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Edward Laumann

 

Edward Laumann

Edward O. Laumann
Born (1938-08-31) August 31, 1938
Youngstown, Ohio
Residence United States
Fields Sociology
Institutions University of Michigan, University of Chicago
Alma mater Harvard University, Oberlin College
Doctoral advisor Talcott Parsons, Harrison White
Notable students Ronald Stuart Burt, Elisabeth S. Clemens, Benjamin Cornwell, Paula England, Robert M. Hauser, James S. House, Peter Marsden, Ross Stolzenberg, Linda J. Waite, Kazuo Yamaguchi
Known for Contributions to social network analysis, organizational sociology, sociology of sexuality
Influences Robert E. Park, W. Lloyd Warner, Louis Guttman, Dorwin Cartwright, Frank Harary, Otis Dudley Duncan

Edward Otto Laumann (born August 31, 1938) is an American health and aging, and is widely recognized as a pioneer in the areas of social network analysis[1] and the sociology of sexuality. In 2013, he was elected to the American Academy of Arts & Sciences.[2]

Contents

  • Biography 1
  • Scholarly career 2
    • Social Network Analysis 2.1
    • The Sociology of Sexuality 2.2
  • Honors 3
  • Publications (books) 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6

Biography

Edward O. Laumann was born to Otto and Emalyn (Bauch) Laumann in 1938 near Youngstown, Ohio.[3] He enrolled in University of Michigan in 1964, where he was the principal investigator of the Detroit Area Study. He moved to the University of Chicago in 1973, where he would eventually serve as the chair of the Department of Sociology, the Dean of the Social Sciences, as well as the Provost of the University. He was the editor of the American Journal of Sociology from 1978 to 1984 and from 1995 to 1997. He is currently the chairman of the board of trustees of the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) at the University of Chicago.[5]

Scholarly career

Laumann is known for his pioneering work in several areas of sociology. He is one of the founders of the field of the AIDS crisis. His PhD students have included, among others, Ronald Burt, Elisabeth S. Clemens, Benjamin Cornwell, Paula England (2014 president of the American Sociological Association), Joseph Galaskiewicz, Robert M. Hauser, James S. House, Peter Marsden (Dean of Social Science at Harvard University), Martina Morris, Jeylan Mortimer, Anthony Paik, Ross Stolzenberg, Lois Verbrugge, Linda J. Waite, Kazuo Yamaguchi, Erin York Cornwell, and Yoosik Youm.

Social Network Analysis

In the mid-1960s, Laumann introduced the idea of studying individual social networks via surveys - an approach that led to the creation of widely available network data such as those in the General Social Survey. Inspired in part by W. Lloyd Warner's structural approach to social class, Laumann used individual-level social network data to demonstrate the ethnoreligious and class-based structuring of broader social networks.[6][7][8] This work highlighted the tension individuals experience between their subjective preference to associate with people who are like them (the "like-me" hypothesis) and the sometimes contradictory desire to affiliate with higher-status individuals (the "prestige" hypothesis). Laumann argued that how these impulses are resolved by individuals forms the basis of class consciousness within a given society.[9] Laumann also defined the "boundary specification problem," which refers to the theoretical and methodological challenge of determining the appropriate set of actors and connections to analyze in order to identify the relevant social network within a given setting.[10]

In the 1980s and 1990s, Laumann and colleagues published the first studies of the inter-organizational network of national policy interests in Washington, D.C.[11][12] These are the most exhaustive empirical studies of the social networks of national organizations to date. They demonstrate that major public policy in important domains such as health and energy are shaped by latent social connections that exist among the leaders of numerous networked organizations (e.g., lay voluntary association, federal agencies, and professional societies). Policy decisions are disproportionately shaped by organizations that have vested interests in the outcomes of domain-specific issues and those that have greater capacity to monitor events and to obtain information/resources by virtue of their positions within the interorganizational network.[13][14] At the same time, organizations' positions within these networks varies by domain, such that there is no single core set of organizations that dominates resource or influence flows across different policy domains.[15][16] These studies forged innovative connections between social network analysis and data-reduction and display techniques, especially multidimensional scaling, and presented some of the earliest analyses of two-mode (actor-and-event) social network data. In recognition of these and his various other contributions to the field, Laumann was chosen as the keynote speaker at the first European social networks conference in Groningen, Netherlands in 1989,[17] and at the Annual Sunbelt Conference in Vancouver, Canada in 2006.[18]

The Sociology of Sexuality

In the wake of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the mid-1980s, Laumann began to study the role of sexual behavior and social networks in the spread of the disease. Although scientists realized that the epidemic could only be addressed through behavioral interventions, they lacked basic information about the sexual practices (for example, rates of involvement in risky sexual behavior, condom use norms) of the general population. There had been no major follow up to the

  • Official faculty page for Edward O. Laumann at the University of Chicago.
  • NORC at the University of Chicago page for the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP).
  • University of Chicago Population Research Center page for the National Health and Social Life Survey (NHSLS).

External links

  1. ^ Freeman, Linton C. The Development of Social Network Analysis. Vancouver: Empirical Press, 2004.
  2. ^ [1] "2013 Fellows and their Affiliations at the Time of Election." American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 2013. Retrieved January 1, 2014.
  3. ^ United States of America, Bureau of the Census. Sixteenth Census of the United States, 1940. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1940. T627, 4,643 rolls.
  4. ^ [2] Curriculum vitae, retrieved January 1, 2014.
  5. ^ [3] NORC senior leadership and board information
  6. ^ Edward O. Laumann. (1965). "Subjective Social Distance and Urban Occupational Stratification." American Journal of Sociology, 71:26-36.
  7. ^ Edward O Laumann. (1973). Bonds of Pluralism: The Form and Substance of Urban Social Networks. New York: Wiley Interscience.
  8. ^ Edward O. Laumann, Richard Senter. (1976). "Subjective Social Distance, Occupational Stratification, and Forms of Status and Class Consciousness: A Cross-national Replication and Extension." American Journal of Sociology 81:1304-1338.
  9. ^ Laumann, Edward O. (2006). "A 45-year retrospective on doing networks." Connections 27:65-90.
  10. ^ Edward O. Laumann, Peter V. Marsden, and David Prensky. (1989). "The Boundary Specification Problem in Network Analysis." Research Methods in Social Network Analysis 61:87.
  11. ^ Edward O. Laumann and David Knoke. (1987). The Organizational State: Social Change in National Policy Domains. University of Wisconsin Press.
  12. ^ John P. Heinz, Edward O. Laumann, Robert L. Nelson, and Robert H. Salisbury. (1993). The Hollow Core: Private Interests in National Policy Making. Harvard University Press.
  13. ^ Edward O. Laumann and David Knoke. (1987). The Organizational State: Social Change in National Policy Domains. University of Wisconsin Press.
  14. ^ Charles Tilly. (1989). Review of The Organizational State: Social Choice in National Policy Domains, in American Journal of Sociology 95,(1):239-41.
  15. ^ John P. Heinz, Edward O. Laumann, Robert L. Nelson, and Robert H. Salisbury. (1993). The Hollow Core: Private Interests in National Policy Making. Harvard University Press.
  16. ^ Paul A. Sabatier. (1994). Review of The Hollow Core: Private Interests in National Policy Making, in American Journal of Sociology 100(1):287-89.
  17. ^ Freeman, Linton C. The Development of Social Network Analysis. Vancouver: Empirical Press, 2004.
  18. ^ Laumann, Edward O. (2006). "A 45-year retrospective on doing networks." Connections 27:65-90.
  19. ^ Laumann, Edward O. (2006). "A 45-year retrospective on doing networks." Connections 27:65-90.
  20. ^ Edward O. Laumann, John H. Gagnon, Robert T. Michael, and Stuart Michaels. (1994). The Social Organization of Sexuality, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  21. ^ Laumann, Edward O. (2006). "A 45-year retrospective on doing networks." Connections 27:65-90.
  22. ^ Hunt, Morton M. (1999). The New Know-Nothings: The Political Foes of the Scientific Study of Human Nature. Transaction Publishers.
  23. ^ Steven Seidman, Nancy Fischer, and Chet Meeks. (2011). Introducing the New Sexuality Studies, 2nd Edition. Routledge.
  24. ^ H.R.2707 - Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 1992.
  25. ^ Laumann, Edward O. (2006). "A 45-year retrospective on doing networks." Connections 27:65-90.
  26. ^ Edward O. Laumann, John H. Gagnon, Robert T. Michael, and Stuart Michaels. (1994). The Social Organization of Sexuality, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  27. ^ Robert T. Michael, John H. Gagnon, Edward O. Laumann and Gina Kolata (1994). Sex in America. New York: Little, Brown.
  28. ^ Laumann, Edward O. (2006). "A 45-year retrospective on doing networks." Connections 27:65-90.
  29. ^ Page 80. Laumann, Edward O. (2006). "A 45-year retrospective on doing networks." Connections 27:65-90.
  30. ^ Edward O. Laumann, John H. Gagnon, Robert T. Michael, and Stuart Michaels. (1994). The Social Organization of Sexuality, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  31. ^ Edward O. Laumann, Anthony Paik, and Raymond C. Rosen. (1999). "Sexual Dysfunction in the United States." JAMA: the journal of the American Medical Association 281(6):537-44.
  32. ^ Ray Moynihan and Barbara Mintzes. (2010). Sex, Lies, and Pharmaceuticals: How Drug Companies Plan to Profit from Female Sexual Dysfunction. Greystone Books Ltd.
  33. ^ Meika Loe. (2004). The Rise Of The Viagra: How the Little Blue Pill Changed Sex in America. New York University.
  34. ^ [4] Official page of the NSHAP study at NORC at the University of Chicago
  35. ^ [5] Curriculum vitae, retrieved January 1, 2014.
  36. ^ [6] "2013 Fellows and their Affiliations at the Time of Election." American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 2013. Retrieved January 1, 2014.

References

2005, Urban Lawyers: The New Social Structure of the Bar, with John P. Heinz, Robert L. Nelson, and Rebecca L. Sandefur. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

2004, The Sexual Organization of the City, with Stephen Ellingson, Jenna Mahay, Anthony Paik, and Yoosik Youm. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

2001, Sex, Love and Health: Private Choices and Public Policies, with Robert T. Michael. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

1994, Sex in America, with John H. Gagnon, Robert T. Michael, and Gina Kolata. New York: Little, Brown.

1994, The Social Organization of Sexuality, with John Gagnon, Robert T. Michael, and Stuart Michaels. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

1993, The Hollow Core: Private Interests in National Policy Making, with John P. Heinz, Robert Nelson, and Robert Salisbury. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

1987, The Organizational State: Social Choice in National Policy Domains, with David Knoke. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

1982, Chicago Lawyers: The Social Structure of the Bar, with John P. Heinz. New York: Russell Sage Foundation/American Bar Foundation.

1976, Networks of Collective Action. A Perspective on Community Influence Systems, with Franz Urban Pappi. New York: Academic Press.

1973, Bonds of Pluralism: The Form and Substance of Urban Social Networks. New York: Wiley Interscience.

1970, The Logic of Social Hierarchies, with Paul Siegel and Robert W. Hodge. Chicago: Markham.

1966, Prestige and Association in an Urban Community. New York: Bobbs-Merrill.

Publications (books)

Laumann has been a member of Phi Beta Kappa since 1959, was a Ford Foundation Fellow in the behavioral sciences, is an affiliated scholar of the American Bar Foundation, and has won a number of other scholarly distinctions,[35] including election as Fellow in the American Association for the Advancement of Science and membership in the American Academy of Arts & Sciences.[36] During his career, he has been a visiting professor or fellow at a number of universities around the world, including the University of Kent in Canterbury, England, Christian-Albrechts-Universitat in Kiel, West Germany, the London School of Economics, and Yonsei University in Seoul, South Korea.

Honors

Laumann would also use the NHSLS data to write what would eventually become the most highly cited scientific study of sexual dysfunction written in any discipline - a paper published in 1999 in the Journal of the American Medical Association that documented the surprisingly widespread prevalence of sexual dysfunction in the U.S.[31] Because he was recognized as one of the foremost experts in sexual behavior, sexual problems, and their public health implications, Laumann was brought on as a consultant by Pfizer in the mid-late 1990s and became instrumental in establishing the public interest in Viagra just prior to its release.[32][33] But Laumann's interests in the link between social networks, sexuality, and health culminated in his work on the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP),[34] a nationally representative panel study of over 3,000 Americans conducted with an interdisciplinary group of scholars including Linda J. Waite, Martha McClintock, Colm O'Muircheartaigh, William Dale, and others at the University of Chicago. This study has been primarily concerned with understanding connections between older adults' health and their social environments.

[30] One of the team's primary conclusions was that, due to the social structuring of sexual contact, there was little chance of an AIDS epidemic within the heterosexual community - a scientific conclusion that challenged then-widespread, politically fueled rhetoric about the dangers of sex.[29] A key finding from this study was that Americans are fairly conservative in their sex practices. In retrospect, Laumann remarked: "Only at Chicago could we have so thoroughly managed to take the fun out of sex."[28] and covered in hundreds of media outlets throughout the world.TIME magazine Their findings had a major impact on science and in broader society, making the cover of [27]Sex in America. and a more lay-friendly companion book, [26]

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