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Flag of Afghanistan

 

Flag of Afghanistan

Afghanistan
Proportion 2:3
Adopted January 4, 2004
Design A vertical tricolor of black, red, and green charged in the center with the national emblem

The flag of Afghanistan (Pashto: د افغانستان بيرغ; Persian: پرچم افغانستان) has had more changes since the start of the 20th century than has that of any other country in the world.[1] Afghanistan has had 20 different flags since the first flag when the Hotaki dynasty which made Afghanistan independent was established in 1709.

The current flag was adopted by the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan in 2004. This flag is similar to the one flown in Afghanistan during the monarchy between 1930 and 1973. The difference is the addition of the shahadah at the top of the coat of arms (seen in yellow) in the center. This flag consists of three stripes of the colors black, red, and green. This has been present on most flags of Afghanistan in the last twenty years. The center emblem is the classical emblem of Afghanistan with a mosque with its mihrab facing Makah.

Contents

  • Historical flags 1
  • Heads of State flags 2
  • See also 3
  • References 4
  • External links 5

Historical flags

Years of Use Flag Ratio Government Notes'
1709–1738 2:3 Hotak dynasty
1747–1842 2:3 Durrani Empire Flag flown under the rule of Ahmad Shah Durrani and his dynasty.
1826–1880 No official flag during this period. Emirate of Afghanistan Prior to 1880, the Barakzai dynasty did not use the flag associated with the Durranis, or an official alternative.
1880–1901 2:3 Emirate of Afghanistan Flag flown under the rule of Abdur Rahman Khan.
1901–1919 3:5 Emirate of Afghanistan State and war flag flown under the rule of Habibullah Khan. Habibullah added to his father's flag a seal that is the precursor of the modern-day seal.
1919–1926/29 2:3 Emirate of Afghanistan First flag flown under the rule of King Amanullah. He expanded upon his father's flag by adding rays emanating from the seal in the form of an octagram. This new style of seal was common in the Ottoman Empire. Afghanistan became a kingdom in 1926.
1926–1928 2:3 Kingdom of Afghanistan Second flag flown under the rule of King Amanullah. He replaced the octagram with a wreath and slightly modified the national seal.
1928 3:5 Kingdom of Afghanistan Third flag flown under the rule of King Amanullah. The black, red, and green tricolor, respectively representing the past (previous flags), the bloodshed for independence (Third Anglo-Afghan War), and hope for the future, was probably influenced by Khan’s visit abroad to Europe and especially Germany (black-red-gold) in 1927.
1928–1929 2:3 Kingdom of Afghanistan Fourth flag flown under the rule of King Amanullah. The new seal shows the sun rising over two snow-capped mountains, representing a new beginning for the kingdom.
1929 2:3 Kingdom of Afghanistan Flag flown under the rule of Habibullah Kalakani. The red, black, and white tricolor.
1929–March 27, 1930 2:3 Kingdom of Afghanistan First flag flown under the rule of Nader Shah. The black, red, and green tricolor was re-established; the octogram seal borrowed from the first flag of King Amanullah replaced the sun and mountains seal.
March 27, 1930–July 16, 1973 2:3 Kingdom of Afghanistan Second flag flown under the rule of Nader Shah, it was also used by his son, Zahir Shah. The black, red, and green tricolor were retained. The octagram rays were removed, and the seal enlarged. In between the mosque and the seal is the year ١٣٤٨ (1348 of the lunar Islamic calendar, or 1929 AD of the Gregorian calendar) the year Mohammed Nadir Shah’s dynasty began.
July 17, 1973–May 8, 1974 2:3 Republic of Afghanistan First flag flown for the Republic of Afghanistan. It is identical to the previous flag, except that the year ١٣٤٨ was removed as Zahir Shah's monarchy ended.
May 9, 1974–April 26, 1978 2:3 Republic of Afghanistan Second flag flown for the Republic of Afghanistan. The same colors were used, but the meanings reinterpreted: black for the obscure past, red for blood shed for independence, and green for prosperity from agriculture. In the canton is a new seal, with an eagle with spread wings, a pulpit (minbar) on the eagle’s chest (for a mosque), wheat surrounding the eagle, and the sun’s rays above the eagle (for the new republic).
April 27, 1978–October 18, 1978 2:3 Democratic Republic of Afghanistan When the leader of the republic, Mohammad Daoud Khan, was killed in a coup, the new regime under the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA), with the assistance of the Soviet Union, established a secular socialist state. For a brief period of time, during the transition, the same flag design was kept, but no seal.
October 19, 1978–April 21, 1980 1:2 Democratic Republic of Afghanistan This flag used a red field with a yellow seal in the canton, a common design for socialist states in the 20th century. The wreath of wheat remained, but a star was added at top (representing the five ethnic groups of the nation) and the word 'Khalq' in Arabic script in the center. The flag was also the flag of the PDPA's Khalq faction under President Nur Muhammad Taraki until his murder in September 1979.
April 22, 1980–November 29, 1987 1:2 Democratic Republic of Afghanistan After the overthrow of the Khalq faction by the Parcham faction, the flag was changed again. The overthrow occurred in December 1979 days before the start of the Soviet war. The new leadership re-established the black, red, and green tricolor, representing the past, blood shed for independence, and the Islamic faith, respectively. A new seal was designed, with a rising sun (a reference to the former name, Khorasan, meaning "Land of the Rising Sun"), a pulpit and a book (considered to be the Communist Manifesto or Capital by Karl Marx), ribbons with the national colors, a cogwheel for industry, and a red star for communism.
November 30, 1987–April 26, 1992 1:2 Republic of Afghanistan The flag was changed as part of Mohammad Najibullah's National Reconciliation constitution changes. Same as the previous flag, except that in the national seal, the cogwheel is moved from the top to the bottom, the red star and the book are removed, and the green field curved to resemble the horizon.
April 27, 1992−December 6, 1992 1:2 Islamic State of Afghanistan This flag was used as a provisional flag after the fall of the Najibullah pro-Soviet regime. It appeared in many variants of which one is shown here. In the upper stripe is Arabic Allahu Akbar, ("Allah is the greatest"); the center stripe contains the Shahadah.
December 7, 1992 – September 26, 1996 1:2 Islamic State of Afghanistan / Northern Alliance The new Islamic government under Rabbani featured a flag change. This design is similar to several Middle Eastern Muslim nations' flags. Also, the Shahadah is written within a logo. On the bottom part of the logo was written "دا افغانستان اسلامی دولت", Islamic State of Afghanistan.
September 27, 1996 – October 26, 1997 2:3 Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan A plain white flag was flown by the Taliban.
October 27, 1997 – November 12, 2001 2:3 Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan In 1997 the Taliban introduced the Shahadah on a white flag.

د افغانستان اسلامي امارات

November 13, 2001–January 27, 2002 1:2 Islamic State of Afghanistan
January 28, 2002–January 3, 2004 1:2 Transitional Administration After the fall of the Taliban, the traditional black, red and green colors were back. The center emblem is the classical emblem of Afghanistan with a mosque with its mihrab facing Mecca. This flag is similar to the one flown in Afghanistan during the monarchy between 1930 and 1973 - the difference is a revised emblem including the addition of the shahadah at the top of the coat-of-arms (seen in white) in the center. It now shows the year ١۲۹٨ (1298), the solar Islamic calendar equivalent of 1919 AD of the Gregorian Calendar, the year of independence from Great Britain. There was an unofficial variation with a gold emblem.
January 4, 2004–present 2:3 Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Similar to the previous flag, but a different ratio and a slighly moderated emblem. "دا افغانستان اسلامی دولت" Islamic State of Afghanistan has been replaced with simply "افغانستان" Afghanistan.

Heads of State flags

Years of Use Flag Ratio Use Notes
1931–1973 2:3 King of Afghanistan Royal Standard of the King of Afghanistan.
2004–present 2:3 President of Afghanistan Standard of the President of Afghanistan.

See also

References

  1. ^ http://flagspot.net/flags/af_his.html

External links

  • Afghanistan at Flags of the World
  • Afghantribes: Afghan National Flags Timeline
  • Encyclopedia Iranica: FLAGS OF AFGHANISTAN
  • Flag of Afghanistan
  • Flags of Afghanistan
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