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Eusporangiate fern

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Eusporangiate fern

Eusporangiate ferns
Botrychium lunaria
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Pteridophyta
(unranked): eusporangiate ferns
Classes

Eusporangiate ferns are vascular spore plants, whose sporangia arise from several epidermal cells and not from a single cell as in leptosporangiate ferns. Typically these ferns have reduced root systems and sporangia that produce large amounts or spores (up to 7000 spores per sporangium in Christensenia)

There are four extant eusporangiate fern families, distributed among three classes. Each family is assigned to its own order.[1][2]

The following diagram shows a likely phylogenic placement of eusporangiate fern classes within the vascular plants.[3][4]



lycophytes (club mosses, spike mosses, quillworts)

euphyllophytes

spermatophytes (seed plants)

ferns
Psilotopsida

 Psilotales (whisk ferns) 


 Ophioglossales (grapeferns etc.) 


Equisetopsida

 Equisetales (horsetails) 


Marattiopsida

 Marattiales 


Polypodiopsida

 Osmundales 



 Hymenophyllales 



 Gleicheniales 



 Schizaeales 



 Salviniales 



 Cyatheales 


 Polypodiales 










eusporangiate
ferns

Cladistics

While it is generally accepted that the leptosporangiate ferns are monophyletic, it is considered to be likely that the eusporangiate ferns, as a group, are polyphyletic.[5] In each of the three examples from recently published studies, shown in the following table, it can be seen that, together, the four eusporangiate fern families do not form a single clade.

Pryer & Schuettpelz, 2009[6]
ferns



Ophioglossaceae


Psilotaceae






Equisetaceae


Marattiaceae




Leptosporangiate
ferns




Rai & Graham, 2010[7]
ferns



Equisetaceae






Ophioglossaceae


Psilotaceae




Marattiaceae


Leptosporangiate
ferns




Lehtonen, 2011[4]
ferns



Ophioglossaceae


Psilotaceae






Marattiaceae




Equisetaceae


Leptosporangiate
ferns




References

  1. ^ Alan R. Smith, Kathleen M. Pryer, Eric Schuettpelz, Petra Korall, Harald Schneider & Paul G. Wolf (2006). "A classification for extant ferns" (PDF). Taxon 55 (3): 705–731.  
  2. ^ Maarten J. M. Christenhusz, Xian-Chun Zhang & Harald Schneider (2011). "A linear sequence of extant families and genera of lycophytes and ferns" (PDF).  
  3. ^ Paul G. Wolf, Joshua P. Der, Jacob B. Davidson, Kathleen M. Pryer, Aaron M. Duffy, Amanda L. Grusz (2010). "The evolution of chloroplast genes and genomes in ferns" (PDF). Plant Molecular Biology 76: 251–261.  
  4. ^ a b Samuli Lehtonen (2011). "Towards Resolving the Complete Fern Tree of Life" (PDF). PLoS ONE 6 (10): e24851.  
  5. ^ Kathleen M. Pryer, Eric Schuettpelz, Paul G. Wolf, Harald Schneider, Alan R. Smith, & Raymond Cranfill (2004). "Phylogeny and evolution of ferns (monilophytes) with a focus on the early leptosporangiate divergences" (PDF). American Journal of Botany 91 (10): 1582–1598.  
  6. ^ Kathleen M. Pryer & Eric Schuettpelz (2009). "Ferns" (PDF). In S. Blair Hedges & Sudhir Kumar. The Timetree of Life. Oxford Biology. 
  7. ^ Hardeep S. Rai & Sean W. Graham (2010). "Utility of a large, multigene plastid data set in inferring higher-order relationships in ferns and relatives (Monilophytes)" (PDF). American Journal of Botany 97 (9): 1444–1456.  
  • Hogan, C.Michael. 2010. . Encyclopedia of Earth, National Council for Science and the EnvironmentFern. topic ed. Saikat Basu
  • Sporne, K. R. 1962. The morphology of pteridophytes, the structure of ferns and allied plants. pp. 127–135. Hutchison & Co. London.


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