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Energy in Denmark

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Energy in Denmark

Denmark ranks as number 32 in the world among net exporters of crude oil.

Denmark has considerable sources of oil and natural gas in the North Sea and ranks as number 32 in the world among net exporters of crude oil.[1] Denmark expects to be self-sufficient with oil until 2050.[2] However, gas resources are expected to decline, and production may decline below consumption in 2020, making imports necessary.[3] A large proportion of electricity is produced from coal; wind turbines meet about 39% of electricity demand by 2014 (see Wind power in Denmark).[4]

In February 2011 the Danish government announced the "Energy Strategy 2050" with the aim to be fully independent of fossil fuels by 2050.[5] The European Renewables Directive set a mandatory target at 20% share of energy from renewable sources by 2020 (EU combined).[6][7] In 2012 the Danish government adopted a plan to increase the share of electricity production from wind to 50% by 2020,[8][9] and to 84% in 2035.[10]

Denmark's electrical grid is connected by transmission lines to other European countries,[11] and had, according to the World Economic Forum the best energy security in the EU in 2013 [12] although this had fallen to third in the EU by 2014.[13]

Contents

  • Overview 1
  • Energy sources 2
    • Coal 2.1
    • Geothermal 2.2
    • Natural gas 2.3
    • Oil 2.4
    • Solar 2.5
    • Wind power 2.6
  • Electricity 3
  • District heating 4
  • Cities 5
  • See also 6
  • References 7
  • External links 8

Overview

Energy in Denmark[14]
Year Capita
(million)
Prim. energy
(TWh)
Production
(TWh)
Export
(TWh)
Electricity
(TWh)
CO2-emission
(Mt)
2004 5.40 233 361 117 35.8 50.9
2007 5.46 229 314 64 36.4 50.5
2008 5.49 221 309 54 35.5 48.4
2009 5.52 216 278 43 34.5 46.8
2010 5.55 224 271 42 35.1 47.0
2012 5.57 209 244 19 34.1 41.7
change
2004 to 2012
+3.7% -10% -32% -84% -4.7% -18%
 Mtoe = 11.63 TWh. Prim. energy includes energy losses.

The year 2014 was the warmest on record in Denmark, with the lowest number of degree days in history. A normal year has 2,906 while 2014 saw only 2,100 degree days.[15] Since 2000, Denmark has increased Gross National Product and decreased energy consumption.[16]

Energy sources

Coal

Fossil fuel consumption in Denmark.

Coal power provided 48.0% of the electricity and 22.0% of the heat in district heating in Denmark in 2008; and in total provided 21.6% of total energy consumption (187PJ out of 864PJ)[17] and is based mainly on coal imported from outside Europe.[18]

Geothermal

Denmark has two geothermal district heating plants, one in Thisted started in 1988, and one in Copenhagen started in 2005.[19][20] They produce no electricity.

Natural gas

The production of natural gas fell from 307 PJ in 2010 to 265 PJ in 2011. Consumption fell from 187 to 157 PJ.[21]

CO2 emissions from energy production fell from 49.4 to 44.3 million tons, from 2010 to 2011,[21] a decline of 10%.[22]

Oil

Production

The production of crude oil fell from 523 PJ in 2010 to 470 PJ in 2011. As of May 2014, Denmark produced an average of 172 kbpd.[23]

Consumption

Consumption fell from 315 to 306 PJ during 2011.[21] Official statistics estimate 231,000 residences heated by oil in 2014 (down from 328,000 in 2013), but only 87,000 actually purchased oil during 2014.[24]

Solar

Denmark already reached its year 2020 governmental goal of installing 200 MW of photovoltaic capacity in 2012.[25] As of 2013, the total PV capacity from 90,000 private installations amounts to 500 MW.[26] Danish energy sector players estimate that this development will result in 1000 MW by 2020 and 3400 MW by 2030.[25]

Wind power

Wind provides 39% of the electricity generated in Denmark.[4][27][28] Denmark is a long-time leader in wind energy, and as of May 2011 Denmark derives 3.1 percent of its Gross Domestic Product from renewable energy technology and energy efficiency, or around €6.5 billion ($9.4 billion).[29]

To encourage investment in wind power, families were offered a tax exemption for generating their own electricity within their own or an adjoining commune. While this could involve purchasing a turbine outright, more often families purchased shares in wind turbine cooperatives which in turn invested in community wind turbines. By 2004 over 150,000 Danes were either members of cooperatives or owned turbines, and about 5,500 turbines had been installed, although with greater private sector involvement the proportion owned by cooperatives had fallen to 75%.

Electricity

The electricity sector relies on fossil energy and renewable energy: wind power, biogas, biomass and waste. No hydro power is produced domestically and other countries hydro is used only for buffering Denmark's renewable generation. The average consumption of electricity per person was 0.8 GWh less than EU 15 average in 2008. Denmark invested in the wind power development in the 1970s and has been the top wind power country of the world ever since. Danish consumption of wind electricity has been highest in the world per person: 1,218 kWh in 2009. Denmark produced more wind power per person in 2009 than Spain or the UK produced nuclear power.

Because of energy taxes, Denmark has the highest household electricity prices in the world,[30] while industries pay just below EU average.[31] Transmission costs are around 7 øre/kWh, and support regimes cost 19 øre/kWh in 2014.[32]

District heating

Danish district heating plants use 100 Petajoule/year,[33] mostly waste heat from thermal plants burning coal, natural gas and biomass, but a small part of this consumption is from electrode boilers[34] or heat pumps.[35][36] Expansion of wind powered district heating is calculated to be economically efficient without taxes.[37][38]

The peak thermal load of district heating in Copenhagen is 2.5 GWth, and simulations suggest a potential heat pump would run 3,500 load-hours per year using sewage water as the heat reservoir.[39]

Cities

Copenhagen has a target to be carbon-neutral by 2025.[40]

Aarhus aims to be carbon-neutral by 2030.[41]

See also

References


-- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
%s
', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )

end

return p-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
%s
', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )

end

return p
  1. ^
  2. ^ Unforeseen billions from North Sea Maritime, 4 December 2011. Accessed: 8 December 2011.
  3. ^ Andersen, Christian Meiniche. Gas supply 2011-2013 page 17 Energinet.dk. Accessed: 8 December 2011.
  4. ^ a b Rasmussen, Jesper Nørskov. "Vindmøller slog rekord i 2014 " Energinet.dk, 6 January 2015. Accessed: 6 January 2015.
  5. ^
  6. ^
  7. ^ EU law - as measured in gross final consumption of energy
  8. ^ Danish Wind Industry Association, Wind energy Denmark, n.d.
  9. ^ The Guardian: "Denmark aims to get 50% of all electricity from wind power", 26 March 2012
  10. ^ Lindboe, page 3
  11. ^ Gellert, Bjarne Christian. Electricity interconnections Energinet.dk, 22 August 2011. Accessed: 6 December 2011.
  12. ^ "Danish security of supply is number one in the EU" Energinet.dk, 11 December 2013. Accessed: 26 December 2013.
  13. ^ "Global Rankings", Accessed: 30 April 2015.
  14. ^ IEA—Key World Energy Statistics 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2006 IEA October, crude oil p.11, coal p. 13 gas p. 15
  15. ^ Bernth, Martin. "Mildt vejr skærer 20 procent af varmeregningen" Ingeniøren, 5 January 2015. Accessed: 5 January 2015.
  16. ^ Rasmus Tengvad. Det danske energiforbrug på rekordlavt niveau Dansk Energi, 30 January 2015
  17. ^
  18. ^
  19. ^ Thisted Varmeforsyning Geotermi
  20. ^ Allan Mahler & Jesper Magtengaard, Proceeding World Geothermal Congress 2005, Geothermal Development in Denmark, Country Update WGC 2005
  21. ^ a b c Main energy statistics 2011 Danish Ministry of Climate and Energy, 20 March 2012. Accessed: 20 March 2012.
  22. ^ Dal, Peter. Large drop in energy and CO2 Danish Ministry of Climate and Energy, 20 March 2012. Accessed: 20 March 2012. Quote: ""
  23. ^ Danish Production of Oil, Gas and Water for May 2014 Danish Energy Agency, May 2014. Accessed: 26 June 2014.
  24. ^ Wittrup, Sanne. "Halvdelen af landets oliefyr er forsvundet " Ingeniøren, 9 April 2015. Accessed: 9 April 2015.
  25. ^ a b Denmark reaches 2020-goal for solar energy before time 12.09.2012
  26. ^ "Follow the solar cells" Energinet.dk, 18 December 2013. Accessed: 26 December 2013.
  27. ^ Energy_statics_2006
  28. ^ En visionær dansk energipolitik frem til 2025
  29. ^ Rank-1 in Clean Energy
  30. ^ Electricity Prices for Households Energy information administration
  31. ^ Danish Energy Agency
  32. ^ "Energinet.dk holds tariffs down - PSO tariff rises" Energinet.dk, 11 December 2013. Accessed: 26 December 2013.
  33. ^ Lindboe, page 29
  34. ^ Wittrup, Sanne. "Dong: Vores kraftværker bruger allerede billig vindmøllestrøm i elpatroner" Ingeniøren, 15 January 2015. Retrieved: January 2015.
  35. ^ Blarke, Morten Boje. "Liste over el-drevne varmepumper i fjernvarmen" SmartVarme.dk, 12 February 2014. Retrieved: January 2015.
  36. ^ Capion, Karsten. "Analyse nr. 9 - Mulighederne for den fremtidige fjernvarmeproduktion i decentrale områder" Danish Energy, 15 January 2014. Retrieved: 15 January 2015.
  37. ^ Lindboe, page 7
  38. ^ Blarke, Morten Boje. "Store eldrevne varmepumper" Aalborg University, 17 April 2013. Retrieved: January 2015.
  39. ^ Bach, Bjarne. "Integration of Heat Pumps in Greater Copenhagen" Technical University of Denmark, March 2014. Retrieved: January 2015.
  40. ^ Copenhagen's ambitious push to be carbon-neutral by 2025 Guardian 12 April 2013
  41. ^
  • Lindboe, Hans Henrik&, János Hethey. "Vindintegration i Danmark" Ea Energianalyse, November 2014. Retrieved: January 2015. Source

External links

  • Danish Energy Agency
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