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Demographics of Tanzania

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Demographics of Tanzania

Tanzanian people
Total population
44,928,923 (2012 census)
Diaspora est. 3.7 million[1]
Regions with significant populations
United Kingdom 35,000
United States 20,308[2]
Canada 19,500[3]
Australia 1,500[3]
Sweden 900[3]
Italy 900[3]
Denmark 700[3]
Switzerland 500[3]
France 500[3]
Languages
Kiswahili, English and Regional languages
Religion
Christianity, Islam and Indigenous beliefs

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Tanzania, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations, and other aspects of the population.

The population distribution in Tanzania is extremely uneven. Most people live on the northern border or the eastern coast, with much of the remainder of the country being sparsely populated.[4]:page 1252 Density varies from 12 per square kilometre (31/sq mi) in the Katavi Region to 3,133 per square kilometre (8,110/sq mi) in the Dar es Salaam Region.[5]:page 6 Approximately 70 percent of the population is rural, although this percentage has been declining since at least 1967.[6] Dar es Salaam is the de facto capital and largest city. Dodoma, located in the centre of Tanzania, is the de jure capital, although action to move government buildings to Dodoma has stalled.

The population consists of about 125 ethnic groups.[7] The Sukuma, Nyamwezi, Chagga, and Haya peoples have more than 1 million members each.[8]:page 4

Over 100 different languages are spoken in Tanzania, making it the most linguistically diverse country in East Africa.[9] Among the languages spoken in Tanzania are all four of Africa's language families: Bantu, Cushitic, Nilotic, and Khoisan.[9] Swahili and English are Tanzania's official languages.[9] Swahili belongs to the Bantu branch of the Niger-Congo family.[10] The Sandawe people speak a language that may be related to the Khoe languages of Botswana and Namibia, while the language of the Hadzabe people, although it has similar click consonants, is arguably a language isolate.[11] The language of the Iraqw people is Cushitic.[12] Other languages are Indian languages and Portuguese (spoken by Goans and Mozambicans).

Although much of Zanzibar's native population came from the mainland, one group known as Shirazis traces its origins to the island's early Persian settlers. Non-Africans residing on the mainland and Zanzibar account for 1 percent of the total population. The Asian community, including Hindus, Sikhs, Shi'a and Sunni Muslims, Parsis, and Goans, has declined by 50 percent in the past decade to 50,000 on the mainland and 4,000 on Zanzibar. An estimated 70,000 Arabs and 20,000 Europeans (90 percent of which are from the British diaspora) reside in Tanzania.

Based on 1999–2003 data, over 74,000 Tanzanian-born people were living in residing in the United Kingdom; 19,960 in Canada; 12,225 in the United States; 1,714 in Australia; 1,180 in the Netherlands; and 1,012 in Sweden.[13]

Contents

  • Population 1
    • Structure of the population 1.1
  • Vital statistics 2
  • Population 3
    • Fertility and Births (Demographic and Health Surveys) 3.1
  • Total fertility rate in Tanzania 4
  • CIA World Factbook demographic statistics 5
    • Population 5.1
    • Median age 5.2
    • Sex ratio 5.3
    • Life expectancy at birth 5.4
    • HIV/AIDS 5.5
    • Languages 5.6
    • Literacy 5.7
  • Religions 6
  • See also 7
  • References 8

Population

Demographics of Tanzania, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands.
The Bantu Sukuma are Tanzania's largest ethnic group.

According to the 2012 census, the total population was 44,928,923 compared to 12,313,469 in 1967,[5]:page 1 resulting in an annual growth rate of 2.9 percent. The under 15 age group represented 44.1 percent of the population, with 35.5 percent being in the 15–35 age group, 52.2 percent being in the 15–64 age group, and 3.8 percent being older than 64.[14]

According to the 2012 revison of the World Population Prospects, children below the age of 15 constituted 44.8 percent of the total population, with 52.0 percent aged 15–64 and 3.1 percent aged 65 or older.[15]

Total population[15] Population aged 0–14 (%)[15] Population aged 15–64 (%)[15] Population aged 65+ (%)[15]
1950 7,650,000 46.0 51.8 2.2
1955 8,741,000 45.7 52.0 2.3
1960 10,074,000 45.8 51.8 2.4
1965 11,683,000 45.8 51.7 2.4
1970 13,605,000 46.2 51.3 2.5
1975 15,978,000 46.4 51.1 2.6
1980 18,687,000 46.5 50.8 2.6
1985 21,850,000 46.4 51.0 2.7
1990 25,485,000 46.0 51.3 2.7
1995 29,944,000 45.3 51.9 2.8
2000 34,021,000 44.8 52.3 2.9
2005 38,824,000 44.6 52.4 3.0
2010 44,793,000 44.8 52.0 3.1

Structure of the population [16]

Structure of the population (01.07.2013) (Estimates) :
Age Group Male Female Total %
Total 23 267 957 23 864 623 47 132 580 100
0-4 4 191 004 4 121 103 8 312 107 17,64
5-9 3 608 891 3 551 955 7 160 846 15,19
10-14 2 735 494 2 728 687 5 464 181 11,59
15-19 2 494 983 2 490 960 4 985 943 10,58
20-24 2 179 173 2 160 970 4 340 143 9,21
25-29 1 730 600 1 754 007 3 484 607 7,39
30-34 1 289 114 1 563 083 2 852 197 6,05
35-39 1 207 182 1 394 428 2 601 610 5,52
40-44 1 032 605 1 088 697 2 121 302 4,50
45-49 770 149 797 868 1 568 017 3,33
50-54 604 621 629 580 1 234 201 2,62
55-59 422 141 459 343 881 484 1,87
60-64 347 604 387 334 734 938 1,56
65-69 223 365 243 517 466 882 0,99
70-74 179 960 207 795 387 755 0,82
75-79 115 076 130 796 245 872 0,52
80+ 135 995 154 500 290 495 0,62
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0-14 10 535 389 10 401 745 20 937 134 44,42
15-64 12 078 172 12 726 270 24 804 442 52,63
65+ 654 396 736 608 1 391 004 2,95

Vital statistics

The Tanzanian Demographic and Health Survey 2010 estimated that the infant mortality rate for 2005–10 was 51.[17] Registration of other vital events in Tanzania is not complete. The Population Department of the United Nations prepared the following estimates.[15]

Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR* CDR* NC* TFR* IMR*
1950-1955 402,000 184,000 218,000 49.0 22.4 26.6 6.74 153
1955-1960 464,000 198,000 267,000 49.3 21.0 28.3 6.80 143
1960-1965 535,000 218,000 322,000 49.1 20.1 29.0 6.80 136
1965-1970 616,000 239,000 384,000 48.7 18.9 29.8 6.79 128
1970-1975 709,000 258,000 475,000 48.0 17.5 30.5 6.75 119
1975-1980 821,000 275,000 542,000 47.4 15.9 31.5 6.73 109
1980-1985 932,000 307,000 633,000 46.0 15.2 30.8 6.55 104
1985-1990 1,061,000 348,000 727,000 44.8 14.7 30.1 6.36 102
1990-1995 1,197,000 423,000 892,000 43.2 15.3 27.9 6.05 102
1995-2000 1,336,000 480,000 815,000 41.8 15.0 26.8 5.75 92
2000-2005 1,522,000 492,000 961,000 41.8 13.5 28.3 5.66 77
2005-2010 1,744,000 454,000 1,230,000 41.6 10.8 30.2 5.58 61
* CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births
Births and deaths [18]
Year Population Live births Deaths Natural increase Crude birth rate Crude death rate Rate of natural increase TFR
2009 1 667 889 577 393 1 090 496
2010 1 678 325 573 213 1 105 122
2011 1 687 203 565 099 1 122 104
2012 44 928 923 1 694 943 555 975 1 138 968 3.685

Population

Source:[19]

Region 1967 (Population / Crude Birth Rate / Total Fertility Rate) 1978 (Population / Crude Birth Rate / Total Fertility Rate) 1988 (Population / Crude Birth Rate / Total Fertility Rate) 2002 (Population / Crude Birth Rate / Total Fertility Rate) 2012 (Population / Crude Birth Rate / Total Fertility Rate)
Tanzania, including Zanzibar 12,313,469 / 47 / 7.3 17,036,499 / 49 / 6.3 22,455,207 / 47 / 5.4 33,461,849 / 43 / 4.2 44,928,923 / /
Zanzibar 354,815 / 48 / 7.3 476,111 / 48 / 7.1 640,675 / 49 / 6.4 981,754 / 43 / 4.5 1,303,569 / /

Fertility and Births (Demographic and Health Surveys)

Total Fertility Rate (TFR) (Wanted Fertility Rate) and Crude Birth Rate (CBR):[20]

Year CBR (Total) TFR (Total) CBR (Urban) TFR (Urban) CBR (Rural) TFR (Rural) CBR (Zanzibar) TFR (Zanzibar)
1991-1992 42,8 6,25 (5,57) 42,1 5,14 43,0 6,59 (5,91)
1996 40,8 5,82 (5,1) 36,3 4,11 (3,5) 41,9 6,34 (5,5)
1999 41,4 5,55 (4,8) 34,4 3,16 (2,9) 43,5 6,48 (5,5)
2004-2005 42,4 5,7 (4,9) 34,6 3,6 (3,1) 44,8 6,5 (5,6) 38,0 5,3 (4,6)
2010 38,1 5,4 (4,7) 35,0 3,7 (3,3) 39,0 6,1 (5,3) 35,9 5,1 (4,8)

Total fertility rate in Tanzania

Fertility rates are estimated by Surveys (TDHS) and Census in different times. TDHS surveys estimated these fertility rates :6.3 (1991–92), 5.8 (1996), 5.7 (2004–05), 5.4 (2010) and 2002 Census said 6.3 [21]

Region 1967[22] 1978[22] 1988[22] 2002[22] 2006-09[17]
Tanzania (country total) 7.3 6.3 5.4 4.2 5.4
Dodoma(capital) 7.6 6.2 5.9 4.5
Arusha 7.5 7.0 6.0 3.4
Kilimanjaro 8.9 7.5 5.8 3.4
Tanga 7.7 6.2 5.1 3.7
Morogoro 6.2 6.5 4.3 3.6
Pwani 5.8 6.1 5.4 3.7
Dar es Salaam 5.0 5.4 3.4 1.9
Lindi - 5.4 4.6 3.1
Mtwara 5.7 4.9 4.5 3.1
Ruvuma 7.1 6.1 5.0 3.6
Iringa 7.8 6.3 4.9 3.6
Mbeya 8.1 6.3 4.7 3.5
Singida 6.3 5.9 5.7 4.8
Tabora 6.7 6.0 5.4 4.9
Rukwa - 6.1 6.2 5.0
Kigoma 6.6 7.2 6.5 5.5
Shinyanga 8.7 6.9 6.3 5.6
Kagera 7.5 7.3 6.9 5.4
Mwanza 8.1 7.1 6.1 5.0
Mara 8.0 6.9 5.9 5.9
Manyara - - - 4.9
Tanzania Mainland 7.3 6.3 5.4 4.2 5.4
North Unguja - 7.1 7.0 4.9
South Unguja - 6.2 6.5 4.2
Urban West - 6.1 5.2 3.6
North Pemba - 8.3 6.9 5.7
South Pemba - 8.2 7.6 5.8
Tanzania Zanzibar 7.3 7.1 6.4 4.5 5.1

CIA World Factbook demographic statistics

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.[23]

Population

  • 48,261,942 (July 2013 estimate)

Note: Estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected.

Old Tanzanian woman in Arusha, 2008.

Median age

total: 17.3 years
male: 17.0 years
female: 17.6 years (2013 estimate)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15–54 years: 1.00 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.75 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2013 estimate)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 60.76 years
male: 59.48 years
female: 62.09 years (2013 estimate)

HIV/AIDS

Age 15-49 HIV infection rates:

5.1 percent overall,[24] with 6.2 percent of women[25] and 3.8 percent of men[26] being infected.[27]

People living with HIV/AIDS:

1.6 million (2011 estimate)[28]

Deaths:

86,000 (2009 estimate)

Languages

Swahili or Kiswahili (official), English (official, primary language of commerce, administration, and higher education), many local languages from six families.

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write Swahili, English, or Arabic
total population: 69.4%
male: 77.5%
female: 62.2% (2003 est.)

Religions

Most Tanzanians are nowadays Christians and Muslims. The numerical relationship between followers of the two religions is regarded as politically sensitive and questions about religious affiliation have not been included in census questionnaires since 1967.

For many years estimates have been repeated that about a third of the population each follows Islam, Christianity and traditional religions.[29]

As there is likely no longer such a large percentage of traditional religionists,[30] a range of competing estimates has been published giving one side or the other a large share or trying to show equal shares. These estimates range from 60% Christian : 36% Muslim in the Pew Report Islam and Christianity (2010) [31] to 55% Muslim majority on the website Muslimpopulation.com.[32]

Religion-related statistics for Tanzania have been regarded as notoriously biased and unreliable.[33]

The remainder of the population are Hindus, Buddhists, animists, and unaffiliated. Most Christians are Roman Catholic, Lutheran or Seventh-Day Adventist, though a number of other Pentecostal churches, Anglicans, and Eastern Orthodox Christians are also represented in the country. Most Tanzanian Muslims are Sunni, though there are also populations of Ibadi, Shia, Ahamadiya, Bohora, and Sufi. Muslims are concentrated in coastal areas and in mainland areas along former caravan trade routes.

See also

References

  1. ^
  2. ^
  3. ^ a b c d e f g
  4. ^ "Economy", authored by Joseph Lake, in Africa South of the Sahara, edited by Europa Publications and Iain Frame, Routledge, 2013
  5. ^ a b Population Distribution by Administrative Units, United Republic of Tanzania, 2013
  6. ^ , reported by Athuman Mtulya, 26 September 2013The Citizen"Report reveals rapid rural-urban migration",
  7. ^ , authored by David Levinson, Greenwood Publishing Group, 1998, page 173Ethnic Groups Worldwide: A Ready Reference Handbook
  8. ^ , authored by Kefa M. Otiso, ABC-CLIO, LLC, 2013Culture and Customs of Tanzania
  9. ^ a b c , edited by Ulrich Ammon, published by Walter de Gruyter, 2006, pages 1966-7Sociolinguistics: Regional overview"East Africa", authored by Silvester Ron Simango, in
  10. ^
  11. ^ , authored by Roger Blench, published by Rowman Altamira, 2006, pages 163-5, accessed 19 October 2014Archaeology, Language, and the African Past
  12. ^ , edited by M. Paul Lewis, Gary F. Simons, and Charles D. Fennig, SIL International, Seventeenth edition, Dallas, Texas, USA, accessed 14 October 2014Ethnologue: Languages of the World"Iraqw",
  13. ^
  14. ^ Tanzania in figures 2012, National Bureau of Statistics, Ministry of Finance, June 2013, page 23
  15. ^ a b c d e f , Population Estimates and Projections Section, Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United NationsWorld Population Prospects: The 2012 Revision
  16. ^ http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/dyb/dyb2.htm
  17. ^ a b Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey 2010, Tanzania National Bureau of Standards, funding provided by the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (Tanzania), Tanzania Food and Nutrition Centre, Department for International Development (United Kingdom), World Health Organization/Zanzibar, United Nations Fund for Population Activities, United Nations Children's Fund, World Food Programme, United Nations Development Programme, and Irish Aids, technical assistance provided by ICF Macro through its MEASURE DHS programme, survey conducted 19 December 2010 to 23 May 2011, with results applying to the preceding three-year period
  18. ^ http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/dyb/dyb2.htm
  19. ^ Analytical Report, 2002 Census, United Republic of Tanzania
  20. ^ http://microdata.worldbank.org/catalog/dhs#_r=&collection=&country=&dtype=&from=1890&page=15&ps=&sk=&sort_by=nation&sort_order=&to=2014&topic=&view=s&vk=
  21. ^ http://www.nbs.go.tz/takwimu/references/2010TDHS.pdf
  22. ^ a b c d 2002 Census, United Republic of Tanzania
  23. ^ The World Factbook - Tanzania
  24. ^ At a 95 percent confidence level, the rate was 4.6 to 5.6 percent. Refer to page 202 of the survey.
  25. ^ At a 95 percent confidence level, the rate was 5.5 to 6.8 percent. Refer to page 202 of the survey.
  26. ^ At a 95 percent confidence level, the rate was 3.2 to 4.5 percent. Refer to page 202 of the survey.
  27. ^ , authorized by theTanzania HIV/AIDS and Malaria Indicator Survey 2011-12 Tanzania Commission for AIDS (TACAIDS) and the Zanzibar Commission for AIDS; implemented by the Tanzania National Bureau of Statistics in collaboration with the Office of the Chief Government Statistician (Zanzibar); funded by the United States Agency for International Development, TACAIDS, and the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, with support provided by ICF International; data collected 16 December 2011 to 24 May 2012; report published in Dar es Salaam in March 2013
  28. ^ ,UNAIDS World AIDS Day Report 2012 Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, page 7
  29. ^ So repeated here:
  30. ^ note continued adherence to traditional beliefs also among Christians and Muslims:"(In Tanzania) more than half the people surveyed believe that sacrifices to ancestors or spirits can protect them from harm." see Pew report Christians and Muslims in Subsaharan Africa (2010)
  31. ^
  32. ^
  33. ^
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