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Farewell Sermon

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Title: Farewell Sermon  
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Farewell Sermon

Part of a series on
Muhammad

The Farewell Sermon (Arabic: خطبة الوداع‎, Khuṭbatu l-Wadāʿ), also known as Muhammad's Final Sermon or The Last Sermon, was delivered by the Islamic prophet, Muhammad on the 9th of Dhu al-Hijjah, 10 AH (9 March 632) in the Uranah valley of Mount Arafat, during the Islamic pilgrimage of Hajj. Muhammad al-Bukhari refers to the sermon and quotes part of it in his Sahih al-Bukhari.[1][2][3] Part of it is also present in Sahih Muslim[4] and Sunan Abu Dawood.[5] Various versions of the sermon have been published, including several English translations. The sermon consists of a series of general exhortations for Muslims to follow the teachings that Muhammad had set forth in the Quran and sunnah.

Contents

  • Narrations in hadith literature 1
  • Reports by historian Ibn Ishaq 2
  • Al-Jahiz's version 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5

Narrations in hadith literature

In a lengthy hadith included in Sahih Muslim, Sunan Abi Dawud, and Sunan Ibn Majah, Jabir ibn Abd Allah narrated details of Muhammad's pilgrimage and reported the following words of his sermon:

Other ahadith:

The following hadith is reported in Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal:

Reports by historian Ibn Ishaq

An account of the sermon was collected by the early historian Ibn Ishaq, as quoted in Ibn Hisham's Sirah an-Nabawiyah and at-Tabari's Tarikh, with minor differences.[10][11] The narration is translated by I. K. Poonawala in The History of al-Tabari, vol. IX: The Last Years of the Prophet (1990), as follows:

  1. ^ Addition from Ibn Ishaq

The sermon is also translated by A. Guillame in The Life of Muhammad: A Translation of Isḥāq's Sīrat Rasūl Allāh (1955), which is based on the work of Ibn Hisham.[13] Poonawala does not differ much with Guillame in regards to meaning, but notable differences are his translation of bi’l-ma‘rūf as "with custom" and ‘awān as "domestic animals", whereas Guillame translates the passage as, "If they refrain from these things they have the right to their food and clothing with kindness. Lay injunctions on women kindly, for they are prisoners with you having no control of their persons."

Ibn Ishaq also narrates the method in which the sermon was delivered:

Al-Jahiz's version

Al-Jahiz in al-Bayan wa al-Tabyin presents the following text of the Farewell Sermon,[14] translated by Nuh Ha Mim Keller:

See also

References

  1. ^ "The Hadith of the Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم) at your fingertips". 
  2. ^ "The Hadith of the Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم) at your fingertips". 
  3. ^ "The Hadith of the Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم) at your fingertips". 
  4. ^ "The Hadith of the Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم) at your fingertips". 
  5. ^ "The Hadith of the Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم) at your fingertips". 
  6. ^ Sahih Muslim. Kitab al-Hajj. Hadith 159. Sunnah.com
  7. ^ Al-Tirmidhi Hadith, Number 104
  8. ^ http://www.webcitation.org/query?url=http://sunnah.com/ibnmajah/9&date=2014-01-14
  9. ^ Musnad Ahmad. 
  10. ^ aṭ-Ṭabarī. تاريخ الطبري / Tārīkh aṭ-Ṭabarī. islamweb.net. 
  11. ^ Ibn Hishām. السيرة النبوية / as-Sīrah an-Nabawīyah. islamweb.net. 
  12. ^ a b Poonawala, Ismail K. (1990). The History of al-Ṭabarī, Volume IX: The Last Years of the Prophet. Albany: State University of New York Press. pp. 112–114.  
  13. ^ Guillaume, A. (1998) [First published 1955. Reissued in Pakistan 1967]. The Life of Muhammad: A Translation of Isḥāq's Sīrat Rasūl Allāh. Karachi: Oxford University Press. pp. 650–652.  
  14. ^  
  15. ^ Keller, Nuh Ha Mim (2001). "Adab of Islam". masud.co.uk. 
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