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Expedition of Dhat al-Riqa

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Expedition of Dhat al-Riqa

Expedition of Dhat al-Riqa
Date October 625AD or 627 AD in 3rd month of 7AH (Islamic Calendar)
Location Dhat al-Riqa
Result *Enemy escapes (some sources claim treaty was signed)[1][2]
Commanders and leaders
Mohammed Unknown
Strength
400 or 800[2][3] Allied of Banu Muharib, Banu Talabah and Banu Ghatafan

Expedition of Dhat al-Riqa took place in October 625 AD, 5AH, of the Islamic Calendar[4] but some other Muslims scholars believe it took place after the Battle of Khaybar in 627AD, i.e. 7 AH of the Islamic Calendar.,[5] 2 Quran verses 5:11 and 4:101 are related to this event.[6][7][8]

Background and Attack

Muhammed received the news that certain tribes of Banu Ghatafan were assembling at Dhat al-Riqa with suspicious purposes.

Muhammad proceeded towards Nejd at the head of 400 or 700 men, after he had mandated Abu Dhar - in the Ummayad version, the Ummayad chief who killed Abu Dhar is given this honor: Uthman bin Affan - to dispose the affairs of Madinah during his absence. The Muslim fighters penetrated deep into their land until they reached a spot called Nakhlah where they came across some bedouins of Ghatfan.[2][5]

This is called the expedition of Dhat al-Riqa(the patchwork of mountain) . Muhammad made a surprise raid on them to disperse them. The Ghatafan fled to the mountains, leaving their women behind. No fighting took place but Muhammad attacked their habitations and captured their women . Other sources report Muhammad signed a treaty with the tribe.[5]

When the prayer time came, the Muslims were worried that the Ghatafan men might descend from their mountain hideout and make a sudden attack on them while they were praying. Apprehending this fear, Muhammad introduced the ‘service of prayer of danger.’ In this system, a party of faithful stands guard while the other party prays. Then they take turns. According to Muslim sources, God revealed the verses 4:101 regarding shortening of a prayer.

[9]

While Muhammad was resting under the shade of a tree at Dhat al-Riqa, a polytheist man came to him with the intention of killing him. The man was playing with Muhammad’s sword and pointed it to Muhammad; asked him if he was afraid of him or not. Muhammad claimed that Allah would protect him and that he was not afraid. The would-be assassin then sheathed the sword and returned it to Muhammad. On this the verse 5:11 was revealed, proclaiming His unflinching protection for Muhammad whenever someone stretches his hand out for his life. After fifteen days Muhammad returned to Medina. But he was not at peace; he apprehended that the Banu Ghatafan might make a sudden attack to reclaim their women.[5][9]

Time of Expedition

Some scholars claim, the expedition took place in Nejd (a large area of tableland in the Arabian Peninsula) in Rabi‘ Ath-Thani or Jumada Al-Ula, 4 A.H (or beginning of 5AH). They substantiate their claim by saying that it was strategically necessary to carry out this campaign in order to quell the rebellious bedouins in order to meet the exigencies of the agreed upon encounter with the polytheists, i.e. minor Badr Battle in Sha‘ban, 4 A.H.

The most authentic opinion according to "Saifur Rahman al Mubararakpuri", however, is that Dhat Ar-Riqa‘ campaign took place after the fall of Khaibar (and not as part of the Invasion of Nejd). This is supported by the fact that Abu Hurairah and Abu Musa Ashaari witnessed the battle. Abu Hurairah embraced Islam only some days before Khaibar, and Abu Musa Al-Ash‘ari came back from Abyssinia (Ethiopia) and joined Muhammad at Khaibar. The rules relating to the prayer of fear which Muhammad observed at Dhat Ar-Riqa‘ campaign, were revealed at the Asfan Invasion and this scholars say, took place after Al-Khandaq (the Battle of the Trench).[5]

Islamic sources

Quran 4:101 and 5:11

The Quran verse 4:101 was reportedly revealed in this event, regarding shorting of prayers. As was verse 5:11, regarding a man who was sent to kill Muhammad or threaten him,[10] which states:

Biographical literature

The event is mentioned by the Muslim jurist Tabari as follows:

This event is also mentioned in Ibn Hisham's biography of Muhammad. The Muslim jurist Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya also mentions the event in his biography of Muhammad, Zad al-Ma'ad.[5] Among the modern secondary sources which mention this, include the award winning book,[11] The Sealed Nectar.[5]

Hadith literature

The Sunni Hadith collection Sahih Muslim also says about this event:

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Rahman al-Mubarakpuri, Saifur (2005), The Sealed Nectar, Darussalam Publications, p. 192 
  2. ^ a b c Muir, William (1861), The life of Mahomet, Smith, Elder & Co, p. 223 
  3. ^   (free online)
  4. ^ a b Tabari, Al (2008), The foundation of the community, State University of New York Press, p. 161,  
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Rahman al-Mubarakpuri, Saifur (2005), The Sealed Nectar, Darussalam Publications, p. 240 
  6. ^ Hawarey, Dr. Mosab (2010). The Journey of Prophecy; Days of Peace and War (Arabic). Islamic Book Trust.  Note: Book contains a list of battles of Muhammad in Arabic, English translation available here
  7. ^ Muḥammad Ibn ʻAbd al-Wahhāb, Mukhtaṣar zād al-maʻād, p. 345.
  8. ^ Haykal, Husayn (1976), The Life of Muhammad, Islamic Book Trust, p. 327,  
  9. ^ a b Muir, William (1861), The life of Mahomet, Smith, Elder & Co, p. 224 
  10. ^ Muir, William (1861), The life of Mahomet, Smith, Elder & Co, p. 224 
  11. ^ Ar-Raheeq Al-Makhtum - The Sealed Nectar. Dar-us-Salam Publications
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