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Douglas Hofstadter

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Title: Douglas Hofstadter  
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Subject: Fluid Concepts and Creative Analogies, Gödel, Escher, Bach, I Am a Strange Loop, Le Ton beau de Marot, Consciousness
Collection: 1945 Births, 20Th-Century American Writers, 20Th-Century Philosophers, 21St-Century American Poets, 21St-Century American Writers, 21St-Century Philosophers, 21St-Century Translators, American Science Writers, American Skeptics, Cognitive Scientists, Fellows of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Fellows of the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry, Guggenheim Fellows, Indiana University Faculty, Living People, National Book Award Winners, Philosophers of Mind, Pulitzer Prize for General Non-Fiction Winners, Recreational Mathematicians, Stanford University Alumni, Translators of Alexander Pushkin, University of Michigan Faculty, University of Oregon Alumni
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Douglas Hofstadter

Douglas Hofstadter
Hofstadter in Bologna, Italy, in March 2002
Born Douglas Richard Hofstadter
(1945-02-15) February 15, 1945
New York City, United States
Other names 侯世达
Nationality United States
Fields Cognitive science
Philosophy of mind
Institutions Indiana University
Stanford University
University of Oregon
University of Michigan
Alma mater Stanford University (BSc)
University of Oregon (PhD)
Thesis The Energy Levels of Bloch Electrons in a Magnetic Field (1974)
Doctoral advisor Gregory Wannier[1]
Doctoral students David Chalmers
Harry Foundalis
Robert M. French
Scott A. Jones
James Marshall
Melanie Mitchell
Known for Gödel, Escher, Bach
I Am a Strange Loop[2]
Hofstadter's butterfly
Notable awards National Book Award
Pulitzer Prize
Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences
Spouse Carol Ann Brush (1985–1993; her death; 2 children)
Baofen Lin (2012–present)
He is the son of Robert Hofstadter.

Douglas Richard Hofstadter (born February 15, 1945) is an American professor of cognitive science whose research focuses on the sense of "I",[2][3] consciousness, analogy-making, artistic creation, literary translation, and discovery in mathematics and physics. He is best known for his book Gödel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid, first published in 1979. It won both the Pulitzer Prize for general non-fiction[4][5] and a National Book Award (at that time called The American Book Award) for Science.[6][1] His 2007 book I Am a Strange Loop won the Los Angeles Times Book Prize for Science and Technology.[7][8][9]


  • Early life and education 1
  • Academic career 2
    • Hofstadter's Law 2.1
    • Students 2.2
  • Public image 3
  • Columnist 4
  • Personal life 5
  • In popular culture 6
  • Published works 7
    • Books 7.1
    • Papers 7.2
    • Involvement in other books 7.3
  • See also 8
  • Notes 9
  • References 10
  • External links 11

Early life and education

Hofstadter was born in New York City, the son of Nobel Prize-winning physicist Robert Hofstadter. He grew up on the campus of Stanford University, where his father was a professor, and he attended the International School of Geneva in 1958–1959. He graduated with Distinction in Mathematics from Stanford University in 1965. He continued his education and received his Ph.D. in Physics[1][10] from the University of Oregon in 1975, where his study of the energy levels of Bloch electrons in a magnetic field led to his discovery of the fractal known as the Hofstadter butterfly.[10]

Academic career

Since 1988, Hofstadter has been the College of Arts and Sciences Distinguished Professor of Cognitive Science and Comparative Literature at Indiana University in Bloomington, where he directs the Center for Research on Concepts and Cognition which consists of himself and his graduate students, forming the "Fluid Analogies Research Group" (FARG).[11] He was initially appointed to the Indiana University's Computer Science Department faculty in 1977, and at that time he launched his research program in computer modeling of mental processes (which at that time he called "artificial intelligence research", a label that he has since dropped in favor of "cognitive science research"). In 1984, he moved to the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, where he was hired as a professor of psychology and was also appointed to the Walgreen Chair for the Study of Human Understanding. In 1988 he returned to Bloomington as "College of Arts and Sciences Professor" in both cognitive science and computer science, and also was appointed adjunct professor of history and philosophy of science, philosophy, comparative literature, and psychology, but he states that his involvement with most of these departments is nominal.[12][13][14] In April 2009 Hofstadter was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences[15] and a member of the American Philosophical Society.[16] In 2010 he was elected a member of the Royal Society of Sciences in Uppsala, Sweden.[17]

Hofstadter's many interests include music, visual art, the mind, creativity, consciousness, self-reference, translation and mathematics.

Hofstadter giving a presentation at the 2006 Singularity Summit

At the University of Michigan and Indiana University, he co-authored, with strange loop", which is an abstract cousin of such concrete phenomena as audio and video feedback, and which Hofstadter has defined as "a level-crossing feedback loop". The prototypical example of this abstract notion is the self-referential structure at the core of Gödel's incompleteness theorems. Hofstadter's 2007 book I Am a Strange Loop carries his vision of consciousness considerably further, including the idea that each human "I" is distributed over numerous brains, rather than being limited to precisely one brain.[24]

Hofstadter's writing is characterized by an intense interaction between form and content, as exemplified by the 20 dialogues in GEB, many of which simultaneously talk about and imitate strict musical forms used by Bach, such as canons and fugues. Most of Hofstadter's books feature some kind of structural alternation: in GEB between dialogues and chapters, in The Mind's I between selections and reflections, in Metamagical Themas between Chapters and Postscripts, and so forth. Both in his writing and in his teaching, Hofstadter stresses the concrete, constantly using examples and analogies, and avoids the abstract. Typical of the courses he teaches is his seminar "Group Theory and Galois Theory Visualized", in which abstract mathematical ideas are rendered as concretely as possible. He puts great effort into making ideas clear and visual, and asserts that when he teaches, if his students do not understand something, it is never their fault but always his own.

Hofstadter is passionate about languages. In addition to English, his mother tongue, he speaks French and Italian fluently (the language spoken at home with his children is Italian). At various times in his life, he has studied (in descending order of level of fluency reached) German, Russian, Spanish, Swedish, Mandarin, Dutch, Polish, and Hindi. His love of sounds pushes him to strive to minimize, and ideally get rid of, any foreign accent.

Le Ton beau de Marot: In Praise of the Music of Language is a long book devoted to language and translation, especially poetry translation, and one of its leitmotifs is a set of some 88 translations of "Ma Mignonne", a highly constrained poem by 16th-century French poet Clément Marot. In this book, Hofstadter jokingly describes himself as "pilingual" (meaning that the sum total of the varying degrees of mastery of all the languages that he's studied comes to 3.14159...), as well as an "oligoglot" (someone who speaks "a few" languages).[25][26]

In 1999, the bicentennial year of Russian poet and writer Alexander Pushkin, Hofstadter published a verse translation of Pushkin's classic novel-in-verse Eugene Onegin. Hofstadter has translated many other poems too (always respecting their formal constraints), and two novels (in prose): La Chamade (That Mad Ache) by French writer Françoise Sagan, and La Scoperta dell'Alba (The Discovery of Dawn) by Walter Veltroni, the then head of the Partito Democratico in Italy. The Discovery of Dawn was published in 2007, and That Mad Ache was published in 2009, bound together with Hofstadter's essay Translator, Trader: An Essay on the Pleasantly Pervasive Paradoxes of Translation.

Hofstadter's Law

Hofstadter's Law states that "It always takes longer than you expect, even when you take into account Hofstadter's Law." The Law is outlined in his work Gödel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid.


Hofstadter's former Ph.D. students[27] include (with dissertation title):

  • Don Byrd—Music Notation by Computer
  • David Chalmers—Toward a Theory of Consciousness
  • Gray A. Clossman—A Model of Categorization and Learning in a Connectionist Broadcast System
  • Hamid Ekbia—AI Dreams and Discourse: Science and Engineering in Tension
  • Harry Foundalis—Phaeaco: A Cognitive Architecture Inspired by Bongard's Problems
  • Bob French—Tabletop: An Emergent, Stochastic Model of Analogy-Making
  • Francisco Lara-Dammer—Modeling Human Discoverativity in Geometry
  • Abhijit Mahabal—SeqSee: A Concept-centered Architecture for Sequence Perception
  • Jim Marshall—Metacat: A Self-Watching Cognitive Architecture for Analogy-making and High level Perception
  • Gary McGraw—Letter Spirit (Part One): Emergent High-level Perception of Letters Using Fluid Concepts
  • Marsha Meredith—Seek-Whence: A Model of Pattern Perception
  • Eric Nichols—Musicat: A Computer Model of Musical Listening and Analogy-Making
  • Melanie Mitchell—Copycat: A Computer Model of High-Level Perception and Conceptual Slippage in Analogy-making
  • John Rehling—Letter Spirit (Part Two): Modeling Creativity in a Visual Domain
  • Wang Pei (Pei Wang) -- Non-Axiomatic Reasoning System: Exploring the Essence of Intelligence

Public image

Hofstadter has said that he feels "uncomfortable with the nerd culture that centers on computers". He admits that "a large fraction [of his audience] seems to be those who are fascinated by technology", but when it was suggested that his work "has inspired many students to begin careers in computing and artificial intelligence" he replied that he was pleased about that, but that he himself has "no interest in computers".[28][29] In that interview he also mentioned a course he has twice given at Indiana University, in which he took a "skeptical look at a number of highly-touted AI projects and overall approaches".[14] For example, upon the defeat of Garry Kasparov by Deep Blue, he commented that "It was a watershed event, but it doesn't have to do with computers becoming intelligent".[30]

Provoked by predictions of a Ray Kurzweil, Hans Moravec, Kevin Kelly, Ralph Merkle, Bill Joy, Frank Drake, John Holland and John Koza. Hofstadter was also an invited panelist at the first Singularity Summit, held at Stanford in May 2006. Hofstadter expressed doubt about the likelihood of the singularity coming to pass in the foreseeable future.[31][32][33][34][35][36]

In 1988 Dutch director Piet Hoenderdos created a docudrama about Hofstadter and his ideas, Victim of the Brain, based on The Mind's I. It includes interviews with Hofstadter about his work.[37]


When Frédéric Chopin's piano music (particularly the études), another on the concept of superrationality (choosing to cooperate when the other party/adversary is assumed to be equally intelligent as oneself), and one on the self-modifying game of Nomic, based on the way in which the legal system modifies itself, and developed by philosopher Peter Suber.[40]

Personal life

Hofstadter was married to Carol Ann Brush until her death. They met in Bloomington, and married in Ann Arbor in 1985. They had two children, Danny and Monica. Carol died in 1993 from the sudden onset of a brain tumor – glioblastoma multiforme – when their children were five and two. The Carol Ann Brush Hofstadter Memorial Scholarship for Bologna-bound Indiana University students was established in 1996 in her name.[41] Hofstadter's book Le Ton beau de Marot is dedicated to their two children and its dedication reads "To M. & D., living sparks of their Mommy's soul".

In the fall of 2010, Hofstadter met Baofen Lin in a chacha class, and the two were married in Bloomington in September 2012.[42]

Hofstadter has composed numerous pieces for piano, and a few for piano and voice. He created an audio CD with the title DRH/JJ, which includes all these compositions performed primarily by pianist Jane Jackson, but with a few performed by Brian Jones, Dafna Barenboim, Gitanjali Mathur and himself.[43]

The dedication for I Am A Strange Loop is: "To my sister Laura, who can understand, and to our sister Molly, who cannot."[44] Hofstadter explains in the preface that his younger sister Molly never developed the ability to speak or understand language.[45]

As a consequence of his attitudes about consciousness and empathy, Hofstadter has been a vegetarian for roughly half his life.[46]

In popular culture

In the 1982 novel 2010: Odyssey Two, Arthur C. Clarke's first sequel to 2001: A Space Odyssey, HAL 9000 is described by Dr. Chandra as being caught in a "Hofstadter–Möbius loop". The movie uses the term "H. Möbius loop".

In 1995, Hofstadter's book Fluid Concepts & Creative Analogies: Computer Models of the Fundamental Mechanisms of Thought was the first book ever sold by[47]

Published works


The books published by Hofstadter are (the ISBNs refer to paperback editions, where available):

  • Gödel, Escher, Bach: an Eternal Golden Braid (ISBN 0-465-02656-7) (1979)
  • Metamagical Themas (ISBN 0-465-04566-9) (collection of Scientific American columns and other essays, all with postscripts)
  • Ambigrammi: un microcosmo ideale per lo studio della creatività (ISBN 88-7757-006-7) (in Italian only)
  • Fluid Concepts and Creative Analogies (ISBN 0-465-02475-0)
  • Rhapsody on a Theme by Clement Marot (ISBN 0-910-15311-6) (1995, published 1996; volume 16 of series The Grace A. Tanner Lecture in Human Values)
  • Le Ton beau de Marot: In Praise of the Music of Language (ISBN 0-465-08645-4)
  • Eugene Onegin: A Novel Versification (ISBN 0-465-02094-1)
  • I Am a Strange Loop (ISBN 0-465-03078-5) (2007)
  • The Discovery of Dawn (ISBN 9780847831098) (2007) (a translation of a novel by Walter Veltroni)
  • That Mad Ache, co-bound with Translator, Trader: An Essay on the Pleasantly Pervasive Paradoxes of Translation (ISBN 9780465010981) (2009)
  • Surfaces and Essences: Analogy as the Fuel and Fire of Thinking, co-authored with Emmanuel Sander (ISBN 0465018475) (first published in French as L’Analogie. Cœur de la pensée; published in English in the US in April 2013)


Hofstadter has written, among many others, the following papers:

  • "Energy levels and wave functions of Bloch electrons in rational and irrational magnetic fields", (1976) 223914 Phys. Rev. B.
  • "A non-deterministic approach to analogy, involving the Ising model of ferromagnetism", in Eduardo Caianiello (ed.), The Physics of Cognitive Processes. Teaneck, NJ: World Scientific, 1987.
  • "To Err is Human; To Study Error-making is Cognitive Science" (co-authored by David J. Moser), Michigan Quarterly Review, Vol. XXVIII, No. 2, 1989, pp. 185-­215.
  • "Speechstuff and thoughtstuff: Musings on the resonances created by words and phrases via the subliminal perception of their buried parts", in Sture Allen (ed.), Of Thoughts and Words: The Relation between Language and Mind. Proceedings of the Nobel Symposium 92, London/New Jersey: World Scientific Publ., 1995, 217–267.
  • "On seeing A's and seeing As", Stanford Humanities Review Vol. 4, No. 2 (1995) pp. 109–121.
  • "Analogy as the Core of Cognition", in Dedre Gentner, Keith Holyoak, and Boicho Kokinov (eds.) The Analogical Mind: Perspectives from Cognitive Science, Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press/Bradford Book, 2001, pp. 499–538.

Hofstadter has also written over 50 papers that were published through the Center for Research on Concepts and Cognition.[48]

Involvement in other books

Hofstadter has written forewords for or edited the following books:

See also


  1. ^ GEB won the 1980 award for hardcover science.


  1. ^ a b Hofstadter, Douglas Richard (1974). The Energy Levels of Bloch Electrons in a Magnetic Field (PhD thesis). University of Oregon. 
  2. ^ a b Hofstadter, Douglas R. (2008). I Am a Strange Loop. New York: Basic Books.  
  3. ^ Hofstadter, D. R. (1982). "Who shoves whom around inside the careenium? Or what is the meaning of the word ?I??". Synthese 53 (2): 189–218.  
  4. ^ "General Nonfiction". Past winners and finalists by category. The Pulitzer Prizes. Retrieved 2012-03-17.
  5. ^ A bedside book of paradoxes, New York Times
  6. ^ "National Book Awards – 1980". National Book Foundation. Retrieved 2012-03-07.
  7. ^ Book Prizes – Los Angeles Times Festival of Books» Winners By Award. (1963-11-22). Retrieved on 2013-10-06.
  8. ^ List of publications from the DBLP Bibliography Server
  9. ^ Douglas Hofstadter from the Scopus bibliographic database.
  10. ^ a b Hofstadter, Douglas (1976). "Energy levels and wave functions of Bloch electrons in rational and irrational magnetic fields". Physical Review B 14 (6): 2239.  
  11. ^ Center for Research on Concepts and Cognition
  12. ^ IU pages as faculty, IU distinguished faculty (see this announcement on March 21, 2007) and as speaker
  13. ^ A Day in the Life of... Douglas Hofstadter 2004
  14. ^ a b Seminar: AI: Hope and Hype 1999
  15. ^ American Academy Announces 2009 Class of Fellows and Foreign Honorary Members
  16. ^ American Philosophical Society: Members
  17. ^ Center for Research on Concepts and Cognition: Indiana University Bloomington. Retrieved on 2013-10-06.
  18. ^ An overview of Metacat 2003
  19. ^ By Analogy: A talk with the most remarkable researcher in artificial intelligence today, Douglas Hofstadter, the author of Gödel, Escher, Bach Wired Magazine, November 1995
  20. ^ Analogy as the Core of Cognition Review of Stanford lecture, Feb 2, 2006
  21. ^ Center for Research on Concepts and Cognition
  22. ^ Sounds like Bach
  23. ^ Hofstadter, Douglas, To Err is Human; to Study Error-making is Cognitive Science. Together with David Moser. Michigan Quarterly Review, Vol. XXVIII, No. 2, 1989, pp. 185–215.
  24. ^ Consciousness In The Cosmos: Perspective of Mind: Douglas Hofstadter
  25. ^ Hofstadter, Douglas R. Le Ton Beau de Marot. New York: Basic Books, 1997, pp. 16–17.
  26. ^ Hofstadter, Douglas R. Le Ton Beau de Marot. New York: Basic Books, 1997, p. 627
  27. ^ "People at the CRCC". The Center for Research on Concepts and Cognition. Retrieved 18 Feb 2014. 
  28. ^ "Me, My Soul, and I". Wired. March 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-10. 
  29. ^ The Mind Reader, New York Times Magazine, April 1, 2007
  30. ^ Mean Chess-Playing Computer Tears at Meaning of Thought by Bruce Weber, February 19, 1996, New York Times
  31. ^ "Will Spiritual Robots Replace Humanity By 2100?", April 1, 2000 Note: as of 2007, videos seem to be missing.
  32. ^ "Moore's Law, Artificial Evolution, and the Fate of Humanity." In L. Booker, S. Forrest, et al. (eds.), Perspectives on Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.
  33. ^ The Singularity Summit at Stanford 2006
  34. ^ Trying to Muse Rationally about the Singularity Scenario 35 minute video, May 13, 2006
  35. ^ Quotes from his 2006 Singularity Summit presentation
  36. ^ "Staring EMI Straight in the Eye—and Doing My Best Not to Flinch." In David Cope, Virtual Music: Computer Synthesis of Musical Style, Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2001.
  37. ^ Victim of the Brain – 1988 docudrama about the ideas of Douglas Hofstadter
  38. ^ ideaReviews of this BookOnline implementation of his
  39. ^ A Person Paper on Purity in Language by William Satire (alias Douglas R. Hofstadter), 1985 – a satirical piece, on the subject of sexist language
  40. ^ Metamagical Themas, Douglas R. Hofstadter, Basic Books, New Yoork (1985), see preface, introduction, contents listing.
  41. ^ French and Italian Spring 1996, Vol. X
  42. ^
  43. ^ Piano Music by Douglas Hofstadter (Audio CD) ISBN 1-57677-143-1, 2000
  44. ^ Hofstadter, Douglas R. I Am a Strange Loop, p. v. Basic Books, 2007.
  45. ^ Hofstadter, Douglas R. I Am a Strange Loop, p. xi. Basic Books, 2007. "No one knew what it was, but Molly wasn't able to understand language or to speak (nor is she to this day, and we never did find out why)."
  46. ^  
  47. ^'s company timeline July 1995
  48. ^ CRCC Publications offline

External links

  • Stanford University Presidential Lecture – site dedicated to Hofstadter and his work
  • List of publications from the DBLP Bibliography Server
  • Profile at
  • Profile at Resonance Publications
  • NF Reviews – bibliographic page with reviews of several of Hofstadter's books
  • "Autoportrait with Constraint" – a short autobiography in the form of a lipogram
Hofstadter's thesis about consciousness, first expressed in

FARG models also have an overarching philosophy that all cognition is built from the making of analogies. The computational architectures that share these precepts are called "active symbols" architectures.

  • that human thinking is carried out by thousands of independent small actions in parallel, biased by the concepts that are currently activated
  • that activation spreads from activated concepts to less activated "neighbor concepts"
  • that there is a "mental temperature" that regulates the degree of randomness in the parallel activity
  • that promising avenues tend to be explored more rapidly than unpromising ones

All FARG computational models share certain key principles, including:

Hofstadter collects and studies cognitive errors (largely, but not solely, speech errors), "bon mots" (spontaneous humorous quips), and analogies of all sorts, and his long-time observation of these diverse products of cognition, and his theories about the mechanisms that underlie them, have exerted a powerful influence on the architectures of the computational models developed by himself and FARG members.[23]

The pursuit of beauty has driven Hofstadter both inside and outside his professional work. He seeks beautiful mathematical patterns, beautiful explanations, beautiful typefaces, beautiful sonic patterns in poetry, etc. Hofstadter has said of himself, "I'm someone who has one foot in the world of humanities and arts, and the other foot in the world of science." He has had several exhibitions of his artworks in various university art galleries. These shows have featured large collections of his gridfonts, his ambigrams (pieces of calligraphy created with two readings, either of which is usually obtained from the other by rotating or reflecting the ambigram, but sometimes simply by "oscillation", like the Necker Cube or the rabbit/duck figure of Joseph Jastrow), and his "Whirly Art" (music-inspired visual patterns realized using shapes based on various alphabets from India). (Hofstadter invented the term "ambigram" in 1984; many ambigrammists all over the world have since taken up the concept.)[22]


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