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"Pigeon" and "Dove" redirect here. For other uses, see Pigeon (disambiguation) and Dove (disambiguation).
For pigeon species familiar to people around the world, see Feral Pigeon, Domestic Pigeon, and Rock Dove.

Temporal range: Early Miocene – Recent
Feral Pigeon (Columba livia) in flight
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Class: Aves
Order: Columbiformes
Family: Columbidae
Illiger, 1811
Geographic range of the Columbidae Family

Pigeons and doves constitute the bird clade Columbidae, that includes some 310 species. They are stout-bodied birds with short necks, and have short, slender bills with fleshy ceres. Doves feed on seeds, fruits, and plants. This family occurs worldwide, but the greatest variety is in the Indomalaya and Australasia ecozones.

In general, the terms "dove" and "pigeon" are used somewhat interchangeably. In ornithological practice, "dove" tends to be used for smaller species and "pigeon" for larger ones, but this is in no way consistently applied, and historically, the common names for these birds involve a great deal of variation between the terms. The species most commonly referred to as "pigeon" is the Feral Rock Pigeon, common in many cities.

Doves and pigeons build relatively flimsy nests from sticks and other debris, which may be placed in trees, on ledges, or on the ground, depending on species. They lay one or two eggs, and both parents care for the young, which leave the nest after seven to 28 days.[1] Unlike most birds, both sexes of doves and pigeons produce "crop milk" to feed to their young, secreted by a sloughing of fluid-filled cells from the lining of the crop. Young doves and pigeons are called "squabs".

Taxonomy and systematics

The Pteroclididae (sandgrouse) were formerly included in the order Columbiformes largely due to this drinking behavior ("The only other group, however, which shows the same behavior, the Pteroclididae, is placed near the doves just by this doubtlessly very old characteristic."[2] ); more recently, it had been reported that they cannot drink by "sucking" or "pumping",[3] and they are now treated separately in the order Pteroclidiformes and are considered to be closer to the shorebirds.[4]

Columbidae are usually divided into five subfamilies, probably inaccurately. For example, the American ground and quail doves, which are usually placed in the Columbinae, seem to be two distinct subfamilies.[5] The order presented here follows Baptista et al. (1997) with some updates (Johnson & Clayton 2000, Johnson et al. 2001, Shapiro et al. 2002).

Osteology and DNA sequence analyses[6][7] indicate the Dodo and Rodrigues Solitaire are better considered as a subfamily Raphinae in the Columbidae pending availability of further information.

The arrangement of genera and naming of subfamilies is in some cases provisional, because analysis of different DNA sequences yield results that differ, often radically, in the placement of certain (mainly Indo-Australian) genera. This ambiguity, probably caused by long branch attraction, seems to confirm the first pigeons evolved in the Australasian region, and that the "Treronidae" and allied forms (crowned and pheasant pigeons, for example) represent the earliest radiation of the group.

As the Dodo and Rodrigues Solitaire are in all likelihood part of the Indo-Australian radiation that produced the three small subfamilies mentioned above with the fruit-doves and -pigeons (including the Nicobar Pigeon), they are here included as a subfamily Raphinae, pending better material evidence of their exact relationships.

Exacerbating these issues, columbids are not well represented in the fossil record. No truly primitive forms have been found to date. The genus Gerandia has been described from Early Miocene deposits of France, but while it was long believed to be a pigeon, it is more likely a sandgrouse. Fragmentary remains of a probably "ptilinopine" Early Miocene pigeon were found in the Bannockburn Formation of New Zealand and described as Rupephaps; "Columbina" prattae from roughly contemporary deposits of Florida is nowadays tentatively separated in Arenicolumba, but its distinction from Columbina/Scardafella and related genera needs to be more firmly established (e.g. by cladistic analysis). Apart from that, all other fossils belong to extant genera. For these, and for the considerable number of more recently extinct prehistoric species, see the respective genus accounts.


Pigeons and doves exhibit considerable variations in size. The largest species is the Crowned Pigeon of New Guinea, which is nearly turkey-sized, at a weight of 2–4 kg (4.4–8.8 lb) The smallest is the New World Ground-Dove of the genus Columbina, which is the same size as a House Sparrow and weighs as little as 22 g.[8] With a total length of more than 50 cm (19 in) and weight of almost 1 kg (2 lb), the largest arboreal species is the Marquesan Imperial Pigeon, while the Dwarf Fruit Dove, which may measure as little as 13 cm (5.1 in), has a marginally smaller total length than any other species from this family.[8] Smaller species tend to be known as doves, while larger species as pigeons, but no taxonomic basis distinguishes between the two.[8]

Overall, the Columbidae tend to have short bills and legs, and small heads on large compact bodies. Their characteristic head bobbing was shown to be due to their natural desire to keep their vision constant in a 1978 experiment by B. J. Frost in which they were placed on treadmills – they did not bob their heads as their surroundings were constant.[9] The wings are large and have low wing loadings; pigeons have strong wing muscles (wing muscles comprise 31–44% of their body weight) and are amongst the strongest fliers of all birds. They are also highly maneuverable in flight.

The plumage of the family is variable. Granivorous species tend to have dull plumage, with a few exceptions, whereas the frugivorous species have brightly coloured plumage.[8] The Ptilinopus fruit doves are some of the brightest coloured pigeons, with the three endemic species of Fiji and the Indian Ocean Alectroenas being amongst the brightest coloured. Pigeons and doves may be sexually monochromatic or dichromatic. In addition to bright colours, pigeons may sport crests or other ornamentation.

Like some other birds, Columbidae have no gall bladders.[10] Some medieval naturalists concluded they have no bile (gall), which in the medieval theory of the four humours explained the allegedly sweet disposition of doves.[11] In fact, however, they do have gall (as Aristotle already realised), which is secreted directly into the gut.[12]

Distribution and habitat

Pigeons and doves are distributed everywhere on Earth, except for the driest areas of the Sahara Desert, Antarctica and its surrounding islands, and the high Arctic. They have colonised most of the world's oceanic islands, reaching eastern Polynesia and the Chatham Islands in the Pacific, Mauritius, the Seychelles and Réunion in the Indian Ocean, and the Azores in the Atlantic Ocean.

The family has adapted to most of the habitats available on the planet. The largest number of species is found in tropical forests and woodlands. These species may be arboreal, terrestrial or semiterrestrial. Various species also inhabit savannas, grasslands, deserts, temperate woodlands and forests, mangrove forests, and even the barren sands and gravels of atolls.

Some species have large natural ranges. The Eared Dove ranges across the entirety of South America from Colombia to Tierra Del Fuego, the Eurasian Collared Dove has a massive (if discontinuous) distribution from Britain across Europe, the Middle East, India, Pakistan and China, and the Laughing Dove across most of sub-Saharan Africa, as well as India, Pakistan and the Middle East. Other species have a tiny, restricted distribution; this is most common in island endemics. The Whistling Dove is endemic to the tiny Kadavu Island in Fiji, the Caroline Ground-dove is restricted to two islands, Truk and Pohnpei in the Caroline Islands, and the Grenada Dove is restricted to Grenada in the Caribbean. Some continental species also have tiny distributions; for example, the Black-banded Fruit Dove is restricted to a small area of the Arnhem Land of Australia, the Somali Pigeon is restricted to a tiny area of northern Somalia, and Moreno's Ground Dove is restricted to the area around Salta and Tucuman in northern Argentina.[8]

The largest range of any species is that of the Rock Dove. This species had a large natural distribution from Britain and Ireland to northern Africa, across Europe, Arabia, Central Asia, India, the Himalayas and up into China and Mongolia. The range of the species increased dramatically upon domestication, as the species went feral in cities around the world. The species is currently resident across most of North America, and has established itself in cities and urban areas in South America, sub-Saharan Africa, Southeast Asia, Japan, Australia and New Zealand. The species is not the only pigeon to have increased its range due to the actions of man; several other species have become established outside of their natural range after escaping captivity, and other species have increased their natural ranges due to habitat changes caused by human activity.[8]

Behaviour and ecology

Seeds and fruit form the major component of the diets of pigeons and doves. In fact, the family can be divided into the seed-eating or granivorous species (subfamily Columbinae) and the fruit- and mast-eating or frugivorous species (the other four subfamilies). The granivorous species typically feed on seed found on the ground, whereas the frugivorous species tend to feed in trees. There are morphological adaptations that can be used to distinguish between the two groups, granivores tend to have thick walls in their gizzards, whereas the frugivores tend to have thin walls. In addition, fruit-eating species have short intestines, whereas those that eat seeds have longer ones. Frugivores are capable of clinging to branches and even hang upside down to reach fruit.[8]

In addition to fruit and seeds, a number of other food items are taken by many species. Some, particularly the ground-doves and quail-doves, take a large number of prey items such as insects and worms. One species, the Atoll Fruit Dove is specialised in taking insect and reptile prey. Snails, moths and other insects are taken by White-crowned Pigeons, Orange Doves and Ruddy Ground Doves.[8]

An unusual behaviour in a Rock Dove has been reported as it attempts to mate with a dead bird.[13]

Status and conservation

While many species of pigeons and doves have benefited from human activities and have increased their ranges, many other species have declined in numbers and some have become threatened or even succumbed to extinction. Amongst the 10 species to have become extinct since 1600 (the conventional date for estimating modern extinctions) are two of the most famous extinct species, the Dodo and the Passenger Pigeon.

The Passenger Pigeon was exceptional for a number of reasons.It is the only pigeon species to have gone extinct in modern times that was not an island species. It was once the most numerous species of bird on Earth. Its former numbers are difficult to estimate, but one ornithologist, Alexander Wilson, estimated one flock he observed contained over two billion birds. The decline of the species was abrupt; in 1871, a breeding colony was estimated to contain over a hundred million birds, yet the last individual in the species was dead by 1914. Although habitat loss was a contributing factor, the species is thought to have been massively overhunted, being used as food for slaves and, later, the poor, in the United States throughout the 19th century.

The Dodo, and its extinction, was more typical of the extinctions of pigeons in the past. Like many species that colonize remote islands with few predators, it lost much of its predator avoidance behaviour, along with its ability to fly. The arrival of people, along with a suite of other introduced species, such as rats, pigs, and cats, quickly spelled the end for this species and all the other island forms that have become extinct.

Around 59 species of pigeons and doves are threatened with extinction today, about 19% of all species.[14] Most of these are tropical and live on islands. All of the species are threatened by introduced predators, habitat loss, and hunting, or a combination of these factors. In some cases, they may be extinct in the wild, as is the Socorro Dove of Socorro Island, Mexico, which was driven to extinction by habitat loss and introduced feral cats.[15] In some areas, a lack of knowledge means the true status of a species is unknown; the Negros Fruit Dove has not been seen since 1953, and may or may not be extinct, and the Polynesian Ground Dove is classified as critically endangered, as whether it survives or not on remote islands in the far west of the Pacific Ocean is unknown.

Various conservation techniques are employed to prevent these extinctions, including laws and regulations to control hunting pressure, the establishment of protected areas to prevent further habitat loss, the establishment of captive populations for reintroduction back into the wild (ex situ conservation), and the translocation of individuals to suitable habitats to create additional populations.

Relationship with humans


The pigeon has contributed to both World War I and II, notably by the Australian, French, German, American, and UK forces. Thirty-two pigeons have been decorated with the Dickin Medal for war contributions, including Commando, G.I. Joe, Paddy, and William of Orange.

Cher Ami, a homing pigeon in World War I, was awarded the Croix de Guerre Medal with a palm Oak Leaf Cluster for his service in Verdun and for delivering the message that saved the Lost Battalion of the 77th Infantry Division in the Battle of the Argonne, October 1918. When Cher Ami died, he was mounted and is part of the permanent exhibit at the National Museum of American History of the Smithsonian Institution.[16]

A grand ceremony was held in Buckingham Palace to commemorate a platoon of pigeons that braved the battlefields of Normandy to deliver vital plans to Allied forces on the fringes of Germany. Three of the actual birds that received the medals are on show in the London Military Museum so that well-wishers can pay their respects.


The Rock Pigeon has been domesticated for hundreds of years. It has been bred into several varieties kept by hobbyists, of which the best known is the homing pigeon or racing homer. Other popular breeds are tumbling pigeons such as the Birmingham Roller and fancy varieties that are bred for certain physical characteristics, such as large feathers on the feet or fan-shaped tails. Domesticated Rock Pigeons are also bred as carrier pigeons, used for thousands of years to carry brief written messages, and Release Doves used in ceremonies.

In religion

File:Doves eating grains New Delhi India.webm In the

Jesus's parents sacrificed doves on his behalf after his circumcision (Luke 2:24). Later, the Holy Spirit descended upon Jesus at his baptism like a dove (Matthew 3:16), and subsequently the "peace dove" became a common Christian symbol of the Holy Spirit.

In Islam, doves and the pigeon family in general are respected and favoured because they are believed to have assisted the final prophet of Islam, Muhammad, in distracting his enemies outside the cave of Thaw'r in the great Hijra.

The Chaldean myth the Epic of Gilgamesh, Utnapishtim releases a dove and raven to find land; however, the dove merely circles and returns. Only then does Utnapishtim send forth the raven, which does not return, and Utnapishtim concludes the raven has found land.[19]

In the Ancient Near East and Mediterranean, doves were used as symbols for the Canaanite mother goddess Asherah, the Phoenician goddess Tanit, and the Roman goddesses Venus and Fortuna.[20]

As food

Several species of pigeons and doves are used as food, and probably any could be; the powerful breast muscles characteristic of the family make excellent meat. Domesticated or hunted pigeon have been used as the source of food since Ancient Middle East, Ancient Rome and Medieval Europe. It is familiar meat within Jewish, Arab and French cuisines. According to the Tanakh, doves are kosher, and they are the only birds that may be used for a korban. Other kosher birds may be eaten, but not brought as a korban. It is also known in Asian cuisines, such as Chinese and Indonesian.

In Europe, the Wood Pigeon is commonly shot as a game bird, while Rock Pigeons were originally domesticated as a food species, and many breeds were developed for their meat-bearing qualities. The extinction of the Passenger Pigeon in North America was at least partly due to shooting for use as food. Mrs Beeton's Book of Household Management contains recipes for roast pigeon and pigeon pie, a popular, inexpensive food in Victorian industrial Britain.[21]

Columba livia

Unlike numerous species of birds Columba livia i.e. Domestic Pigeon, Rock Dove and Feral Pigeon are likely to found in urban areas, parks, gardens, and in areas close to agriculture. Pigeons’ plays a vital role depend on their numerous different habitat. However, there are many species closely related to Columba livia but, not all pigeons are the same, a number of species can often be found together and although they are in fact very closely related to one another, there are key differences between them including appearance, behaviour and their calls. The average pigeon is about 30–35 cm in length and have a wingspan of 62–68 cm. Most of them have orange-colored eyes, but some individuals have white-grey irises.[22]

An Average bird mass: 350.0 g, Average length: 32.0 cm, Other Physical Features: endothermic; bilateral symmetry; polymorphic, Sexual Dimorphism: male larger; male more colorful.

Rock Dove

Rock Dove also called common pigeon is derived from domestic pigeon and now confined to rocky coasts. Rock doves are now widespread and is particularly common in urban areas around the world. Rock doves are large husky birds with small heads and short legs and can be recognised by their blue grey bodies, black-tipped tails and inky green feathers on their necks and two black bars on each wing. Their wings are broad but pointed and the tail is wide and rounded. Rock doves are common birds in cities and town but, they can also be found on fields and rocky cliffs. Rock doves are native to Europe, North Africa, and southwestern Asia but are found worldwide, including throughout all of North America.[23]

Feral Pigeon

Feral Pigeon also called city pigeon[24] derived from domestic pigeon and similar to rock dove in general shape and size but often have narrower bodies with longer tails, broader bills and larger ceres. They are usually pale blue gray in color with two conspicuous black bars across the wings, giving a spotted effect and broad black bar at the end of the tail. Neck and upper breast iridescent green and purple in color. The ratio of colours differs in each population. Feral Pigeons can be found in cities and towns worldwide, having adapted to living around humans and human habitation.[25]

Domestic Pigeon

Domestic Pigeon derived from Rock pigeon and originally found in Europe, Northern Africa, and India. Many are white, tan, checkered or combination of several colors, but most are somewhat narrow-bodied and broad-billed similar to blue-gray ancestral form. Domestic pigeons originally lived in high places- cliffs, ledges and open areas. In early 1600s domestic pigeon was introduced as a domestic bird then, it has expanded throughout the United States to Alaska, across southern Canada and South America.[26]

Food and Feeding Habitats

Pigeons mainly eat seeds and grains. Many also eat insects, fruits, and vegetation, littered food-provided by the people intentionally or unintentionally. Young pigeons are fed “crop milk”—a milky-white fatty substance regurgitated from both parents’ crops. Pigeons feed on open ground such as that found in parks and squares, on rooftops, at food-loading docks and garbage dumps. They may gather in large flocks in urban parks where people feed them. They seem to prefer open feeding areas that permit a speedy getaway if a threat is detected. Pigeons can drink water by sucking directly from a puddle or other water source.[27]


Male pigeon spend time to collect materials- twigs, sticks etc. while female pigeon sits on the nest and makes platform of sticks from out of those material. Pigeons reuse their nests many times, and they don't carry away the feces of their nestlings the way many birds do. This means the lightweight nests becomes solid from the continuous use. Usually the nests are situated on houses, barns, buildings, bridges and cliffs.[28]

Courtship and Reproduction

Pigeons mate throughout their life but the peak times are usually in spring and summer. Male choose the nest and attract a mate by puff up their hind neck feathers. A male pigeon courts his mate by bowing, cooing and strutting in a circle around the female. The mating usually occurs for a short period and when ready to mate, the female crouches and the male jumps on her back flapping his wings to maintain the balance on the female. Sometimes the pair’s beaks are locked together during breeding.[29]

Female usually lay average of 2 eggs in a nest loosely constructed from feathers and twigs. The male brings one twig or stem at a time to the female to build a nest. Both male and female incubate the eggs, which hatch after 18 days. Male incubates the eggs from mid-morning to late afternoon whereas, female takes her turn in late afternoon and overnight to mid-morning. Both parents feed them from regurgitated “crop milk” secreted by the lining of bird’s crop. The young are independent at four to five weeks of age. Pigeons can raise average of five broods per year under optimal conditions. When pigeons are not involved in courtship behavior, caring for young, or eating, their day is spent cooing, preening, and sunbathing at their loafing and roosting sites.[30]


Pigeons don’t migrate, but if they are released from the nesting area they can find their way to home easily even from long distance. They can navigate by using sound and smell and perhaps can use cues based on the position of the sun. Some of the species were trained in past to carry messages during World War I and II.[31]


Pigeons are the domestic birds and considered as flying tippler- long-time flyer. Pigeons can fly 50–60 miles per hour. In most cities pigeons stay close to home because they do not like to migrate. However, their wing muscles are strong and they can fly much further if necessary.[31]


The hippoboscidae fly pseudolynchia canariensis is a typical blood-sucking ectoparasite of pigeons.[32]

See also: Parasites of Rock Dove

Health risk

Pigeons are considered as a diseases spreading birds- pest. As pigeons breed throughout the year and reproduce quickly- this determined by amount of food available to them. In past pigeons were involved in transmitting the “bird flu” or “avian flu” but they do not carry deadly diseases like H1N1. Pigeons do not transmit diseases through theirimmune system but human contact with pigeons like cleaning pigeon droppings can cause a small health risk. Some diseases that are thought to be caused by pigeon’s dropping are histoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and psittacosis.[30]

see also: Human Health of Rock Dove[33]

Respiratory And Circulatory Physiology

Organ and tissue organization

The respiratory system of pigeons is an avian system. This system lacks a diaphragm and instead compensates this by multiple air sacs in the body cavity. Air sacs in the respiratory system do not directly contribute to gas exchange. The primary goal of the avian respiratory system is to deliver oxygen to tissues and remove carbon dioxide.[34]

Unidirectional flow of air to the lungs is facilitated by the air sacs. Because of the unidirectional flow, birds maintain a higher oxygen content in their lungs and an increased metabolic rate.

Air flow is dependent on the pressure changes of the air sacs. A negative pressure causes air to enter the respiratory system, and a positive pressure causes air to leave the respiratory system. Microscopic tubules known as air capillaries are the site of gas exchange within the avian lungs.[35]

The avian respiratory system consists cells known as ‘Free avian respiratory macrophages’ (FARMS) or what are more commonly known as ‘free respiratory macrophages (FRM). FRMs are the first line of defence, protecting the blood gas barrier from pathogens that may cause potential damage. In a healthy avian respiratory system, FRMs are not present on the respiratory surface such as the air capillaries but are on the atria.[36]

These macrophages are also present on epithelial tissue below the atria and septa. FARMs also assist with cleansing the air inhaled by the animal before reaching the air capillaries, which may consist of harmful particles.[37]

There are many components that make up the circulatory system some of them include: The arteries, which carry blood away from the heard and to the body tissues. The arterioles, these direct blood to where blood is needed in the body. The veins, which carry blood back to the heart from the body tissues. Venules, these are smaller veins and they have the same function as veins. Capillaries, these are responsible for exchange of nutrients, gases and waste products among the body and blood.[38]

The major arteries include: carotids, These transport blood to the head and the brain. Brachials, which carried blood to the wings. Pectorals, which carry blood to the pectoralis which are the flight muscles. Aorta, this takes the blood to the whole body in exception to the lungs/ Pulmonary arteries, carries blood to the lungs. Coeliac, this is a branch of the aorta and it conducts blood to the organs and upper- abdonimal tissues. Renal arteries, these arteries deliver blood to the kidneys and the renal system. Femoral arteries, which bring the blood to the legs. Caudal, which directs blood to the tail. Posterior mesenteric, it takes blood to the lower-abdominal tissues and organs.[38]

The major veins include: Jugular anastomosis, this vein lets the blood flow from right to the left side of the body while the head is turned to one side. Jugulars, takes blood away from the head and the neck. Brachials, these takes blood away from the wings. Pectorals, these empty the pectoral muscles and the anterior thorax. Superior vena cava, this is also known as the precava. It carries bloos from the anterior parts of the body. Inferior vena cava carries blood away from the posterior parts of the body. The hepatic vein drains blood from the liver. The hepatic portal carries blood away from the digestive tract. Coccygeomesenteric, drains the posterior digestive tract as well as the hepatic portal vein. Femorals take blood away from the legs. Sciatic veins empty blood from the thighs. The Renal and renal portal veins carry blood away from the kidneys.[38]

Heart type and features

The Columbia Livia has a four chambered heart. The heart is made up of the right atrium and left atrium as well as the right ventricle and the left ventricle.[38]

The pigeon heart is larger in proportion to the body size than the human heart is. The relatively larger size and faster heart rate enable the pigeon cardiovascular system to reach the high metabolic needs required for flying. The system works by transporting oxygen towards the tissues and taking carbon dioxide away from the tissues. Other functions include getting rid of metabolic wastes, this is important for maintenance of body temperature.[38]

How the heart works

Blood is pumped into the heart from the body through the veins. the blood then enters the right atrium, then gets transported through the right ventricle and then is moved to into the lungs. This is where oxidation of the blood takes place. The blood then travels to the left atrium and exits the heart and moves through the arteries to the body via the left ventricle.[38]

Relevant physical and chemical properties of pumping blood

The oxygenated blood is pumped out to parts of the body by the left ventricle, where after giving up its life fuelling oxygen and collecting the carbon dioxide, it returns, as deoxygenated blood to the right atrium through the caval veins. Then the blood is shunted to the right ventricle which pumps it to the lungs though the pulmonary arch where the carbon dioxide is stored to be exhaled and a new load of oxygen is picked up. This newly reoxygenated blood goes back to the left atrium of the heart through the pulmonary veins. The blood isthen shunted to the left ventricle and the cycle repeats.[39]

Cardiac output can be estimated in birds from the Fick equation. The volume of oxygen taken in per unit time is proportional to the difference in oxygen content between arterial and venous blood. The degree of proportionality depends on the volume of blood pumped per unit time, or cardiac output. In the pigeon, activity creates an increase in demand for oxygen. Volume of oxygen intake is increased by increasing the cardiac output of the heart. An active pigeon increases cardiac output through an increased heart rate to meet the oxygen requirement. It can increase about 6 folds. However, stroke volume decreases in an active pigeon.[40]

Integration of respiratory and circulatory organs and effects on physiology

Most of the physiological changes for both the respiratory and circulatory systems have to do with the energetic requirements needed for flight. Smaller birds heart rates double from the resting state when they are flying and in larger birds the heart rate can increase three to four times from the regular amount.[41]

Flight muscles require a large amount of oxygen and in order to obtain the oxygen the blood must be kept moving rapidly around the system. This occurs when the blood flows into the atria at the end of its journey around the body, or to and from the lungs. The ventricles, are the pumping power houses that send the blood off on to repeat the cycle.[39]

See also

Birds portal



External links

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  • Conservation of pigeons and doves
  • Dove videos on the Internet Bird Collection
  • Dove sounds


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