#jsDisabledContent { display:none; } My Account | Register | Help

# Energy development

Article Id: WHEBN0000533487
Reproduction Date:

 Title: Energy development Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia Language: English Subject: Collection: Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia Publication Date:

### Energy development

Energy development[4][5][6] is a field of endeavor focused on making available sufficient primary energy sources[7] and secondary energy forms to meet the needs of society.[8][9][10][11][12] These endeavors encompass those which provide for the production of conventional, alternative and renewable sources of energy, and for the recovery and reuse of energy that would otherwise be wasted. Energy conservation[note 2] and efficiency measures[note 3] reduce the impact of energy development, and can have benefits to society with changes in economic cost and with changes in the environmental effects.

Contemporary industrial societies use primary and secondary energy sources for transportation and the production of many manufactured goods. Also, large industrial populations have various generation and delivery services for energy distribution and end-user utilization.[note 4] This energy is used by people who can afford the cost to live under various climatic conditions through the use of heating, ventilation, and/or air conditioning. Level of use of external energy sources differs across societies, along with the convenience, levels of traffic congestion, pollution sources[13] and availability of domestic energy sources.

Thousands of people in society are employed in the energy industry, of which subjectively influence and impact behaviors. The conventional industry comprises the petroleum industry[note 5] the gas industry,[note 6] the electrical power industry[note 7] the coal industry, and the nuclear power industry. New energy industries include the renewable energy industry, comprising alternative and sustainable manufacture, distribution, and sale of alternative fuels. While there is the development of new hydrocarbon sources,[14] including deepwater/horizontal drilling and fracking, are contentiously underway, commitments to mitigate climate change are driving efforts to develop sources of alternative and renewable energy.

## Contents

• Types of energy 1
• Fossil fuels 2
• Nuclear 3
• Fission 3.1
• Fission economics 3.2
• Nuclear power debate 3.3
• Renewable sources 4
• Hydroelectricity 4.1
• Wind 4.2
• Solar 4.3
• Biofuels 4.4
• Geothermal 4.5
• 100% renewable energy 4.6
• Increased energy efficiency 5
• Transmission 6
• Shipping and pipelines 6.1
• Wired energy transfer 6.2
• Wireless energy transfer 6.3
• Storage 7
• History of energy development 8
• Sustainability 8.1
• Resilience 8.2
• Present and future 8.3
• References and citations 10
• Sources 11
• Journals 12

## Types of energy

Open System Model (basics)

Colloquially, and in non-scientific literature, the terms power,[note 8] fuels, and energy can be used as synonyms, but in the field of energy technology they possess different distinct meanings that are associated with them. An energy source is usually in the form of a closed system, the element that provides the energy by conversion from another energy form; However, the energy can be quantitative, the balance sheet is capable of containing open system energy transfers.[note 9] Illustrative of this can be the emanations from the sun, which with its nuclear fusion is the most important energy source for the Earth[note 10] and which provides its energy in the form of radiation.

The natural elements[note 11] of the material world exist in forms that can be converted into usable energy and are resources from which society can obtain energy to produce heat, light, and motion (among the many uses). According to their nature, the power plants can be classified into:

Classified according to the energy reserves of the energy source used and the regeneration capacity with:

• renewable: When the energy source used is freely regenerated in a short period and there are practically limitless reserves; An example is the solar energy that is the source of energy from the sun, or the wind[note 13] used as an energy resource. Renewable energies are:
• nonrenewable: They are coming from energy limited sources on Earth in quantity and, therefore, are exhaustible. The non-renewable energy sources include, non-exclusively:

So, for example, shale gas is secondary non-renewable. Wind is a primary renewable.

The principle stated by Antoine Lavoisier on the conservation of matter applies to energy development:[note 17] "nothing is created." Thus any energy "production" is actually a recovery transformation of the forms of energy whose origin is that of the universe.

For example, a bicycle dynamo turns in part from the kinetic energy (speed energy) of the movement of the cyclist and converting it into electrical energy will transfer in particular to its lights producing light, that is to say light energy, via the heating of the filament of the bulb and therefore heat (thermal energy). But the kinetic energy of the rider is itself biochemical energy (the ATP muscle cells) derived from the chemical energy of sugars synthesized by plants who use light energy from the sun, which runs from the nuclear energy produced by fusion of atoms of hydrogen. This material itself constitutes a form of energy, called "mass energy."

## Fossil fuels

The Moss Landing Power Plant in California is a fossil-fuel power station that burns natural gas in a turbine to produce electricity.

Fossil fuel (primary non-renewable fossil) sources burn coal or hydrocarbon fuels, which are the remains of the decomposition of plants and animals. There are three main types of fossil fuels: coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Another fossil fuel, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), is principally derived from the production of natural gas. Heat from burning fossil fuel is used either directly for space heating and process heating, or converted to mechanical energy for vehicles, industrial processes, or electrical power generation.

Fossil energy is from recovered fossils (like Industrial Revolution.

Fossil fuels make up the bulk of the world's current primary energy sources. The technology and infrastructure already exist for the use of fossil fuels. Petroleum energy density in terms of volume (cubic space) and mass (weight) ranks currently above that of alternative energy sources (or energy storage devices, like a battery). Fossil fuels are currently economical, and suitable for decentralized energy use.

Dependence on fossil fuels from regions or countries creates energy security risks for dependent countries.[16][17][18][19][20] Oil dependence in particular has led to war,[21] funding of radicals,[22] monopolization,[23] and socio-political instability.[24] Fossil fuels are non-renewable, un-sustainable resources, which will eventually decline in production[25] and become exhausted, with consequences to societies that remain dependent on them. Fossil fuels are actually slowly forming continuously, but are being consumed quicker than are formed.[note 18] Extracting fuels becomes increasingly extreme as society consumes the most accessible fuel deposits. Extraction in fuel mines get intensive and oil rigs drill deeper (going further out to sea).[26] Extraction of fossil fuels results in environmental degradation, such as the strip mining and mountaintop removal of coal.

Fuel efficiency is a form of thermal efficiency, meaning the efficiency of a process that converts chemical potential energy contained in a carrier fuel into kinetic energy or work. The fuel economy is the energy efficiency of a particular vehicle, is given as a ratio of distance travelled per unit of fuel consumed. Weight-specific efficiency (efficiency per unit weight) may be stated for freight, and passenger-specific efficiency (vehicle efficiency per passenger). The inefficient atmospheric combustion (burning) of fossil fuels in vehicles, buildings, and power plants contributes to urban heat islands.[27]

Conventional production of oil has peaked, conservatively, between 2007 to 2010.[note 19] In 2010, it was estimated that an investment in non-renewable resources of $8 trillion would be required to maintain current levels of production for 25 years.[28] In 2010, governments subsidized fossil fuels by an estimated$500 billion a year.[29] Fossil fuels are also a source of greenhouse gas emissions, leading to concerns about global warming if consumption is not reduced.

The combustion of fossil fuels leads to the release of mercury, arsenic, lead, cadmium, other heavy metals, and traces of uranium.[32][33]

## Nuclear

### Fission

The Susquehanna Steam Electric Station, a boiling water reactor. The reactors are located inside the rectangular containment buildings towards the front of the cooling towers. The power station produces 63 million kilowatt hours per day.
American nuclear powered ships,(top to bottom) cruisers USS Bainbridge, the USS Long Beach and the USS Enterprise, the longest ever naval vessel, and the first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier. Picture taken in 1964 during a record setting voyage of 26,540 nmi (49,190 km) around the world in 65 days without refueling. Crew members are spelling out Einstein's mass-energy equivalence formula E = mc2 on the flight deck.
The Russian nuclear-powered icebreaker NS Yamal on a joint scientific expedition with the NSF in 1994

Nuclear power, or nuclear [44][45] Proponents, such as the World Nuclear Association, the IAEA and Environmentalists for Nuclear Energy contend that nuclear power is a safe, sustainable energy source that reduces carbon emissions.[46] Opponents, such as Greenpeace International and NIRS, contend that nuclear power poses many threats to people and the environment.[47][48][49] Nuclear power plant accidents include the Chernobyl disaster (1986), Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster (2011), and the Three Mile Island accident (1979).[50] There have also been some nuclear submarine accidents.[50][51][52] In terms of lives lost per unit of energy generated, analysis has determined that nuclear power has caused less fatalities per unit of energy generated than the other major sources of energy generation. Energy production from coal, petroleum, natural gas and hydropower has caused a greater number of fatalities per unit of energy generated due to air pollution and energy accident effects.[53][54][55][56][57] However, the economic costs of nuclear power accidents is high, and meltdowns can take decades to clean up. The human costs of evacuations of affected populations and lost livelihoods is also significant.[58][59]

Along with other sustainable energy sources, nuclear power is a [36] approximately 28 of which in the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), with the most recent nuclear power reactor, as of May 2013, to be connected to the electrical grid, occurring on February 17, 2013 in Hongyanhe Nuclear Power Plant in the PRC.[62] In the USA, two new Generation III reactors are under construction at Vogtle. U.S. nuclear industry officials expect five new reactors to enter service by 2020, all at existing plants.[63] In 2013, four aging, uncompetitive, reactors were permanently closed.[64][65]

Japan's 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident, which occurred in a reactor design from the 1960s, prompted a rethink of nuclear safety and nuclear energy policy in many countries.[66] Germany decided to close all its reactors by 2022, and Italy has banned nuclear power.[66] Following Fukushima, in 2011 the International Energy Agency halved its estimate of additional nuclear generating capacity to be built by 2035.[67][68]

### Fission economics

The economics of new nuclear power plants is a controversial subject, since there are diverging views on this topic, and multibillion-dollar investments ride on the choice of an energy source. Nuclear power plants typically have high capital costs for building the plant, but low direct fuel costs.

In recent years there has been a slowdown of electricity demand growth and financing has become more difficult, which has an impact on large projects such as nuclear reactors, with very large upfront costs and long project cycles which carry a large variety of risks.[69] In Eastern Europe, a number of long-established projects are struggling to find finance, notably Belene in Bulgaria and the additional reactors at Cernavoda in Romania, and some potential backers have pulled out.[69] Where cheap gas is available and its future supply relatively secure, this also poses a major problem for nuclear projects.[69]

Analysis of the economics of nuclear power must take into account who bears the risks of future uncertainties. To date all operating nuclear power plants were developed by state-owned or regulated utility monopolies[70][71] where many of the risks associated with construction costs, operating performance, fuel price, and other factors were borne by consumers rather than suppliers. Many countries have now liberalized the electricity market where these risks, and the risk of cheaper competitors emerging before capital costs are recovered, are borne by plant suppliers and operators rather than consumers, which leads to a significantly different evaluation of the economics of new nuclear power plants.[72]

Two of the four EPRs under construction (in Finland and France) are significantly behind schedule and substantially over cost.[73] Following the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, costs are likely to go up for currently operating and new nuclear power plants, due to increased requirements for on-site spent fuel management and elevated design basis threats.[74]

### Nuclear power debate

The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, the second worst nuclear incident, displaced 50,000 households after radioactive material leaked into the air, soil and sea.[75] Radiation checks led to bans on some shipments of vegetables and fish.[76]

The nuclear power debate is about the controversy[45][77][78][79][80] which has surrounded the deployment and use of nuclear fission reactors to generate electricity from nuclear fuel for civilian purposes. The debate about nuclear power peaked during the 1970s and 1980s, when it "reached an intensity unprecedented in the history of technology controversies", in some countries.[81][82]

Proponents of nuclear energy argue that nuclear power is a sustainable energy source which reduces carbon emissions and can increase energy security if its use supplants a dependence on imported fuels.[83] Proponents advance the notion that nuclear power produces virtually no air pollution, in contrast to the chief viable alternative of fossil fuel. Proponents also believe that nuclear power is the only viable course to achieve energy independence for most Western countries. They emphasize that the risks of storing waste are small and can be further reduced by using the latest technology in newer reactors, and the operational safety record in the Western world is excellent when compared to the other major kinds of power plants.[84]

Opponents say that nuclear power poses numerous threats to people and the environment and point to studies in the literature that question if it will ever be a sustainable energy source.[85] These threats include health risks and environmental damage from uranium mining, processing and transport, the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation or sabotage, and the unsolved problem of radioactive nuclear waste.[86][87][88] They also contend that reactors themselves are enormously complex machines where many things can and do go wrong, and there have been many serious nuclear accidents.[89][90] Some critics do not believe that these risks can be reduced through new technology.[91] They argue that when all the energy-intensive stages of the nuclear fuel chain are considered, from uranium mining to nuclear decommissioning, nuclear power is not a low-carbon electricity source.[92][93][94] However, many countries remain heavily invested in nuclear energy, and some, such as India, are looking towards the potential of switching from uranium to thorium as a more sustainable option.[95]

Global public support for energy sources, based on a survey by Ipsos (2011).[96]

## Renewable sources

Wind, sun, and biomass are three renewable energy sources.

Renewable energy is generally defined as energy that comes from resources which are naturally replenished on a human timescale such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves and geothermal heat.[97] Renewable energy replaces conventional fuels in four distinct areas: electricity generation, hot water/space heating, motor fuels, and rural (off-grid) energy services.[98]

About 16% of global final energy consumption presently comes from renewable resources, with 10% [99] of all energy from traditional biomass, mainly used for heating, and 3.4% from hydroelectricity. New renewables (small hydro, modern biomass, wind, solar, geothermal, and biofuels) account for another 3% and are growing rapidly.[100] At the national level, at least 30 nations around the world already have renewable energy contributing more than 20% of energy supply. National renewable energy markets are projected to continue to grow strongly in the coming decade and beyond.[101] Wind power, for example, is growing at the rate of 30% annually, with a worldwide installed capacity of 282,482 megawatts (MW) at the end of 2012.

Renewable energy resources exist over wide geographical areas, in contrast to other energy sources, which are concentrated in a limited number of countries. Rapid deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency is resulting in significant energy security, climate change mitigation, and economic benefits.[102] In international public opinion surveys there is strong support for promoting renewable sources such as solar power and wind power.[103]

While many renewable energy projects are large-scale, renewable technologies are also suited to rural and remote areas and developing countries, where energy is often crucial in human development.[104] United Nations' Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon has said that renewable energy has the ability to lift the poorest nations to new levels of prosperity.[105]

### Hydroelectricity

The 22,500 China – the world's largest hydroelectric power station

Hydroelectricity is the term referring to electricity generated by hydropower; the production of electrical power through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water. It is the most widely used form of renewable energy, accounting for 16 percent of global electricity generation – 3,427 terawatt-hours of electricity production in 2010,[106] and is expected to increase about 3.1% each year for the next 25 years.

Hydropower is produced in 150 countries, with the Asia-Pacific region generating 32 percent of global hydropower in 2010. China is the largest hydroelectricity producer, with 721 terawatt-hours of production in 2010, representing around 17 percent of domestic electricity use. There are now three hydroelectricity plants larger than 10 GW: the Itaipu Dam across the Brazil/Paraguay border, and Guri Dam in Venezuela.[106]

The cost of hydroelectricity is relatively low, making it a competitive source of renewable electricity. The average cost of electricity from a hydro plant larger than 10 megawatts is 3 to 5 U.S. cents per kilowatt-hour.[106] Hydro is also a flexible source of electricity since plants can be ramped up and down very quickly to adapt to changing energy demands. However, damming interrupts the flow of rivers and can harm local ecosystems, and building large dams and reservoirs often involves displacing people and wildlife.[106] Once a hydroelectric complex is constructed, the project produces no direct waste, and has a considerably lower output level of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) than fossil fuel powered energy plants.[107]

### Wind

Burbo Bank Offshore Wind Farm in North West England
Global growth of wind power capacity

Wind (primary renewable natural) power harnesses the power of the wind to propel the blades of wind turbines. These turbines cause the rotation of magnets, which creates electricity. Wind towers are usually built together on wind farms. There are offshore and onshore wind farms. Global wind power capacity has expanded rapidly to 336 GW in June 2014, and wind energy production was around 4% of total worldwide electricity usage, and growing rapidly.[108]

Wind power is widely used in Europe, Asia, and the United States.[109] Several countries have achieved relatively high levels of wind power penetration, such as 21% of stationary electricity production in Denmark,[110] 18% in Portugal,[110] 16% in Spain,[110] 14% in Ireland,[111] and 9% in Germany in 2010.[110][112] By 2011, at times over 50% of electricity in Germany and Spain came from wind and solar power.[113][114] As of 2011, 83 countries around the world are using wind power on a commercial basis.[112]

Many of the world's largest onshore wind farms are located in the United States, China, and India. Most of the world's largest offshore wind farms are located in Denmark, Germany and the United Kingdom. The two largest offshore wind farm are currently the 630 MW London Array and Gwynt y Môr.

Large onshore wind farms
Wind farm Current
capacity
(MW)
Country Notes
Alta (Oak Creek-Mojave) 1,320  USA [115]
Jaisalmer Wind Park 1,064  India [116]
Roscoe Wind Farm 781  USA [117]
Horse Hollow Wind Energy Center 735  USA [118][119]
Capricorn Ridge Wind Farm 662  USA [118][119]
Fântânele-Cogealac Wind Farm 600  Romania [120]
Fowler Ridge Wind Farm 599  USA [121]

### Solar

Part of the 354 MW SEGS solar complex in northern San Bernardino County, California
The 150 MW Andasol Solar Power Station is a concentrated solar power plant, located in Spain.

Solar energy, radiant light and heat from the sun, is harnessed using a range of ever-evolving technologies such as solar heating, solar photovoltaics, solar thermal electricity, solar architecture and artificial photosynthesis.[122][123]

Solar technologies are broadly characterized as either passive solar or active solar depending on the way they capture, convert and distribute solar energy. Active solar techniques include the use of photovoltaic panels and solar thermal collectors to harness the energy. Passive solar techniques include orienting a building to the Sun, selecting materials with favorable thermal mass or light dispersing properties, and designing spaces that naturally circulate air.

In 2011, the International Energy Agency said that "the development of affordable, inexhaustible and clean solar energy technologies will have huge longer-term benefits. It will increase countries’ energy security through reliance on an indigenous, inexhaustible and mostly import-independent resource, enhance sustainability, reduce pollution, lower the costs of mitigating climate change, and keep fossil fuel prices lower than otherwise. These advantages are global. Hence the additional costs of the incentives for early deployment should be considered learning investments; they must be wisely spent and need to be widely shared".[122]

Photovoltaics (PV) is a method of generating electrical power by converting solar radiation into direct current electricity using semiconductors that exhibit the photovoltaic effect. Photovoltaic power generation employs solar panels composed of a number of solar cells containing a photovoltaic material. Materials presently used for photovoltaics include monocrystalline silicon, polycrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, cadmium telluride, and copper indium gallium selenide/sulfide. Due to the increased demand for renewable energy sources, the manufacturing of solar cells and photovoltaic arrays has advanced considerably in recent years.

Solar photovoltaics is a sustainable energy source.[124] By the end of 2011, a total of 71.1 GW[125] had been installed, sufficient to generate 85 TWh/year.[126] And by end of 2012, the 100 GW installed capacity milestone was achieved.[127] Solar photovoltaics is now, after hydro and wind power, the third most important renewable energy source in terms of globally installed capacity. More than 100 countries use solar PV. Installations may be ground-mounted (and sometimes integrated with farming and grazing) or built into the roof or walls of a building (either building-integrated photovoltaics or simply rooftop).

Driven by advances in technology and increases in manufacturing scale and sophistication, the cost of photovoltaics has declined steadily since the first solar cells were manufactured,[128] and the levelised cost of electricity (LCOE) from PV is competitive with conventional electricity sources in an expanding list of geographic regions. Net metering and financial incentives, such as preferential feed-in tariffs for solar-generated electricity, have supported solar PV installations in many countries.[129] The Energy Payback Time (EPBT), also known as energy amortization, depends on the location's annual solar insolation and temperature profile, as well as on the used type of PV-technology. For conventional crystalline silicon photovoltaics, the EPBT is higher than for thin-film technologies such as CdTe-PV or CPV-systems. Moreover, the payback time decreased in the recent years due to a number of improvements such as solar cell efficiency and more economic manufacturing processes. As of 2014, photovoltaics recoup on average the energy needed to manufacture them in 0.7 to 2 years. This results in about 95% of net-clean energy produced by a solar rooftop PV system over a 30-year life-time.[130]:30

### Biofuels

A bus fueled by biodiesel
Information on pump regarding ethanol fuel blend up to 10%, California

A biofuel is a plants or plant-derived materials). This biomass can be converted to convenient energy containing substances in three different ways: thermal conversion, chemical conversion, and biochemical conversion. This biomass conversion can result in fuel in solid, liquid, or gas form. This new biomass can be used for biofuels. Biofuels have increased in popularity because of rising oil prices and the need for energy security.

Bioethanol is an alcohol made by fermentation, mostly from carbohydrates produced in sugar or starch crops such as corn or sugarcane. Cellulosic biomass, derived from non-food sources, such as trees and grasses, is also being developed as a feedstock for ethanol production. Ethanol can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form, but it is usually used as a gasoline additive to increase octane and improve vehicle emissions. Bioethanol is widely used in the USA and in Brazil. Current plant design does not provide for converting the lignin portion of plant raw materials to fuel components by fermentation.

Biodiesel is made from vegetable oils and animal fats. Biodiesel can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form, but it is usually used as a diesel additive to reduce levels of particulates, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons from diesel-powered vehicles. Biodiesel is produced from oils or fats using transesterification and is the most common biofuel in Europe. However, research is underway on producing renewable fuels from decarboxylation[131]

In 2010, worldwide biofuel production reached 105 billion liters (28 billion gallons US), up 17% from 2009,[132] and biofuels provided 2.7% of the world's fuels for road transport, a contribution largely made up of ethanol and biodiesel. Global ethanol fuel production reached 86 billion liters (23 billion gallons US) in 2010, with the United States and Brazil as the world's top producers, accounting together for 90% of global production. The world's largest biodiesel producer is the European Union, accounting for 53% of all biodiesel production in 2010.[132] As of 2011, mandates for blending biofuels exist in 31 countries at the national level and in 29 states or provinces.[112] The International Energy Agency has a goal for biofuels to meet more than a quarter of world demand for transportation fuels by 2050 to reduce dependence on petroleum and coal.[133]

### Geothermal

Geothermal energy is thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth. Thermal energy is the energy that determines the temperature of matter. The geothermal energy of the Earth's crust originates from the original formation of the planet (20%) and from radioactive decay of minerals (80%).[134] The geothermal gradient, which is the difference in temperature between the core of the planet and its surface, drives a continuous conduction of thermal energy in the form of heat from the core to the surface. The adjective geothermal originates from the Greek roots γη (ge), meaning earth, and θερμος (thermos), meaning hot.

Earth's internal heat is thermal energy generated from radioactive decay and continual heat loss from Earth's formation. Temperatures at the core-mantle boundary may reach over 4000 °C (7,200 °F).[135] The high temperature and pressure in Earth's interior cause some rock to melt and solid mantle to behave plastically, resulting in portions of mantle convecting upward since it is lighter than the surrounding rock. Rock and water is heated in the crust, sometimes up to 370 °C (700 °F).[136]

From hot springs, geothermal energy has been used for bathing since Paleolithic times and for space heating since ancient Roman times, but it is now better known for electricity generation. Worldwide, 11,400 megawatts (MW) of geothermal power is online in 24 countries in 2012.[137] An additional 28 gigawatts of direct geothermal heating capacity is installed for district heating, space heating, spas, industrial processes, desalination and agricultural applications in 2010.[138]

Geothermal power is cost effective, reliable, sustainable, and environmentally friendly,[139] but has historically been limited to areas near tectonic plate boundaries. Recent technological advances have dramatically expanded the range and size of viable resources, especially for applications such as home heating, opening a potential for widespread exploitation. Geothermal wells release greenhouse gases trapped deep within the earth, but these emissions are much lower per energy unit than those of fossil fuels. As a result, geothermal power has the potential to help mitigate global warming if widely deployed in place of fossil fuels.

The Earth's geothermal resources are theoretically more than adequate to supply humanity's energy needs, but only a very small fraction may be profitably exploited. Drilling and exploration for deep resources is very expensive. Forecasts for the future of geothermal power depend on assumptions about technology, energy prices, subsidies, and interest rates. Pilot programs like EWEB's customer opt in Green Power Program [140] show that customers would be willing to pay a little more for a renewable energy source like geothermal. But as a result of government assisted research and industry experience, the cost of generating geothermal power has decreased by 25% over the past two decades.[141] In 2001, geothermal energy cost between two and ten US cents per kWh.[142]

### 100% renewable energy

The incentive to use 100% renewable energy, for electricity, transport, or even total primary energy supply globally, has been motivated by global warming and other ecological as well as economic concerns. Renewable energy use has grown much faster than anyone anticipated.[143] The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has said that there are few fundamental technological limits to integrating a portfolio of renewable energy technologies to meet most of total global energy demand.[144] At the national level, at least 30 nations around the world already have renewable energy contributing more than 20% of energy supply. Also, Professors S. Pacala and Robert H. Socolow have developed a series of "stabilization wedges" that can allow us to maintain our quality of life while avoiding catastrophic climate change, and "renewable energy sources," in aggregate, constitute the largest number of their "wedges." [145]

Mark Z. Jacobson says producing all new energy with wind power, solar power, and hydropower by 2030 is feasible and existing energy supply arrangements could be replaced by 2050. Barriers to implementing the renewable energy plan are seen to be "primarily social and political, not technological or economic". Jacobson says that energy costs with a wind, solar, water system should be similar to today's energy costs.[146]

Similarly, in the United States, the independent National Research Council has noted that "sufficient domestic renewable resources exist to allow renewable electricity to play a significant role in future electricity generation and thus help confront issues related to climate change, energy security, and the escalation of energy costs … Renewable energy is an attractive option because renewable resources available in the United States, taken collectively, can supply significantly greater amounts of electricity than the total current or projected domestic demand." .[147]

Critics of the "100% renewable energy" approach include Vaclav Smil and James E. Hansen. Smil and Hansen are concerned about the variable output of solar and wind power, but many other scientists and engineers have analysed this situation and said that the electricity grid can cope.[148]

## Increased energy efficiency

A spiral-type integrated compact fluorescent lamp, which has been popular among North American consumers since its introduction in the mid-1990s.[149]

Although increasing the efficiency of energy use is not energy development per se, it may be considered under the topic of energy development since it makes existing energy sources available to do work.[150]:22

Efficient energy use, simply called energy efficiency, is the goal of efforts to reduce the amount of energy required to provide products and services. For example, insulating a home allows a building to use less heating and cooling energy to achieve and maintain a comfortable temperature. Installing fluorescent lamps or natural skylights reduces the amount of energy required to attain the same level of illumination compared to using traditional incandescent light bulbs. Compact fluorescent lights use two-thirds less energy and may last 6 to 10 times longer than incandescent lights. Improvements in energy efficiency are most often achieved by adopting an efficient technology or production process.[151]

There are various motivations to improve energy efficiency. Reducing energy use reduces energy costs and may result in a financial cost saving to consumers if the energy savings offset any additional costs of implementing an energy efficient technology. Reducing energy use is also seen as a key solution to the problem of reducing emissions. According to the International Energy Agency, improved energy efficiency in buildings, industrial processes and transportation could reduce the world's energy needs in 2050 by one third, and help control global emissions of greenhouse gases.[152]

Energy efficiency and renewable energy are said to be the twin pillars of sustainable energy policy.[153] In many countries energy efficiency is also seen to have a national security benefit because it can be used to reduce the level of energy imports from foreign countries and may slow down the rate at which domestic energy resources are depleted.

## Transmission

An elevated section of the Alaska Pipeline

While new sources of energy are only rarely discovered or made possible by new technology, distribution technology continually evolves.[154] The use of fuel cells in cars, for example, is an anticipated delivery technology.[155] This section presents the various delivery technologies that have been important to historic energy development. They all rely in way on the energy sources listed in the previous section.

### Shipping and pipelines

Shipping is a flexible delivery technology that is used in the whole range of energy development regimes from primitive to highly advanced. Currently, coal, petroleum and their derivatives are delivered by shipping via boat, rail, or road. Petroleum and natural gas may also be delivered via pipeline and coal via a Slurry pipeline. Refined hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline and LPG may also be delivered via aircraft. Natural gas pipelines must maintain a certain minimum pressure to function correctly. Ethanol's corrosive properties make it harder to build ethanol pipelines. The higher costs of ethanol transportation and storage are often prohibitive.[156] Geomagnetically induced currents, seen as interfering with the normal operation of long buried pipeline systems, are a manifestation[157][158] at ground level of space weather that occur due to time-varying ionospheric source fields and the conductivity of the Earth.

### Wired energy transfer

Electrical grid – Pylons and cables distribute power

Electricity grids are the networks used to transmit and distribute power from production source to end user, when the two may be hundreds of kilometres away. Sources include electrical generation plants such as a nuclear reactor, coal burning power plant, etc. A combination of sub-stations, transformers, towers, cables, and piping are used to maintain a constant flow of electricity. Grids may suffer from transient blackouts and brownouts, often due to weather damage. During certain extreme space weather events solar wind can interfere with transmissions. Grids also have a predefined carrying capacity or load that cannot safely be exceeded. When power requirements exceed what's available, failures are inevitable. To prevent problems, power is then rationed.

Industrialised countries such as Canada, the US, and Australia are among the highest per capita consumers of electricity in the world, which is possible thanks to a widespread electrical distribution network. The US grid is one of the most advanced, although infrastructure maintenance is becoming a problem. CurrentEnergy provides a realtime overview of the electricity supply and demand for California, Texas, and the Northeast of the US. African countries with small scale electrical grids have a correspondingly low annual per capita usage of electricity. One of the most powerful power grids in the world supplies power to the state of Queensland, Australia.

### Wireless energy transfer

Wireless energy transfer is a process whereby electrical energy is transmitted from a power source to an electrical load that does not have a built-in power source, without the use of interconnecting wires.

## Storage

Energy storage is accomplished by devices or physical media that store energy to perform useful operation at a later time. A device that stores energy is sometimes called an accumulator.

All forms of energy are either food (which is made by the same process as fossil fuels) is a form of energy stored in chemical form.

## History of energy development

Energy generators past and present at Doel, Belgium: 17th century windmill Scheldemolen and 20th century Doel Nuclear Power Station

Since prehistory, when humanity discovered fire to warm up and roast food, through the Middle Ages in which populations built windmills to grind the wheat, until the modern era in which nations can get electricity splitting the atom. Man has sought endlessly for energy sources[note 21] from which to draw profit, which have been the fossil fuels, on one hand the coal to fuel the steam engines run industrial rails as well as maintain households, and secondly, the oil and its derivatives in the industry and transportation (primarily automotive), although have lived with smaller-scale exploitation of wind power, hydro and biomass. This model of development, however, is based on the depletion of fossil resources from periods of millions years without possibility for replacement as would be required to maintain. The search for energy sources that are inexhaustible and utilization by industrialized countries to strengthen their national economies by reducing its dependence on fossil fuels,[note 22] has led to the adoption of nuclear energy and those with sufficient water resources, the intensive hydraulic use of their waterways.

Since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, the question of the future of energy supplies has been of interest. In 1865, William Stanley Jevons published The Coal Question in which he saw that the reserves of coal were being depleted and that oil was an ineffective replacement. In 1914, U.S. Bureau of Mines stated that the total production was 5.7 billion barrels (910,000,000 m3). In 1956, Geophysicist M. King Hubbert deduces that U.S. oil production will peak between 1965 and 1970 (peaked in 1971) and that oil production will peak "within half a century" on the basis of 1956 data.[note 23] In 1989, predicted peak by Colin Campbell[159] In 2004, OPEC estimated, with substantial investments, it would nearly double oil output by 2025[160]

### Sustainability

Energy consumption from 1989 to 1999

The environmental movement has emphasized sustainability of energy use and development.[161] Renewable energy is sustainable in its production; the available supply will not be diminished for the foreseeable future - millions or billions of years. "Sustainability" also refers to the ability of the environment to cope with waste products, especially air pollution. Sources which have no direct waste products (such as wind, solar, and hydropower) are brought up on this point. With global demand for energy growing, the need to adopt various energy sources is growing. Energy conservation is an alternative or complementary process to energy development. It reduces the demand for energy by using it efficiently.

### Resilience

Energy consumption per capita (2001). Red hues indicate increase, green hues decrease of consumption during the 1990s.

Some observers contend that idea of "energy independence" is an unrealistic[note 24] and opaque concept.[162] The alternative offer of "energy resilience" is a goal aligned with economic, security, and energy realities. The notion of resilience in energy was detailed in the 1982 book Brittle Power: Energy Strategy for National Security.[163] The authors argued that simply switching to domestic energy would not be secure inherently because the true weakness is the interdependent and vulnerable energy infrastructure of the United States. Key aspects such as gas lines and the electrical power grid are centralized and easily susceptible to disruption. They conclude that a "resilient energy supply" is necessary for both national security and the environment. They recommend a focus on energy efficiency and renewable energy that is decentralized.[164]

In 2008, former The Reform Institute have pointed out, advancements associated with the developing smart grid would facilitate the ability of the grid to absorb vehicles en masse connecting to it to charge their batteries.[167]

### Present and future

Outlook—World Energy Consumption by Fuel (as of 2011)[168]
Liquid fuels incl. Biofuels        Coal        Natural Gas
Renewable fuels        Nuclear fuels
Increasing share of energy consumption by developing nations[169]
Industrialized nations
Developing nations
EE/Former Soviet Union

Extrapolations from current knowledge to the future offer a choice of energy futures.[170] Predictions parallel the Malthusian catastrophe hypothesis. Numerous are complex models based scenarios as pioneered by Limits to Growth. Modeling approaches offer ways to analyze diverse strategies, and hopefully find a road to rapid and sustainable development of humanity. Short term energy crises are also a concern of energy development. Extrapolations lack plausibility, particularly when they predict a continual increase in oil consumption.

Energy production usually requires an energy investment. Drilling for oil or building a wind power plant requires energy. The fossil fuel resources (see above) that are left are often increasingly difficult to extract and convert. They may thus require increasingly higher energy investments. If investment is greater than the energy produced, than the resource; It is no longer an effective energy source.[171][note 25] This means that resources, the wasteful ones, are not used effectively for energy production.[note 26] Such resources can be exploited economically in order to produce raw materials;[note 27] They then become ordinary mining reserves, economically recoverable are not a positive energy sources. New technology may ameliorate this problem if it can lower the energy investment required to extract and convert the resources, although ultimately basic physics sets limits that cannot be exceeded.

Between 1950 and 1984, as the Green Revolution transformed agriculture around the globe, world grain production increased by 250%. The energy for the Green Revolution was provided by fossil fuels in the form of fertilizers (natural gas), pesticides (oil), and hydrocarbon fueled irrigation.[172] The peaking of world hydrocarbon production (peak oil) may lead to significant changes, and require sustainable methods of production.[173] One vision of a sustainable energy future involves all human structures on the earth's surface (i.e., buildings, vehicles and roads) doing artificial photosynthesis (using sunlight to split water as a source of hydrogen and absorbing carbon dioxide to make fertilizer) efficiently than plants.[174]

With contemporary space industry's economic activity[175][176] and the related private spaceflight, with the manufacturing industries, that go into Earth's orbit or beyond, delivering them to those regions will require further energy development.[177][178][179][180] Commercialization of space includes satellite navigation systems, satellite television and satellite radio; investments estimated to be \$50.8 billion.[181] There are the spaceports of Sweden's gateway, Curaçao's gateway,[note 28] Malaysia's gateway, and America's gateway[note 29] that plans to make personal and commercial suborbital spaceflight for space tourism, space hubs,[note 30] space research, and science education, in-addition to contribute to Earth-based cross-industry innovation. Researchers have contemplated space-based solar power for collecting solar power in space for use on Earth.[note 31][note 32] Space-based solar power only differ from solar and other similar radiant energy collection methods in that the means used to collect energy would reside on an orbiting satellite instead of on Earth's surface. Some projected benefits of such a system are a higher collection rate and a longer collection period due to the lack of a diffusing and refracting atmosphere and nighttime in space.[note 33]

Policy
Energy policy, Energy policy of the United States, Energy policy of China, Energy policy of India, Energy policy of the European Union, Energy policy of the United Kingdom, Energy policy of Russia, Energy policy of Brazil, Energy policy of Canada, Energy policy of the Soviet Union, Energy Industry Liberalization and Privatization (Thailand)
General
Seasonal thermal energy storage (Interseasonal thermal energy storage), Geomagnetically induced current, Energy harvesting
Feedstock
Raw material, Biomaterial, Commodity, Materials science, Recycling, Upcycling, Downcycling
Other
Background radiation, Thorium-based nuclear power, List of oil pipelines, List of natural gas pipelines, Ocean thermal energy conversion, Growth of photovoltaics

## References and citations

Notes
1. ^ Also known as heat loss inefficiency
2. ^
4. ^ For small-scale generation, see: Microgeneration.
5. ^ Including oil companies, petroleum refiners, fuel transport and end-user sales at gas stations
6. ^ Including natural gas extraction, and coal gas manufacture, as well as distribution and sales
7. ^ Including electricity generation, electric power distribution and sales
8. ^ Such as the physical jargon of "power", can be seen in the following:
9. ^
10. ^ Providing the day and the habitable zone the Earth is in.
12. ^ Or those pertaining to the cosmos.
14. ^
15. ^
16. ^ from shale slate
17. ^ Or, moreover, the mass and energy coupling, as Albert Einstein states in the equivalence between these two concepts in his formula, E = m\cdot c^{2}.
18. ^ See: Oil reserves, Petroleum formation, and Pyrolysis.
19. ^ More liberally, oil has or will peak between 2010 to 2025. One out of several estimations state that there will be no peak. The timing of worldwide peak oil production is being actively debated, but may have already happened in countries. For more, see: Congressional Record, Volume 151-Part 19: November 8, 2005 to November 16, 2005 (Pages 25297 to 26552). Government Printing Office, 2010. p26524-26525.
20. ^ About 10 million kilowatt hours per day; Roughly, 420000 kilowatt hours per hour.
21. ^ All terrestrial energy sources except nuclear, geothermal and tidal are from current solar isolation or from fossil remains of plant and animal life that relied directly and indirectly upon sunlight, respectively. Ultimately, solar energy itself is the result of the Sun's nuclear fusion. Geothermal power from hot, hardened rock above the magma of the Earth's core is the result of the decay of radioactive materials present beneath the Earth's crust, and nuclear fission relies on man-made fission of heavy radioactive elements in the Earth's crust; in both cases these elements were produced in supernova explosions before the formation of the solar system.
22. ^ Concentrated in foreign territories after the exploitation and exhaustion of their own resource.
23. ^
24. ^ Said in relation with Liquid metal fast breeder reactor. For more, see: United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Appropriations. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1975. Page 7349.
25. ^
26. ^
27. ^ For plastics, fertilizers, etc.
28. ^ Having the Lynx rocketplane, Insel Air, and Dutch Antilles Express.
29. ^ Having Virgin Galactic, SpaceX, UP Aerospace, and Armadillo Aerospace.
31. ^ Using solar power satellites and satellite power systems, such as the electrodynamic tether.
32. ^ Space-based solar power has been in research since the early 1970s.
33. ^ Though, Earth based receiving structures of radiant electromotive forces are not beyond conception.
Citations
1. ^ REN21–Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st Century Renewables 2012–Global Status Report, 2012
2. ^ eia.gov–U.S. Energy Information Administration International Energy Statistics
3. ^ Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory–Energy flow chart, 2011
4. ^ The Federal nonnuclear energy research and development act (Public Law 93-577) section 11, environmental evaluation: report to the President and Congress. By United States Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Environmental Engineering and Technology.
5. ^ The Social impacts of energy development on national parks: final report By United States National Park Service, University of Denver. Center for Community Change. The National Park Service, U.S. Dept. of the Interior, 1984.
6. ^ Assessment of Energy Resource Development Impact on Water Quality, Volume 1. By Susan M. Melancon, Terry S. Michaud, Robert William Thomas. Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory, 1979.
7. ^ Resources for the twenty-first century: proceedings of the international centennial symposium of the United States Geological Survey, held at Reston, Virginia, October 14–19, 1979 . By Frank C. Whitmore, Mary Ellen Williams, U.S. Geological Survey.
8. ^ The Homeowner's Guide to Renewable Energy: Achieving Energy Independence. By Dan Chiras. New Society Publishers, July 5, 2011.
9. ^ Renewable Energy Sources for Sustainable Development. By Narendra Singh Rathore, N. L. Panwar. New India Publishing, January 1, 2007
10. ^ Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation: Summary for Policymakers and Technical Summary: Special Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, 2011.
11. ^ Solar Energy and Nonfossil Fuel Research. By United States. Cooperative State Research Service, Smithsonian Science Information Exchange. The Department, 1981.
12. ^ Final Report of the Task Force on the Availability of Federally Owned Mineral Lands, Volumes 1-2. By United States. Task Force on the Availability of Federally Owned Mineral Lands.
13. ^ Hydrocarbon Bioremediation, Volume 2 edited by Robert E. Hinchee
14. ^ Exploitation of Hydrocarbon Resources: New Solutions in Energy Supply : Overview 1995-1998. By European Commission, Directorate-General for Energy DG XVII, 1999.
15. ^ International Energy Agency: Key World Energy Statistics 2007. S. 6
16. ^ Energy Security and Climate Policy: Assessing Interactions. p125
17. ^ Energy Security: Economics, Politics, Strategies, and Implications. Edited by Carlos Pascual, Jonathan Elkind. p210
18. ^ Geothermal Energy Resources for Developing Countries. By D. Chandrasekharam, J. Bundschuh. p91
19. ^ Congressional Record, V. 153, PT. 2, January 18, 2007 to February 1, 2007 edited by U S Congress, Congress (U.S.). p 1618
20. ^ India s Energy Security. Edited by Ligia Noronha, Anant Sudarshan.
21. ^ National security, safety, technology, and employment implications of increasing CAFE standards : hearing before the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, United States Senate, One Hundred Seventh Congress, second session, January 24, 2002. DIANE Publishing. p10
22. ^ Ending our-Dependence on Oil - American Security Project. americansecurityproject.org
23. ^ Energy Dependency, Politics and Corruption in the Former Soviet Union. By Margarita M. Balmaceda. Psychology Press, December 6, 2007.
24. ^ Oil-Led Development: Social, Political, and Economic Consequences. Terry Lynn Karl. Stanford University. Stanford, California, United States.
25. ^ Peaking of World Oil Production: Impacts, Mitigation, and Risk Management. Was at: www.pppl.gov/polImage.cfm?doc_Id=44&size_code=Doc
26. ^
27. ^
28. ^
29. ^ ScienceDaily.com (April 22, 2010) "Fossil-Fuel Subsidies Hurting Global Environment, Security, Study Finds"
30. ^ Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2007): IPCC Fourth Assessment Report - Working Group I Report on "The Physical Science Basis".
31. ^ How much electricity does a typical nuclear power plant generate? - FAQ - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)
32. ^
33. ^ NRDC: There Is No Such Thing as "Clean Coal"
34. ^
35. ^
36. ^ a b
37. ^
38. ^
39. ^
40. ^
41. ^ http://www.ewp.rpi.edu/hartford/~ernesto/F2010/EP2/Materials4Students/Misiaszek/NuclearMarinePropulsion.pdf Naval Nuclear Propulsion, Magdi Ragheb. As of 2001, about 235 naval reactors had been built
42. ^ - Projected fusion power timeline
43. ^
44. ^ James J. MacKenzie. Review of The Nuclear Power Controversy by Arthur W. Murphy The Quarterly Review of Biology, Vol. 52, No. 4 (Dec., 1977), pp. 467-468.
45. ^ a b In February 2010 the nuclear power debate played out on the pages of the New York Times, see A Reasonable Bet on Nuclear Power and Revisiting Nuclear Power: A Debate and A Comeback for Nuclear Power?
46. ^ U.S. Energy Legislation May Be 'Renaissance' for Nuclear Power.
47. ^
48. ^
49. ^
50. ^ a b
51. ^ Strengthening the Safety of Radiation Sources p. 14.
52. ^
53. ^
54. ^
55. ^ http://www.forbes.coms/jamesconca/2012/06/10/energys-deathprint-a-price-always-paid/ with Chernobyl's total predicted linear no-threshold cancer deaths included, nuclear power is safer when compared to many alternative energy sources' immediate, death rate.
56. ^
57. ^ http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10807030802387556 Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal Volume 14, Issue 5, 2008 - A comparative analysis of accident risks in fossil, hydro, and nuclear energy chains. If you cannot access the paper via the above link, the following link is open to the public, credit to the authors. http://gabe.web.psi.ch/pdfs/_2012_LEA_Audit/TA01.pdf Page 962 to 965. Comparing Nuclear's latent cancer deaths, such as cancer with other energy sources immediate deaths per unit of energy generated(GWeyr). This study does not include Fossil fuel related cancer and other indirect deaths created by the use of fossil fuel consumption in its "severe accident", an accident with more than 5 fatalities, classification.
58. ^
59. ^
60. ^
61. ^
62. ^
63. ^
64. ^
65. ^
66. ^ a b
67. ^
68. ^
69. ^ a b c
70. ^
71. ^
72. ^
73. ^
74. ^
75. ^
76. ^
77. ^
78. ^
79. ^
80. ^ In July 2010 the nuclear power debate again played out on the pages of the New York Times, see We’re Not Ready Nuclear Energy: The Safety Issues
81. ^
82. ^ Jim Falk (1982). Global Fission: The Battle Over Nuclear Power, Oxford University Press, pages 323-340.
83. ^ U.S. Energy Legislation May Be `Renaissance' for Nuclear Power.
84. ^
85. ^ J. M. Pearce, "Limitations of Nuclear Power as a Sustainable Energy Source, Sustainability 4(6), pp.1173-1187 (2012).
86. ^
87. ^ Greenpeace International and European Renewable Energy Council (January 2007). Energy Revolution: A Sustainable World Energy Outlook, p. 7.
88. ^
89. ^ Stephanie Cooke (2009). In Mortal Hands: A Cautionary History of the Nuclear Age, Black Inc., p. 280.
90. ^
91. ^ Jim Green . Nuclear Weapons and 'Fourth Generation' Reactors Chain Reaction, August 2009, pp. 18-21.
92. ^
93. ^ Mark Diesendorf (2007). Greenhouse Solutions with Sustainable Energy, University of New South Wales Press, p. 252.
94. ^ Mark Diesendorf. Is nuclear energy a possible solution to global warming?
95. ^ http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/TE_1450_web.pdf
96. ^ . Survey website: Ipsos MORI: Poll: Strong global opposition towards nuclear power.
97. ^
98. ^ REN21 (2010). Renewables 2010 Global Status Report p. 15.
99. ^ http://www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/cooking.pdf
100. ^
101. ^
102. ^
103. ^ United Nations Environment Programme Global Trends in Sustainable Energy Investment 2007: Analysis of Trends and Issues in the Financing of Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency in OECD and Developing Countries (PDF), p. 3.
104. ^ World Energy Assessment (2001). Renewable energy technologies, p. 221.
105. ^
106. ^ a b c d
107. ^ Renewables 2011 Global Status Report, page 25, Hydropower, REN21, published 2011, accessed 2011-11-7.
108. ^
109. ^ Global wind energy markets continue to boom – 2006 another record year (PDF).
110. ^ a b c d
111. ^
112. ^ a b c
113. ^
114. ^ Spain Renewable Energy and High Penetration
115. ^ Terra-Gen Press Release, 17 April 2012
116. ^
117. ^ E.ON Delivers 335-MW of Wind in Texas
118. ^ a b
119. ^ a b AWEA: U.S. Wind Energy Projects – Texas
120. ^
121. ^ AWEA: U.S. Wind Energy Projects – Indiana
122. ^ a b
123. ^ Solar Fuels and Artificial Photosynthesis. Royal Society of Chemistry 2012 http://www.rsc.org/ScienceAndTechnology/Policy/Documents/solar-fuels.asp (accessed 11 March 2013)
124. ^
125. ^
126. ^
127. ^ Global Solar PV installed Capacity crosses 100GW Mark. renewindians.com (11 February 2013).
128. ^
129. ^ Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st century (REN21), Renewables 2010 Global Status Report, Paris, 2010, pp. 1–80.
130. ^
131. ^
132. ^ a b
133. ^
134. ^ How Geothermal energy works. Ucsusa.org. Retrieved on 2013-04-24.
135. ^ Lay, T., Hernlund, J., & Buffett, B. A. (2008). Core–mantle boundary heat flow. Nature Geoscience, 1(1), 25-32.
136. ^
137. ^
138. ^ Fridleifsson, Ingvar B.; Bertani, Ruggero; Huenges, Ernst; Lund, John W.; Ragnarsson, Arni; Rybach, Ladislaus (2008-02-11), O. Hohmeyer and T. Trittin, ed., The possible role and contribution of geothermal energy to the mitigation of climate change (pdf), IPCC Scoping Meeting on Renewable Energy Sources, Luebeck, Germany, pp. 59–80, retrieved 2009-04-06
139. ^ Glassley, William E. (2010). Geothermal Energy: Renewable Energy and the Environment, CRC Press, ISBN 9781420075700.
140. ^ Green Power. eweb.org
141. ^
142. ^
143. ^
144. ^
145. ^
146. ^
147. ^
148. ^
149. ^
150. ^ Richard L. Kauffman Obstacles to Renewable Energy and Energy Efﬁciency. in: From Silos to Systems: Issues in Clean Energy and Climate Change. A report on the work of the REIL Network, 2008-2010. Edited by Parker L et al. Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies 2010
151. ^ Diesendorf, Mark (2007). Greenhouse Solutions with Sustainable Energy, UNSW Press, p. 86.
152. ^
153. ^
154. ^
155. ^ Fuel Cell Materials Technology in Vehicular Propulsion: Report. National Academies, 1983.
156. ^
157. ^ GIC measurements eurisgic.org
158. ^ Solar Terrestrial Dispatch - Leaders in Space Weather Forecasting Services
159. ^ "Oil Price Leap in the Early Nineties," Noroil, December 1989, pages 35–38.
160. ^ Opec Oil Outlook to 2025 Table 4, Page 12
161. ^ Sustainable Development and Innovation in the Energy Sector. Ulrich Steger, Wouter Achterberg, Kornelis Blok, Henning Bode, Walter Frenz, Corinna Gather, Gerd Hanekamp, Dieter Imboden, Matthias Jahnke, Michael Kost, Rudi Kurz, Hans G. Nutzinger, Thomas Ziesemer. Springer, December 5, 2005.
162. ^ Energy independence and security: A reality check - Deloitte
163. ^ Brittle Power: Energy Plan for National Security. Amory B. Lovins and L. Hunter Lovins (1982).
164. ^ "The Fragility of Domestic Energy." Amory B. Lovins and L. Hunter Lovins. Atlantic Monthly. November 1983.
165. ^ "Our Electric Future." Andrew Grove. The American. July/August 2008.
166. ^
167. ^ Resilience in Energy: Building Infrastructure Today for Tomorrow’s Automotive Fuel. Reform Institute. March 2009.
168. ^ World energy consumption outlook from the International Energy Outlook, published by the U.S. DOE Energy Information Administration
169. ^ Source: Energy Information Administration – International Energy Outlook 2004
170. ^ (1)1 S.A.P.I.EN.S.Mandil, C. (2008) "Our energy for the future".
171. ^ Energy conservation through effective energy utilization. By United States. National Bureau of Standards, National Science Foundation (U.S.), Engineering Foundation (U.S.)
172. ^
173. ^ Peak Oil: the threat to our food security retrieved 28 May 2009
174. ^ Faunce TA, Lubitz W, Rutherford AW, MacFarlane D, Moore, GF, Yang P, Nocera DG, Moore TA, Gregory DH, Fukuzumi S, Yoon KB, Armstrong FA, Wasielewski MR, Styring S. ‘Energy and Environment Case for a Global Project on Artificial Photosynthesis.’ Energy and Environmental Science 2013, 6 (3), 695 - 698 DOI:10.1039/C3EE00063J http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2013/ee/c3ee00063j (accessed 13 March 2013)
175. ^
176. ^
177. ^ Propulsion Techniques: Action and Reaction edited by Peter J. Turchi. p341
178. ^ Climate Change: The Science, Impacts and Solutions. Edited by A. Pittock
179. ^ Future Spacecraft Propulsion Systems. By Paul A. Czysz, Claudio Bruno
180. ^ Physics of the Future. By Michio Kaku.
181. ^

## Sources

• Serra, J. "Alternative Fuel Resource Development", Clean and Green Fuels Fund, (2006).
• Bilgen, S. and K. Kaygusuz, Renewable Energy for a Clean and Sustainable Future, Energy Sources 26, 1119 (2004).
• Energy analysis of Power Systems, UIC Nuclear Issues Briefing Paper 57 (2004).
• Silvestre, B. S., Dalcol, P. R. T. Geographical proximity and innovation: Evidences from the Campos Basin oil & gas industrial agglomeration — Brazil. Technovation (2009), doi:10.1016/j.technovation.2009.01.003

## Journals

• Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization and Environmental Effects
• Energy Sources, Part B: Economics, Planning and Policy
• International Journal of Green Energy