER CLUBHOUSE".  
  38. ^ "An Accident Waiting to Happen?". Harvard Magazine. March 1998. Retrieved 16 December 2014. 
  39. ^ Granade, Matthew (6 June 1996). "Fly and D.U. Final Clubs Decide to Merge Assets, Alumni Membership".  
  40. ^ "History". theoakclub.org. The Oak Club. Retrieved 16 December 2014. 
  41. ^ a b "Brunoniana". brown.edu.  
  42. ^ a b "The President's Report". Delta Upsilon Quarterly. January 1986. 
  43. ^ "Since Last Time". Brown Alumni Monthly. February 1996. 
  44. ^ "Greek Houses". brown.edu. Brown University Greek Community. Retrieved 20 December 2014. 
  45. ^ a b Butterfield, Emily (1934). College Fraternity Heraldry. Banta Co. 
  46. ^ "Delta Upsilon". uspto.gov. U.S. Patent and Trademark Office Trademark Electronic Search System. Retrieved 14 December 2014. 
  47. ^ "It's as Easy to Buy Your Fraternity Hat Band as it is to Buy Your Hats". Delta Upsilon Quarterly. 1 April 1922. 
  48. ^ "The Hamilton Convention". Delta Upsilon Quarterly. 1 December 1905. 
  49. ^ "Miss Yvonne Richardson". Belleville Telescope ( 
  50. ^ Associate Member Education Manual Fall 2010. Ohio University Delta Upsilon. 2010. p. 8. 
  51. ^ "TIME Magazine Wall". deltau.org. Delta Upsilon. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  52. ^ "From Our Archives". deltau.org. Delta Upsilon. Retrieved 20 December 2014. 
  53. ^ "Delta Upsilon Fraternity records, 1847-1942". catalog.nypl.org.  
  54. ^ "History of the Quarterly". deltau.org. Delta Upsilon. Retrieved 14 December 2014. 
  55. ^ Simpson (1906). "the Greek Press". ATO Palm. Retrieved 21 December 2014. 
  56. ^ "Delta Upsilon Fraternity, Certificate of Membership". oregonstate.edu. Oregon State University Libraries - Linus Pauling Collection. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  57. ^ Edmiston, Fred (2003). The Coon-Sanders Nighthawks: "The Band That Made Radio Famous". McFarland. p. 250. 
  58. ^ Vonnegut, Kurt (1963). Cat's Cradle. Holt, Rinehart and Winston.  
  59. ^ "Stookey Was A Spartan". michiganrockandrolllegends.com. Michigan Rock and Roll Legends. Retrieved 30 December 2014. 
  60. ^ Joline, Michelle (8 September 2011). "Bucknell celebrates its part in the invention of beer pong". The Bucknellian. Retrieved 29 December 2014. 
  61. ^ Jones, Janna (6 December 2013). "NAU Film Series: College has never been funnier".  
  62. ^ Pelzek, Erica (9 April 2006). "Playboy pics feature UW". The Daily Cardinal ( 
  63. ^ "Reno Rating Success for Discovery Channel! Episode 1 of Canada's Worst Handyman 5 Wins the Night for Specialty with 500,000 Viewers". May 4, 2010. Retrieved May 4, 2010. 

References

  • In 1932, one of the final performances of Washington and Lee University chapter of Delta Upsilon.[57]
  • Kurt Vonnegut's 1963 Hugo Award–nominated novel Cat's Cradle opens with narrator Jonah recalling he had read in the Delta Upsilon Quarterly that main character Newton Hoenikker, who controls the last crystals of the doomsday compound Ice-nine, had recently pledged to the Cornell University chapter of Delta Upsilon (it is later learned that Hoenikker has been de-pledged for poor grades).[58]
  • Noel Stookey ("Paul" of Peter, Paul and Mary) was introduced to Jim Mosby—Peter, Paul and Mary's early manager—by Mary Hewes who had, herself, met Stookey at a party at the Delta Upsilon chapter at Michigan State University, where Stookey was a member.[59]
  • According to campus newspaper The Bucknellian, the game of beer pong was invented at Bucknell University's Delta Upsilon chapter in the 1970s.[60]
  • The 1978 film Animal House was based, in part, on producer Ivan Reitman's experiences as a member of the McMaster University chapter of Delta Upsilon.[61]
  • In 2006 Playboy staged a photo shoot at the University of Wisconsin Delta Upsilon chapter. The photo, which ran in the May 2006 issue of the magazine, featured 23 Delta Upsilon members posing with 19 naked females in an article naming Wisconsin the nation's "#1 party school".[62]
  • The 2010 season of Canada's Worst Handyman was set at the Delta Upsilon chapter house at the University of Western Ontario, described as "a frat house condemned by the city after a century as London's most prestigious fraternity". The house was reoccupied by Delta Upsilon following the end of filming. Ratings for the season were higher than any other non-sports show on a specialty channel airing on the same day.[63]
The main character in Cat's Cradle is a former pledge of the Delta Upsilon chapter at Cornell University.

In popular culture

Delta Upsilon member Linus Pauling (Oregon State 1922) is a member of a small group of individuals who have been awarded more than one Nobel Prize.[56] Two Delta Upsilon fraternity members, Alfred P. Sloan (Technology 1895) and Charles F. Kettering (Ohio State 1904), joined together in 1945 to found the Sloan-Kettering Institute, which is now part of the world's oldest and largest private cancer research facility, the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center.[5]

The current President of Colombia, Juan Manuel Santos Calderón (Kansas 1973), was initiated into Delta Upsilon as an undergraduate student at the University of Kansas and credits the fraternity in helping form his political ideals.[8]

Notable Canadian DUs include Prime Minister and Nobel Prize recipient Lester B. Pearson (Toronto 1919), actor Alan Thicke (Western Ontario 1967), Alberta premier E. Peter Lougheed (Alberta 1959), Ontario premier John P. Robarts (Western Ontario 1939), and Minister of Foreign Affairs David Emerson (Alberta 1964).[5]

The fraternity's membership roster includes United States President James A. Garfield (Williams 1856), Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court Charles Evans Hughes (Colgate and Brown 1881), United States Senator-Vermont Justin S. Morrill (Middlebury 1860), former Commander in Chief of the US Central Command Tommy Franks (Texas 1963), author Stephen Crane (Lafayette and Syracuse 1894), author Kurt Vonnegut, Jr. (Cornell 1944), former Chairman and CEO of Walt Disney Co. Michael D. Eisner (Denison 1964), and Nobel Prize recipients Charles Dawes (Marietta 1884), Christian B. Anfinsen (Swarthmore 1937), and Edward C. Prescott (Swarthmore 1962).[5][7]

Colombian President Juan Manuel Santos Calderón, a Delta Upsilon member from the fraternity's University of Kansas chapter, discusses bilateral cooperation issues with United States President Barack Obama in 2013.

Notable members

The Cornerstone: Delta Upsilon's Guide to College and Beyond is the fraternity's membership manual. It includes not only information on the history and principles of the fraternity, but also guidelines on dress, speech, manners, and formal etiquette.[14]

The Delta Upsilon Quarterly began publication in 1882 as the fraternity's official magazine.[54] In 1906 the Alpha Tau Omega Palm declared it was, among all fraternity journals, second in quality only to the Kappa Sigma Caduceus.[55]

Publications

The fraternity's headquarters stores its archives and records from 1942 to the present. Older records are in the custody of the Manuscripts and Archives Division of the New York Public Library.[52][53]

In the headquarters building is a display of all TIME Magazine covers on which Delta Upsilon members have appeared. According to the fraternity, the reproduction of early covers of the magazine was authorized by TIME editor-in-chief Hedley Donovan, a member of Delta Upsilon's University of Minnesota chapter.[51]

The chapter house of the Iowa State University chapter of Delta Upsilon is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

The Butler Memorial Headquarters Building is located in Indianapolis, Indiana. Completed in 1971, it is located on a road with eight other fraternity and sorority headquarters (prior to this, the fraternity was headquartered in New York city). The building was financed with a bequest from Lester E. Cox, a University of Pennsylvania chapter alumnus who left half his estate to the fraternity. It is named in honor of Wilford A. Butler, who served as the fraternity's executive director from 1963 to 1987.[14]

Headquarters

The Undergraduate Convention and the Assembly of Trustees meet annually. They form the bicameral legislature of the fraternity and make, repeal, and adopt fraternity law. An indirectly elected board oversees the operations of the fraternity between meetings of the two chambers and hires an executive-director who manages the full-time secretariat which, according to the fraternity, currently employees 21 persons.

Governance

This map shows the expansion of active undergraduate chapters of Delta Upsilon from 1834 to 2014 in the United States (Canada not reflected here).

Delta Upsilon is currently organized into 76 active chapters, of which five are in Canada and the remainder in the United States.[1] The United States chapters are divided into five provinces, each overseen by a governor appointed by the international president. The Canadian chapters are grouped into what the fraternity calls "the Canadian conference". Chapters are named after the school at which they are sited, with the exception of the now-defunct City College of New York chapter which was called the Manhattan chapter.[7]

Chapters

The University of Illinois Delta Upsilon house is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

Organization

A more extensive volume of fraternity songs is indexed in the fraternity's songbook Songs My Brothers Taught Me.[14]

The traditional air "Down Among the Dead Men" is used as a toasting song at formal dinners with slightly modified lyrics penned by Joyce Kilmer. The "Delta Upsilon Sweetheart Song" is a courting song used in different ways by different chapters. At Ohio University, for instance, it is performed at the chapter's spring cotillion and it has also been played at the weddings of members.[49][50]

"Tis the Plan of Delta U" by John Briggs and Joel Slocum, from the fraternity's Rochester University and Colby College chapters respectively, tells of the expansion of Delta Upsilon into Canada (poetically termed "Our Lady of the Snows") leading to the hearts of Americans and Canadians being "linked together at the shrine of Delta U".

The "Delta Upsilon Ode" is also used for special occasions; its melody and lyrics were penned by Edward La Wall Seip of Delta Upsilon's Lafayette College chapter.

The fraternity hymn is "Hail, Delta Upsilon", which is set to the melody of "God Save the Tsar". Though written in four stanzas, only the first is typically used.[14]

Delta Upsilon Sweetheart Song (sample)
Down Among the Dead Men (sample)
Tis the Plan of Delta U (sample)
Delta Upsilon Ode (sample)
melody to Hail, Delta Upsilon
Cover of the sheet music to the 1896 publishing of the Delta Upsilon March

Songs

The seal of the fraternity, which is in the custody of the international headquarters in Indianapolis, is affixed to chapter charters and membership certificates. It is described in the fraternity's constitution as the shield of the coat of arms set in a circular band on which is inscribed "Delta Upsilon Fraternity 1834–1909".[14]

Seal

The design of the ribbon is similar to the interior stripes of the hat band, but with colors reversed. It is 36-inches in length with open ends, designed to be crossed and fastened by the badge.

Ribbon

The Fraternity's motto is "Dikaia Upotheke" in Ancient Greek—"Δικαια Υποθηκη"—which means "Justice, Our Foundation". The motto was adopted in 1858. Until this time, the motto of the Williams Chapter, "Ouden Adelon", meaning "Nothing Secret", was used.[14]

Motto

The fraternity's by-laws formerly prescribed a puggaree to band a boater hat that is black silk with the middle third occupied by alternating stripes of gold, blue, and gold. The hat band was initially only sold through the head office, however, in 1922 Delta Upsilon began licensing a small number of hatter shops, primarily in Manhattan and New England, to produce and sell the puggaree for $1 if the customer first displayed their badge to the clerk as a mark of identification.[47][48]

Hat band

A Delta Upsilon member wearing the fraternity ribbon with badge.

The current version of the Fraternity Flag was established in 1911 and consists of three vertical bars, blue, gold, and blue. The gold section is charged with the fraternity's badge. A flag of a solid gold field charged with a visual representation of the pledge pin is used by colonies.[14]

Flag

The colors of the Fraternity were approved as "Old Gold and Sapphire Blue" by the 1881 Convention. In 1866, the Convention first adopted "Chrome and Blue" as the official colors. These were altered to simply "Gold and Blue" in 1879, before taking on their current form in 1881.[14]

Colors

It is blazoned as Or, a balanced scale proper on a chief Azure, seven mullets of the first, four, and three. The crest is a monogram of the Greek letter Delta surcharged upon the letter Upsilon bearing the motto in Greek letters between two scrolls, the dexter charged with the number "1834", the sinister charged with the number "1909". The supporters are the heraldic banners of the arms of the Undergraduate Convention (Or, an oak tree proper on a mount in base Vert, on a chief Azure annulets (in fesse) co-joined) and the arms of the Assembly of Trustees (Azure, a chevron between five coronets, Or two, one and two).[45]

The coat of arms were assumed following incorporation.[45][46]

Coat of arms

The Associate Member Pin, also known as the Pledge Pin, consists of a gold Delta on blue enamel with a gold Upsilon in the center.[14]

The current Delta Upsilon badge was submitted to the fraternity's 1858 convention by a "badge committee", chaired by Edward Gardner. It features the Greek letter Delta superimposed on a Upsilon. The arms of the Upsilon each have a word of the Fraternity motto engraved on them in Greek letters, the left arm Δικαια, the right arm Υποθηκη.[11]

A newly initiated brother of the Boise State University chapter of Delta Upsilon receives the fraternity's badge in 2011.
An illustrated representation of the badge, which also forms part of the crest of the arms.

Badge

Symbols

The "Four Founding Principles" are currently: the Advancement of Justice, the Promotion of Friendship, the Development of Character, and the Diffusion of Liberal Culture.[14]

The Fraternity's Four Founding Principles originated in the Preamble to the early Constitution of the Anti-Secret Confederation. They remained unchanged until the 1891 Convention undertook a complete revision of the Constitution, article-by-article. In the new revision, the old Preamble was completely stricken and the following text was added to Article 1, Section 2: "The objects of this Fraternity shall include the promotion of friendship, the exertion of moral influence, the diffusion of liberal culture, and the advancement of equity in college affairs. It shall be non-secret." This version remained with minor changes until around 1923, when the first printed example of the current version was published in that year's edition of the Manual of Delta Upsilon.[11]

"Four Founding Principles"

Almost 20 years later, in 1986, the Brown chapter rejoined Delta Upsilon. Terry Bullock, then Delta Upsilon international president, wrote of the return of Brown that "there is no greater joy than the reconciliation of a family estranged for many years". The joy was short-lived, however, as the chapter again voted to disaffiliate in 1991, reverting to the name Kappa Delta Upsilon.[41][42] In 1996 Kappa Delta Upsilon was banned from campus for 5 years due to the circumstances surrounding a fire in its basement. It has yet to reestablish itself.[43][44]

Delta Upsilon's chapter at African-American as chapter president causing the fraternity's new southern chapters to threaten a boycott of the convention.) [23][41][42]

Kappa Delta Upsilon

After several decades of patient waiting for the D.U. Club to pass, Delta Upsilon chartered yet another chapter at Harvard. The new chapter was installed in 1999, four years after the D.U. Club had merged with the Fly Club. It unraveled faster than its predecessors, however. In 2005 the six-year-old Delta Upsilon chapter voted to disaffiliate from the fraternity. It has continued under the name "Oak Club" and currently claims more than 100 alumni who, it says, embody "many of the original DU principles". [40]

When the fraternity incorporated in 1909 it adopted a new constitution. The Harvard chapter immediately set-forth its views that the new constitution had been illegitimately enacted and had overly vested control in the professional leadership, undermining the ability of the chapters to democratically express themselves. Though a number of other chapters initially signaled support for the Harvard position, a proposed amendment to the new document failed. In 1915 the Harvard chapter stopped paying dues to the fraternity. A further shot across the bow of the international fraternity came when Harvard requested headquarters stop sending copies of the Delta Upsilon Quarterly because they "littered up the house". Open revolt came when the international fraternity tried to impose discipline on Harvard. Harvard responded by declaring it didn't recognize the authority of DU headquarters as Delta Upsilon had ceased to exist in 1909.[11] Delta Upsilon sued its rebellious chapter whose leaders included toy heir F.A.O. Schwartz, Jr.[37] Following the courtroom triumph of the DU headquarters, it expelled the rebellious members and initiated a hand-picked pledge class to continue the chapter.[11] Its victory was short-lived, though, as the recreated chapter itself voted to disaffiliate from Delta Upsilon. The secessionist group legally reconstituted itself as "the D.U. Club", taking the chapter roll book with them, and existed as a successful finals club for many decades on the Harvard campus. In 1995 the D.U. Club's alumni board voted to merge with the Fly Club.[38][39]

Delta Upsilon's first Harvard chapter revolted, disaffiliated, and ultimately merged with the Fly Club, whose clubhouse is pictured. A more recent colonization attempt proved similarly disastrous.

D.U. Club and Oak Club

Delta Psi continued as a very successful local fraternity for 150 years after leaving Delta Upsilon. During this period, DU avoided attempts to colonize the University of Vermont. In 2014, ten years after the collapse of Delta Psi, Delta Upsilon entered the Burlington campus for the first time since its split with Delta Psi, chartering a colony.[36]

In 1854 the University of Vermont chapter, which was named Delta Psi, severed its connections with the Anti-Secret Confederation. The cause of separation is lost to history with Delta Upsilon's own records recording that the exit of Delta Psi is "from causes unknown to us". A Delta Psi historian later claimed the withdrawal was due to the expenses the fraternity was incurring sending delegates to the meetings of the Anti-Secret Confederation.[7][11] It has also been speculated that Delta Psi felt local pressure in maintaining the A.S.C.'s militant stance against secret ritual; after separating from the A.S.C. it began to undertake secret work. (Delta Upsilon has maintained that it does not consider members of Delta Psi during the period it was affiliated with the A.S.C. to also be members of Delta Upsilon, the separation being so total that the "action removed all its members from membership in the Delta Upsilon fraternity".)[34][35]

Delta Psi

Secessionist chapters

On March 28, 2009, Delta Upsilon established its 152nd chapter, and the second of the 21st century, at Webster University in St. Louis, Missouri. The initiation was significant as it was the first time in more than a century that Delta Upsilon established a chapter at a school where no previous fraternities and sororities existed.[33]

Beginning in 2009 the fraternity closed a quarter of its chapters for what it characterized as "poor performance." A similar number of new colonies were established in their place under the central guidance of the national headquarters, which doubled its staff from 11 to 22.[30] Among the chapters targeted for closure was one of the fraternity's longest enduring chapters, the 120-year-old Technology chapter at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.[31] Though the shuttering of the Technology chapter was for what fraternity officials would only describe as inappropriate behavior, The Tech reported an investigation by Delta Upsilon had allegedly uncovered a prohibited "secret ritual" that had been performed by the chapter for the preceding 70 years. Officers of the Technology chapter, which one account described had a "growing distance from [the] international fraternity", rejected the charges, though acknowledged they had effectively stopped participating in the fraternity's programs.[32] In denying an appeal for restoration of the chapter, Delta Upsilon headquarters explained that they had "been working in coordination with university staff" but had been unable to reach a solution by which the chapter could continue at MIT. However, MIT administrators later disputed that they had ever had more than one communication with Delta Upsilon headquarters and said the decision to suspend its MIT chapter was the fraternity's alone.[31][32]

21st century

By 1986 Delta Upsilon had 88 active chapters, increasing to a high of 92 in 1991.[5] During the 1990s chapters at Rutgers University, Cornell University, Oklahoma State University, the University of Nebraska and Union College were closed or placed on probation after it was revealed pledges at those houses had been branded, paddled, and forced to eat garbage, among other things.[26][27][28][29]

Stained glass at McGill University's Redpath Library shows St. George coated in the tabard of Delta Upsilon. It commemorates 23 McGill members of Delta Upsilon killed in World War I.[24][25]

The turbulence the Greek system experienced in the middle 20th century began for Delta Upsilon in 1956. That year's sitting of the Undergraduate Convention was dissolved by emergency action of DU leadership to "prevent open dissension" in the wake of the election of an African-American as president of the Brown University chapter. The election had been denounced by a number of the fraternity's new southern chapters.[23]

In the 1950s, former Delta Upsilon international president Horace G. Nichol served as president of the North American Interfraternity Conference (NIC).[12] He was recognized for his work leading the NIC with the NIC Gold Medal in 1959.[22]

By 1920 the fraternity had grown to 44 chapters. Gen. John Arthur Clark, the celebrated former commander of the Seaforth Highlanders and a Member of Parliament from Vancouver, was elevated to "international president", the fraternity's penultimate office, in 1944, holding it for three consecutive terms. Clark became the first Canadian to hold the Delta Upsilon presidency.[20][21]

At the turn of the century the fraternity's growth plateaued due, in part, to opposition from a group of chapters to what was seen as the lessening of the fraternity's standards through colonization.[11] In 1898, Delta Upsilon joined the recent trend of fraternity expansion into Canada by chartering a chapter at McGill University in Montreal. However, most expansion in this period came in the form of the annexation of established local fraternities. Zeta Chi at Baker University was one local which unsuccessfully petitioned for annexation by Delta Upsilon.[19] In 1909, Charles Evans Hughes led the incorporation of the fraternity.[11]

Delta Upsilon members from the University of Washington chapter attend a rush party aboard the SS Tacoma in 1916.

20th century

Chief Justice of the United States Charles Evans Hughes served as president of Delta Upsilon and oversaw its incorporation.

This explanation has been more skeptically received by some, with one period observer caustically noting that Delta Upsilon "reveals very little more of what it does than the latter [secret fraternities]". [15] Others commented that chapter meetings were closed to all but initiated members and the fraternity was now practicing selective pledging and initiation, in contrast to its earliest days at Williams. Therefore, it was proffered, the description of the fraternity as a "private" society rather than a "non-secret" one might be more accurate.[16] The Harvard Crimson, meanwhile, poetically attributed the official change of position as due to "the sheer exhaustion of those that heretofore have maintained a vigorous tilt at the windmill for exercise's sake, on finding that the windmill stands the attack much better than they".[17] Writing in 2013, Benjamin Wurgraft of the New School for Social Research commented that Delta Upsilon's changes made it "nothing more than another fraternity—a rival for pledges rather than a force for unity".[18]

In 1879, Delta Upsilon formally disavowed its policy of anti-secrecy, instead adopting a program of what it described as "non-secrecy".[7] According to Delta Upsilon, the reason for this change was because it had been absolutely victorious in its battle against secrecy, "the character of the secret societies so altered, that hostility toward them decreased".[14]

Abandoning "anti-secrecy"

The March 1864 convention of the A.S.C. saw the organization formally change its name to Delta Upsilon, standardize insignia and ritual throughout all its member chapters, and establish a centralized administrative structure.[13]

Kōjirō Matsukata (bottom right), the son of Prince Matsukata, was initiated into Delta Upsilon at Rutgers University in 1885.

At the 1862 convention, the fraternity's mother chapter, Williams, declared the purposes of the fraternity had been corrupted and, over the objections of the other chapters, withdrew. Two years later it dissolved itself. A chapter would eventually be restored. However, Williams being the first chapter and, therefore, self-chartering, this would come in the form of a new chapter and not the revival of the original. It was permanently erased when Williams College banned all fraternities in 1962.[10][11]

In November 1847 Williams' Social Fraternity met with similar societies that had recently been formed at Union College, Hamilton College, and Amherst College and formed the "Anti-Secret Confederation". A second meeting of the Anti-Secret Confederation (A.S.C.) in 1852 saw fraternities from Wesleyan University, Case Western Reserve University, Colby College, and the University of Vermont join.[7]

Growth of the Social Fraternity (whose members were informally called the "Oudens") was exponential. By 1838 two-thirds of all students at Williams belonged to the society which engaged in militant agitation against the other two fraternities. One particularly violent incident occurred in 1839 when Oudens assaulted the Kappa Alpha house, driving its occupants to the top of Consumption Hill. More refined conflict took the form of pamphlets and debate. An 1855 debate proposed by Kappa Alpha against the Oudens was called-off after the Social Fraternity appointed James Garfield, an Ouden well known for his rhetorical skills, to represent them.[10]

[12]

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