World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article


Article Id: WHEBN0031897142
Reproduction Date:

Title: Edict  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Roman law, Law, 390s, 410s, Sociology of law
Collection: Japanese Dictionaries
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


JMdict is a large machine-readable multilingual Japanese dictionary. As of August 2013, it contained JapaneseEnglish translations for more than 170,000 entries, representing ~200,000 unique headword–reading combinations.[1] Because the dictionary files are free to use (with attribution), they have been widely adopted on the Internet and are used in many computer and smartphone applications. This project is considered a standard Japanese–English reference on the Internet, and is used by the Unihan Database and several other Japanese–English projects.

The JMdict/EDICT project was originally started by Jim Breen in 1991 with the creation of "EDICT" (a flat-text file in EUC-JP encoding), which was later expanded to a UTF-8-encoded XML file in 1999 as "JMdict". The XML format allows for multiple surface forms of lexemes and multiple readings, as well as cross-references and annotations. It also permits glosses in other languages, and contains French, German, Russian, etc. translations for many entries. The original EDICT format is still being generated for systems that rely on that format. An expanded version (EDICT2), which reflects the structure of the XML entries, is also produced and is used by several systems including the server for WWWJDIC, Jim Breen's own online dictionary search tool. Versions of JMdict are also produced in the XML format used by Apple's "Dict" application and in the EPWING/JIS X 4081 format used by many Japanese electronic dictionary systems.

Since 1991, JMdict/EDICT has been updated and expanded by many contributors. Since 2000, the EDICT project has been managed by the Electronic Dictionary Research and Development Group (EDRDG),[2] and in 2010 maintenance of the dictionary was moved to an online database system. The dictionary is currently managed by an editorial board including Jim Breen and six other editors.[3]

EDICT has also inspired other projects, including the CEDICT Chinese dictionary project started by Paul Denisowski in 1997. [1]

Word class abbreviations

EDICT has a set of word class abbreviations[4] that are used to disambiguate classes with similar word endings.


  1. ^ Breen, Jim. "The EDICT Dictionary File". Electronic Dictionary Research and Development Group. Retrieved 8 October 2014. 
  2. ^ "Electronic Dictionary Research and Development Group File". Retrieved 20 June 2011. 
  3. ^ Breen, Jim. "JMdict Editorial Board".  
  4. ^ EDICT abbreviation list:

External links

  • JMdict/EDICT: Japanese–English Dictionary Project
  • WWWJDIC: Official web interface for EDICT
  • RomajiDesu: JMDict-based Japanese–English dictionary with a friendly interface
  • JEDict: JMDict-based Japanese–English dictionary for OS X
  • imiwa?: JMDict-based Japanese–English dictionary for iOS
  • Edict for Kindle: can be used as the default dictionary on Kindle Paperwhites, iPads and Android devices.
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.