World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Enterococcus

Article Id: WHEBN0000191192
Reproduction Date:

Title: Enterococcus  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Bile esculin agar, Pathogenic bacteria, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus aureus
Collection: Bacteria Genera, Enterococcus, Gram-Positive Bacteria, Lactobacillales, Pathogenic Bacteria
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Enterococcus

Enterococcus
Enterococcus sp. infection in pulmonary tissue
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Division: Firmicutes
Class: Bacilli
Order: Lactobacillales
Family: Enterococcaceae
Genus: Enterococcus
(ex Thiercelin & Jouhaud 1903)
Schleifer & Kilpper-Bälz 1984
Species[1]

Enterococcus is a large E. faecalis (90-95%) and E. faecium (5-10%). Rare clusters of infections occur with other species, including E. casseliflavus, E. gallinarum, and E. raffinosus.[2]

Contents

  • Physiology and classification 1
    • History 1.1
  • Pathology 2
  • Water quality 3
  • References 4

Physiology and classification

Enterococci are cellular respiration in both oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor environments.[3] Though they are not capable of forming spores, enterococci are tolerant of a wide range of environmental conditions: extreme temperature (10-45°C), pH (4.5-10.0) and high sodium chloride concentrations.[4]

Enterococci typically exhibit gamma-hemolysis on sheep's blood agar.[5]

History

Members of the genus Enterococcus (from Greek έντερο, éntero, "intestine" and κοκκος, coccos, "granule") were classified as Group D Streptococcus until 1984, when genomic DNA analysis indicated a separate genus classification would be appropriate.[6]

Pathology

Important clinical infections caused by Enterococcus include urinary tract infections, bacteremia, bacterial endocarditis, diverticulitis, and meningitis.[4][5] Sensitive strains of these bacteria can be treated with ampicillin, penicillin and vancomycin.[7] Urinary tract infections can be treated specifically with nitrofurantoin, even in cases of vancomycin resistance.[8]

From a medical standpoint, an important feature of this genus is the high level of intrinsic antibiotic resistance. Some enterococci are intrinsically resistant to β-lactam-based antibiotics (penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems), as well as many aminoglycosides.[5] In the last two decades, particularly virulent strains of Enterococcus that are resistant to vancomycin (vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, or VRE) have emerged in nosocomial infections of hospitalized patients, especially in the US.[4] Other developed countries, such as the UK, have been spared this epidemic, and, in 2005, Singapore managed to halt an epidemic of VRE.[9] VRE may be treated with quinupristin/dalfopristin (Synercid) with response rates of approximately 70%.[10] Tigecycline has also been shown to have anti-enterococcal activity as has rifampicin.

Enterococcal meningitis is a rare complication of neurosurgery. It often requires treatment with intravenous or intrathecal vancomycin, yet it is debatable as to whether its use has any impact on outcome: the removal of any neurological devices is a crucial part of the management of these infections.[11] New epidemiological evidence has shown that enterococci are major infectious agent in chronic bacterial prostatitis. Enterococci are able to form biofilm in the prostate gland making their eradication difficult.

Enterococcus
Classification and external resources
ICD-9-CM 041.04

Water quality

In bodies of water, the acceptable level of contamination is very low; for example in the state of Hawaii, and most of the United States, the limit for water off its beaches is a five-week geometric mean of 35 colony-forming units per 100 ml of water, above which the state may post warnings to stay out of the ocean.[12] In 2004, Enterococci sp. took the place of fecal coliforms as the new USA federal standard for water quality at public saltwater beaches and E. coli at freshwater beaches.[13] It is believed to provide a higher correlation than fecal coliform with many of the human pathogens often found in city sewage.[14]

References

  1. ^ EnterococcusLPSN entry for
  2. ^ a b Gilmore MS; et al., eds. (2002). The Enterococci: Pathogenesis, Molecular Biology, and Antibiotic Resistance. Washington, D.C.: ASM Press.  
  3. ^ Fischetti VA, Novick RP, Ferretti JJ, Portnoy DA, Rood JI, ed. (2000). Gram-Positive Pathogens. ASM Press.  
  4. ^ a b c Fisher K, Phillips C (June 2009). "The ecology, epidemiology and virulence of Enterococcus". Microbiology 155 (Pt 6): 1749–57.  
  5. ^ a b c Ryan KJ, Ray CG, ed. (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). McGraw Hill. pp. 294–5.  
  6. ^ Schleifer KH; Kilpper-Balz R (1984). "Transfer of Streptococcus faecalis and Streptococcus faecium to the genus Enterococcus nom. rev. as Enterococcus faecalis comb. nov. and Enterococcus faecium comb. nov.". Int. J. Sys. Bacteriol. 34: 31–34.  
  7. ^ Pelletier LL Jr. (1996). (Baron S et al., eds.)Baron's Medical Microbiology in: Microbiology of the Circulatory System. (4th ed.). Univ of Texas Medical Branch.  
  8. ^ Zhanel GG, Hoban DJ, Karlowsky JA (January 2001). "Nitrofurantoin is active against vancomycin-resistant enterococci". Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45 (1): 324–6.  
  9. ^ Kurup, Asok; Chlebicki, M.P.; Ling, M.L.; Koh, T.H.; Tan, K.Y.; Lee, L.C.; Howe, K.B.M. (April 2008). "Control of a hospital-wide vancomycin-resistant Enterococci outbreak". American Journal of Infection Control 36 (3): 206–211.  
  10. ^ Tünger A, Aydemir S, Uluer S, Cilli F (2004). "In vitro activity of linezolid & quinupristin/dalfopristin against Gram-positive cocci". Indian J Med Res 120 (6): 546–52.  
  11. ^ Guardado R; Asensi V; Torres JM; et al. (2006). "Post-surgical enterococcal meningitis: clinical and epidemiological study of 20 cases". Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 38 (8): 584–8.  
  12. ^ "Clean Water Branch" (PDF). Hawaii State Department of Health. Retrieved 2012-05-18. 
  13. ^ "Water Quality Standards for Coastal and Great Lakes Recreation Waters; Final Rule". Federal Register 69 (220): 67218–67243. 16 November 2004. Retrieved 26 November 2014. 
  14. ^ Jin G, Jeng HW, Bradford H, Englande AJ (2004). "Comparison of E. coli, enterococci, and fecal coliform as indicators for brackish water quality assessment". Water Environ. Res. 76 (3): 245–55.  
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.