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Foreign relations of Croatia

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Title: Foreign relations of Croatia  
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Subject: Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs (Croatia), Croatian Government, Politics of Croatia, Croatia–Norway relations, Croatia–Montenegro relations
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Foreign relations of Croatia


Union for the Mediterranean as well as a number of many other international organizations. As of 2015, Croatia has established diplomatic relations with 174 countries.

The main objectives of Croatian foreign policy during the 1990s were gaining international recognition and joining the United Nations. After these objectives have been achieved by year 2000, two main goals became NATO and EU membership. Croatia fulfilled both of these goals, first in 2009, second in 2013. Current Croatian goals in foreign policy are: positioning within the EU institutions and in the region, cooperation with NATO partners and strengthening multilateral and bilateral cooperation.[1]

History

Foreign relation of Croatia
  diplomatic relations established
  diplomatic recognition only

Croatian foreign policy has focused on greater Euro-Atlantic integration, mainly entering the European Union and NATO. In order to gain access to European and trans-Atlantic institutions, it has had to undo many negative effects of the breakup of Yugoslavia and the war that ensued, and improve and maintain good relations with its neighbors.

Key issues over the last decade have been the implementation of the Dayton Accords and the Erdut Agreement, nondiscriminatory facilitation of the return of refugees and displaced persons from the 1991-95 war including property restitution for ethnic Serbs, resolution of border disputes with Slovenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia and Montenegro, and general democratization.

Croatia has had an uneven record in these areas between 1996 and 1999 during the right-wing HDZ government, inhibiting its relations with the European Union and the United States. Improvement in these areas severely hindered the advance of Croatia's prospects for further Euro-Atlantic integration. Progress in the areas of Dayton, Erdut, and refugee returns were evident in 1998, but progress was slow and required intensive international engagement.

Croatia's unsatisfactory performance implementing broader democratic reforms in 1998 raised questions about the ruling party's commitment to basic democratic principles and norms. Areas of concern included restrictions on freedom of speech, one-party control of public TV and radio, repression of independent media, unfair electoral regulations, a judiciary that is not fully independent, and lack of human and civil rights protection.

A centre-left coalition government was elected in early 2000. The SDP-led government slowly relinquished control over public media companies and did not interfere with freedom of speech and independent media, though it didn't complete the process of making Croatian Radiotelevision independent. Judiciary reforms remained a pending issue as well.

Major Croatian advances in foreign relations during this period have included:

The EU application was the last major international undertaking of the Račan government, which submitted a 7,000-page report in reply to the questionnaire by the European Commission.

Foreign relations were severely affected by the government's hesitance and stalling of the extradition of Croatian general Janko Bobetko to the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY), and inability to take general Ante Gotovina into custody for questioning by the Court.

Refugee returns accelerated since 1999, reached a peak in 2000, but then slightly decreased in 2001 and 2002. The OSCE mission in Croatia has continued to monitor the return of refugees and is still recording civil rights violations. Croatian Serbs continue to have problems with restitution of property and acceptance to the reconstruction assistance programmes. Combined with lacking economic opportunities in the rural areas of former Krajina, the return process is highly troubled.

Accession to the European Union

At the time of Croatia's application to the European Union, three EU members states were yet to ratify the Stabilization and Association Agreement: United Kingdom, the Netherlands and Italy. The new Sanader government elected in 2003 elections repeated the assurances that Croatia will fulfill the missing political obligations, and expedited the extradition of several ICTY inductees. The European Commission replied to the answers of the questionnaire sent to Croatia on April 20, 2004 with a positive opinion. The country was finally accepted as EU candidate in July 2004. Italy and United Kingdom ratified the Stabilization and Association Agreement shortly thereafter, while the ten EU member states that were admitted to membership that year ratified it all together at a 2004 European Summit. In December 2004, the EU leaders announced that accession negotiations with Croatia would start on March 17, 2005 provided that Croatian government cooperates fully with the ICTY. The main issue, the flight of general Gotovina, however, remained unsolved and despite the agreement on an accession negotiation framework, the negotiations did not begin in March 2005. On October 4, 2005 Croatia finally received green light for accession negotiations after the Chief Prosecutor of the ICTY Carla Del Ponte officially stated that Croatia is fully cooperating with the Tribunal. This has been the main condition demanded by EU foreign ministers for accession negotiations. The ICTY called upon other southern European states to follow Croatia's good example. Thanks to the consistent position of Austria during the meeting of EU foreign ministers, a long period of instability and the questioning of the determination of the Croatian government to extradite alleged war criminals has ended successfully. Croatian Prime minister Ivo Sanader declared that full cooperation with the Hague Tribunal will continue. The accession process was also complicated by the insistence of Slovenia, an EU member state, that the two countries' border issues be dealt with prior to Croatia's accession to the EU.

Croatia finished accession negotiations on 30 June 2011,[2] and on 9 December 2011, signed the Treaty of Accession. A referendum on EU accession was held in Croatia on 22 January 2012, with 66% of participants voting in favour of joining the Union.[3][4][5][6] The ratification process was concluded on 21 June 2013, and entry into force and accession of Croatia to the EU took place on 1 July 2013.[7]

Current events

The main objective of the Croatian foreign policy is positioning within the EU institutions and in the region, cooperation with NATO partners and strengthening multilateral and bilateral cooperation.

Government officials in charge of foreign policy include the Minister of Foreign Affairs and European Integration, currently Vesna Pusić, and the President of the Republic, currently Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović.

Croatia has established diplomatic relations with 174 countries.[8] As of 2009, Croatia maintains a network of 51 embassies, 24 consulates and eight permanent diplomatic missions abroad. Furthermore, there are 52 foreign embassies and 69 International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), United Nations Development Programme, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and UNICEF.[9]

International organizations

Republic of Croatia participates in the following international organizations: WTO

There exists a Permanent Representative of Croatia to the United Nations.

Foreign support

Croatia receives support from donor programs of:

Between 1991 and 2003, the EBRD had directly invested a total of 1,212,039,000 EUR into projects in Croatia.

In 1998, U.S. support to Croatia came through the Southeastern European Economic Development Program (SEED), whose funding in Croatia totaled $23.25 million. More than half of that money was used to fund programs encouraging sustainable returns of refugees and displaced persons. About one-third of the assistance was used for democratization efforts, and another 5% funded financial sector restructuring.

In 2003 USAID considered Croatia to be on a "glide path for graduation" along with Bulgaria. Its 2002/2003/2004 funding includes around $10 million for economic development, up to $5 million for the development of democratic institutions, about $5 million for the return of population affected by war and between 2 and 3 million dollars for the "mitigation of adverse social conditions and trends". A rising amount of funding is given to cross-cutting programs in anti-corruption, slightly under one million dollars.

The European Commission has proposed to assist Croatia's efforts to join the European Union with 245 million euros from PHARE, ISPA and SAPARD aid programs over the course of 2005 and 2006.

International disputes

Relations with neighbouring states have normalized somewhat since the breakup of Yugoslavia. Work has begun — bilaterally and within the Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe since 1999 — on political and economic cooperation in the region.

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Consulate-General in Banja Luka

Discussions continue between Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina on various sections of the border, the longest border with another country for each of these countries.

Sections of the Una river and villages at the base of Mount Plješevica are in Croatia, while some are in Bosnia, which causes an excessive number of border crossings on a single route and impedes any serious development in the region. The Zagreb-Bihać-Split railway line is still closed for major traffic due to this issue.

The border on the Una river between Hrvatska Kostajnica on the northern, Croatian side of the river, and Bosanska Kostajnica on the southern, Bosnian side, is also being discussed. A river island between the two towns is under Croatian control, but is also claimed by Bosnia. A shared border crossing point has been built and has been functioning since 2003, and is used without hindrance by either party.

The Herzegovinian municipality of Neum in the south makes the southernmost part of Croatia an exclave and the two countries are negotiating special transit rules through Neum to compensate for that. Recently Croatia has opted to build a bridge to the Pelješac peninsula to connect the Croatian mainland with the exclave but Bosnia and Herzegovina has protested that the bridge will close its access to international waters (although Croatian territory and territorial waters surround Bosnian-Herzegovinian territory and waters completely) and has suggested that the bridge must be higher than 55 meters for free passage of all types of ships. Negotiations are still being held.

Italy

The relations between Croatia and Italy have been largely cordial and friendly, although occasional incidents do arise on issues such as the Istrian exodus or the Ecological and Fisheries Protection Zone.

Montenegro

Croatia and Montenegro have a largely latent border dispute over the Prevlaka peninsula.

Serbia

The Danube border between Croatia and Serbia is in dispute, particularly in Baranja, the Island of Vukovar and the Island of Šarengrad.

Slovenia

Croatia and Slovenia have several land and maritime boundary disputes, mainly in the Gulf of Piran, regarding Slovenian access to international waters, a small number of pockets of land on the right-hand side of the river Dragonja, and around the Sveta Gera peak.

Slovenia was disputing Croatia's claim to establish the Ecological and Fisheries Protection Zone, an economic section of the Adriatic.

Other issues that have yet to be fully resolved include:

Diplomatic relations

Europe

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Albania 1992-08-25 See Albanian–Croatian relations
  • Albania has an embassy in Zagreb.
  • Croatia has an embassy in Tirana.
  • Both countries are full members of NATO.
  • Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs: list of bilateral treaties with Albania)
 Andorra 1995-04-28
  • Croatia is represented in Andorra through its embassy in Madrid (Spain).
  • Andorra is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Paris (France).
 Armenia 1994-07-08 See Armenia–Croatia relations
  • Armenia has an embassy in Zagreb.
  • Croatia has an embassy in Erevan.
  • Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs: list of bilateral treaties with Armenia
 Austria 1992-01-15 See Austria–Croatia relations
 Azerbaijan 1995-01-26 See Azerbaijan–Croatia relations
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Zagreb.
  • Croatia has an embassy in Baku.
  • Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs: list of bilateral treaties with Azerbaijan
 Belarus 1992-09-25 See Belarus–Croatia relations
  • Croatia is represented in Belarus through its embassy in Moscow (Russia).
  • Belarus is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Vienna (Austria).
  • The states maintain their bilateral relations through their embassies in Moscow.[10]
  • On December 16, 2002 Belarus, Russia, Ukraine, Slovakia, Hungary and Croatia signed an intergovernmental agreement on cooperation within the project to integrate the Druzhba and Adria oil-pipelines in Zagreb.[11]
  • Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration: list of bilateral treaties with Belarus
  • Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Belarus - search for "Croatia"
 Belgium 1992-03-10
  • Belgium has an embassy in Zagreb and 2 honorary consulates in Dubrovnik and Zadar.[12]
  • Croatia has an embassy in Brussels and an honorary consulate in Bruges.[13]
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
  • Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration: list of bilateral treaties with Belgium
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 1992-07-21 See Bosnia and Herzegovina – Croatia relations
 Bulgaria 1992-08-13 See Bulgaria–Croatia relations
  • Bulgaria has an embassy in Zagreb.[14]
  • Croatia has an embassy in Sofia.[14]
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
  • Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration: list of bilateral treaties with Bulgaria
 Cyprus 1993-02-04
  • Croatia is represented in Cyprus through its embassy in Rome (Italy) and an honorary consulate in Nicosia.
  • Cyprus is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Vienna (Austria) and an honorary consulate in Zagreb.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.
  • Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs: list of bilateral treaties with Cyprus
 Czech Republic 1993-01-01
  • Croatia has an embassy in Prague.[15]
  • Czech Republic has an embassy in Zagreb and 2 honorary consulates in Rijeka and Split.[16]
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
  • Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration: list of bilateral treaties with the Czech Republic
 Denmark 1992-02-01 See Croatia–Denmark relations
  • Croatia has an embassy in Copenhagen and an honorary consulate in Aarhus.
  • Denmark has an embassy in Zagreb and 3 honorary consulates in Dubrovnik, Rijeka, and Split.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
  • Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration: list of bilateral treaties with Denmark
 Estonia 1992-03-02
  • Croatia is represented in Estonia through its embassy in Helsinki, Finland.
  • Estonia is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Budapest, Hungary.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Finland 1992-02-19
  • Croatia has an embassy in Helsinki.
  • Finland has an embassy in Zagreb and 3 honorary consulates in Rijeka, Split and Zagreb.[17]
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.
  • Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration: list of bilateral treaties with Finland
  • Finnish Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Croatia
 France 1992-04-24
  • Croatia has an embassy in Paris and an honorary consulate in Lyon.[18]
  • France has an embassy in Zagreb.[19]
  • Since 2004, Croatia is an observer on the Francophonie.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
  • Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration: list of bilateral treaties signed with France
  • French Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Croatia
Georgia 1993-02-01
  • Croatia is represented in Georgia through its embassy in Athens (Greece) and consulate in Tbilisi.[20]
  • Georgia is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Budapest (Hungary).[21]
 Germany 1992-01-15

See Croatian–German relations

 Greece 1992-07-20

See Croatia–Greece relations

  • Greece has an embassy in Zagreb.[22]
  • Croatia has an embassy in Athens and consulate in Solun.[23]
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
  • Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration: List of treaties between Croatia and Greece
  • Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs about the relation with Croatia
1992-02-08
  • Croatia has a resident embassy to the Holy See in Rome.[24]
  • Holy See has a nunciature with a nuncio of ambassadorial rank with additional privileges in Zagreb.
  • According to the 2011 census 86.28% of Croats are Roman Catholic.
1992-01-18 See Croatia–Hungary relations
1992-06-30
  • Croatia is represented in Iceland thought it embassy in Copenhagen (Denmark) and consulate in Reykjavik.[27]
  • Iceland is represented in Croatia thought it embassy in Berlin (Germany) and consulate in Zagreb.[27]
  • Iceland is the first fully sovereign country that recognized Croatia as an independent state. (December 19, 1991)
  • Both countries are full members of NATO.
1995-01-27 Croatia-Ireland relations
1992-01-17 See Croatia-Italy relations
  • Croatia has an embassy in Rome, 2 general consulates in Milan and Trieste and 5 honorary consulates in Bari, Florence, Montemitro, Naples, and Padua.[30]
  • Italy has an embassy in Zagreb, general consulate in Rijeka,a consulate in Split and 2 honorary consulates in Buje and Pula.[31]
  • Croatia and Italy share maritime border.
  • Italy is most important trading partner to Croatia.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
  • Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration: list of bilateral treaties with Italy
2008-06-30 See Croatia–Kosovo relations
  • Croatia has an embassy Pristina.[32]
  • Kosovo has an embassy in Zagreb.[33]
  • Croatia has 27 of its soldiers deployed on Kosovo.
  • Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Kosovo
1992-02-14
  • Croatia is represented in Latvia through its embassy in Stockholm (Sweden).
  • Latvia is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Prague (Czech Republic) and an honorary consulate in Zagreb.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
  • Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration: list of bilateral treaties with Latvia
  • Latvian Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Croatia
1992-02-04
  • Croatia is represented in Liechtenstein through its embassy in Bern (Switzerland).
  • Liechtenstein isn't represented in Croatia.
1992-03-18
  • Croatia is represented in Lithuania through the Croatian office in Lithuania which is a branch of Croatian embassy in Stockholm (Sweden).[34]
  • Lithuania is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Vienna (Austria) and 2 consulate in Zagreb and Starigrad.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
  • Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration: list of bilateral treaties with Lithuania
  • Lithuanian Ministry of Foreign Affairs: list of bilateral treaties with Croatia (in Lithuanian only)
1992-04-29
  • Croatia is represented in Luxembourg through it embassy in Brussels (Belgium).[35]
  • Luxembourg is represented in Croatia through it embassy in Berlin (Germany).[36]
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
1992-03-30
  • Croatia has an embassy in Skopje, and the general consulate in Bitola.
  • Macedonia has an embassy in Zagreb and 2 consulates in Zadar and Rijeka.
  • From 1918 to 1991 Croatia and Macedonia were part of Yugoslavia.
  • Croatia is full member of the European Union and NATO while Macedonia is among candidates for membership.
1992-06-30
  • Croatia is represented in Malta through it embassy in Rome (Italy).
  • Malta is represented in Croatia through its general embassy in Valletta (Malta) and 2 honorary consulate in Zagreb and Split.[37]
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.
  • Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs: list of bilateral treaties with Malta
  • Malta Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Croatia
1992-12-22
  • Sovereign Military Order of Malta has an embassy in Zagreb.
1992-07-28
  • Croatia is represented in Moldova through its embassy in Bucharest (Romania).
  • Moldova is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Budapest (Hungary).
  • Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration: list of bilateral treaties with Moldova
  • Moldovan Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration about relations with Croatia
2006-07-07

See Croatia–Montenegro relations

  • Croatia has an embassy in Podgorica and consulate in Kotor.
  • Montenegro has an embassy in Zagreb and consulate in Dubrovnik.[38]
  • From 1918 to 1991 Croatia and Montenegro were part of Yugoslavia.
  • Relations between the two countries are promoted through the Croatian-Montenegrin Friendship Society "Croatica-Montenegrina".[39]
  • Croatia is full member of the European Union and NATO while Montenegro is among candidates for membership in both organisations.
  • Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs: list of bilateral treaties with Montenegro
1992-04-23
  • Croatia has an embassy in The Hague.[40]
  • The Netherlands has an embassy in Zagreb[41] and 3 honorary consulates in Dubrovnik, Opatija and Split.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
  • Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration: list of bilateral treaties with the Netherlands
  • Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Croatia (in Dutch only)
1992-02-20

See Croatia–Norway relations

  • Croatia has an embassy in Oslo.
  • Norway has an embassy in Zagreb[42] and 2 consulate in Rijeka and Dubrovnik.[43]
  • Both countries are full members of NATO.
  • Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration: list of bilateral treaties with Norway
1992-04-11
  • Croatia has an embassy in Warsaw and 5 consulates in Kraków, Poznań, Bialystok, Bydgoszcz and Opole.[44]
  • Poland has an embassy in Zagreb and consulate in Opatija.[45]
  • Poland has Office of Military Attaché and Department of Trade and Investment Promotion of the Polish Embassy in Zagreb.[45]
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
  • Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration: list of bilateral treaties with Poland
1992-02-03
  • Croatia has an embassy in Lisbon and 2 honorary consulates in Funchal and Porto.
  • Portugal has an embassy in Zagreb.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
  • Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration: list of bilateral treaties with Portugal
1992-08-29
1992-05-25 See Croatia–Russia relations
1993-02-11

See Croatia–San Marino relations

  • Croatia is represented in San Marino through its embassy in Rome (Italy).[49]
  • San Marino is represented in Croatia through its General embassy in San Marino.[50]
  • According to legend San Marino was founded in year 301 by sculptor Saint Marinus from the Croatian island of Rab.
1993-01-01
  • Croatia has an embassy in Bratislava.[51]
  • Slovakia has an embassy in Zagreb and consulate in Osijek.[52]
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
  • Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration: list of bilateral treaties with Slovakia
1992-02-06 See Croatia–Slovenia relations
  • Croatia has an embassy in Ljubljana and 2 honorary consulates in Maribor and Koper.
  • Slovenia has an embassy in Zagreb and an honorary consulate in Split.
  • Both countries shares 670 km of common border.
  • From 1918 to 1991 Croatia and Slovenia were part of Yugoslavia.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
1996-09-09
then as FR Yugoslavia and including Montenegro
See Croatia–Serbia relations
  • Croatia has an embassy in Belgrade and a general consulate in Subotica.
  • Serbia has an embassy in Zagreb and 2 general consulates in Rijeka and Vukovar.
  • Both countries shares 241 km of common border.
  • From 1918 to 1991 Croatia and Serbia were part of Yugoslavia.
  • Croatia is full member of the European Union while Serbia is candidate for membership.
1992-03-09 See Croatia–Spain relations
1992-01-29
  • Croatia has an embassy in Malmö.
  • Sweden has an embassy in Zagreb and 2 honorary consulates in Rijeka and Split.[53]
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
  • Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration: list of bilateral treaties with Sweden
1992-01-30
  • Croatia has an embassy in Bern, a general consulate in Zurich and 2 honorary consulates in Lugano and Massagno.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Zagreb, consulate in Split and honorary consulate in Smoljanci.[54]
  • More than 45,000 Croats live in Switzerland.
  • Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration: list of bilateral treaties signed with Switzerland
  • Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs about relations with Croatia
1992-08-26
  • Croatia has an embassy in Ankara and two consulates-general in Istanbul and İzmir.
  • Turkey has an embassy in Zagreb.
  • Both countries are full members of NATO.
  • Both have been EU candidates since 2005. (Croatia become a member state on July 1, 2013)
  • Turkey has Office of the Defence Attaché and Office of Trading Advisor in Zagreb.
  • List of international treaties and acts signed between Croatia and Turkey
  • Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Croatia
1992-02-18
1992-06-24

See Croatia–United Kingdom relations

  • United Kingdom has an embassy in Zagreb[57] and 2 honorary consulates in Dubrovnik and Split.
  • Croatia has an embassy in London and an honorary consulate in Edinburgh.[58]
  • In March 2007, both countries signed an UK-Croatia Strategic Partnership, by which the United Kingdom fully supports Croatia’s EU and NATO entry bids.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
  • British Commonwealth and Foreign Office about the relation with Croatia
  • Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration: list of bilateral treaties signed with the United Kingdom

Africa

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
1992-10-15
1994-11-16
  • Croatia is represented in Angola through its embassy in Lisbon (Portugal).[61]
  • Angola is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Vienna (Austria).[62]
2001-03-26
  • Croatia is represented in Benin through its embassy in Paris (France).[63]
  • Benin is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Geneva (Switzerland).[64]
1995-05-18
  • Croatia is represented in Burkina Faso through its embassy in Paris (France).
  • Burkina Faso is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Vienna (Austria) and consulate in Zagreb.[65]
1994-08-13
  • Croatia is represented in Cape Verde through its embassy in Lisbon (Portugal).
  • Cape Verde isn't represented in Croatia.
1999-09-17
  • Croatia is represented in Chad through its embassy in Paris (France).
  • Chad isn't represented in Croatia.
1999-06-29
  • Croatia is represented in Comoros through its embassy in Pretoria (South Africa).
  • Comoros isn't represented in Croatia.
1995-10-17
1992-10-01 See Croatia–Egypt relations
  • Croatia has an embassy in Cairo and an honorary consulate in Alexandria.
  • Egypt has an embassy in Zagreb.
  • Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration: list of bilateral treaties with Egypt
1999-06-04
  • Croatia is represented in Eritrea through its embassy in Cairo (Egypt).
  • Eritrea isn't represented in Croatia.
1995-10-17
  • Croatia is represented in Ethiopia through its embassy in Cairo (Egypt).
  • Ethiopia isn't represented in Croatia.
2001-10-22
  • Croatia is represented in Gabon through its embassy in Rabat (Morocco).
  • Gabon isn't represented in Croatia.
1998-10-16
  • Croatia is represented in Gambia through its embassy in London (UK).
  • Gambia is represented in Croatia through its embassy in London (UK).
1993-02-17
  • Croatia is represented in Ghana through its embassy in London (UK).
  • Ghana is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Rome (Italy).
1995-10-19
  • Croatia is represented in Guinea-Bissau through its embassy in Lisbon (Portugal).
  • Guinea-Bissau isn't represented in Croatia.
1998-11-06
  • Croatia is represented in Lesotho through its embassy in Pretoria (South Africa).
  • Lesotho is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Rome (Italy).
2000-03-30 See Croatia–Libya relations
  • Croatia has an embassy in Tripoli.
  • Libya has an embassy in Zagreb.
  • Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration: list of bilateral treaties with Libya
1997-04-08
  • Croatia is represented in Maldives through its embassy in New Delhi (India).
  • Maldives isn't represented in Croatia.
1995-09-20
  • Croatia is represented in Mali through its embassy in Rabat (Morocco).
  • Mali is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Rome (Italy).
2004-11-11
  • Croatia is represented in Mauritania through its embassy in Rabat (Morocco).
  • Mauritania isn't represented in Croatia.
1997-09-03
  • Croatia is represented in Mauritius through its embassy in Pretoria (South Africa).
  • Mauritius isn't represented in Croatia.
1992-06-26
  • Croatia has an embassy in Rabat.
  • Morocco is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Budapest (Hungary).
  • Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration: list of bilateral treaties with Morocco
1996-08-23
  • Croatia is represented in Mozambique through its embassy in Pretoria (South Africa).
  • Mozambique isn't represented in Croatia.
1993-01-07
  • Croatia is represented in Nigeria through its embassy in London (UK).
  • Nigeria is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Budapest (Hungary).
1993-05-23
  • Croatia is represented in São Tomé and Príncipe through its embassy in Lisbon (Portugal).
  • São Tomé and Príncipe isn't represented in Croatia.
1997-10-01
  • Croatia is represented in Senegal through its embassy in Rabat (Morocco).
  • Senegal isn't represented in Croatia.
1997-09-30
  • Croatia is represented in Seychelles through its embassy in Pretoria (South Africa).
  • Seychelles aren't represented in Croatia.
1992-11-19
  • Croatia has an embassy in Pretoria.[66]
  • South Africa is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Budapest (Hungary), and consulate in Zagreb.
  • There are around 1500 to 2000 Croats who live in South Africa.[67]
  • As of 2006, the two countries have a trade agreement.[68]
  • South African Department of Foreign Affairs about relations with Croatia
1992-07-17
  • Croatia is represented in Sudan through its embassy in Cairo (Egypt).
  • Sudan is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Rome (Italy).
1993-07-02
1993-12-20
  • Croatia is represented in Tongo through its embassy in Paris (France).
  • Tongo isn't represented in Croatia.
1993-01-30
  • Croatia is represented in Tunisia through its embassy in Rabat (Morocco) and consulate in Tunis.
  • Tunisia is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Vienna (Austria) and consulate in Zagreb.
  • Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration: list of bilateral treaties with Tunisia
  • Tunisian Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Croatia (in French only)
1999-03-10
  • Croatia is represented in Uganda through its embassy in Pretoria (New Zealand).
  • Uganda isn't represented in Croatia.
1995-09-20
  • Croatia is represented in Zambia through its embassy in Pretoria (New Zealand).
  • Zambia is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Paris (France).

Asia

Middle East

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
1993-01-18
  • Croatia is represented in Bahrain through its embassy in Cairo (Egypt).
  • Bahrain isn't represented in Croatia.
1992-04-18 See Croatia–Iran relations
  • Croatia has an embassy in Tehran.
  • Iran has an embassy and a cultural centre in Zagreb.
  • Croatia and Iran signed 24 agreements of cooperation.
2005-01-05
  • Croatia is represented in Iraq through its embassy in Baghdad.[69]
  • Iraq is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Vienna.[70]
1997-09-04 See Croatia–Israel relations
1994-06-29
  • Croatia is represented in Jordan through its embassy in Cairo (Egypt) and consulate in Amman.
  • Jordan is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Rome (Italy) and consulate in Zagreb.[71]
  • Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration: list of bilateral treaties with Jordan
1994-08-10
  • Croatia is represented in Kuwait through its embassy in Doha (Qatar).[72]
  • Kuwait is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Prague (Czech Republic) and consulate in Zagreb.[73]
1994-12-05
1992-12-05 See Croatia–Saudi Arabia relations
1995-06-08
  • Croatia is represented in Saudi Arabia through its embassy in Cairo (Egypt).
  • Saudi Arabia isn't represented in Croatia but citizens that need any assistance are advised to contact the Saudi Arabia embassy in Sarajevo (BiH).
1997-08-29 See Croatia–Syria relations
1992-06-23
  • Croatia is represented in United Arab Emirates through its embassy in Cairo (Egypt).[81]
  • United Arab Emirates are represented in Croatia through its embassy in Berlin (Germany).[82]
1993-01-17
  • Croatia is represented in Yemen through its embassy in Cairo (Egypt).
  • Yemen is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Vienna (Austria) and consulate in Zagreb.

Central Asia

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
1996-01-03
  • Croatia is represented in Afghanistan through its embassy in Ankara (Turkey).
  • Croatian Presidents Stjepan Mesić, Ivo Josipović and Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović visited Afghanistan several times.
  • Croatia has few hundred deployed personnel in Afghanistan as part of the NATO Resolute Support Mission. They work on training other soldiers and do not participate in combats.
  • Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration: list of bilateral treaties with Afghanistan
1992-10-20
  • Croatia is represented in Kazakhstan through its embassy in Moscow[83] (Russia) and consulate in Almaty.
  • Kazakhstan is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Vienna (Austria) and through 3 consulates in Zagreb, Dubrovnik and Umag.
  • Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev visited Croatia in 2001 and 2006. Croatian high-ranking officials, including President Stjepan Mesić, Prime Minister Zoran Milanović, and Foreign Minister Vesna Pusić also visited Kazakhstan.
  • Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration: list of bilateral treaties with Kazakhstan
1996-12-23
  • Croatia is represented in Kyrgyzstan through its embassy in Ankara (Turkey).
1996-07-02
1995-02-06
  • Croatia is represented in Uzbekistan through its embassy in Ankara (Turkey).

South Asia

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
1992-07-09

See Croatia–India relations

1998-02-06
  • Croatia is represented in Nepal through its embassy in New Delhi and consulate in Kathmandu.
  • Nepal is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Geneva (Switzerland).[87]
1994-07-20
  • Croatia is represented in Pakistan through its embassy in Teheran (Iran).[88]
  • Pakistan is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegovina) and an honorary consulate in Zagreb.
  • Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration: list of bilateral treaties with Pakistan
1997-02-14
  • Croatia is represented in Croatia through its embassy in New Delhi and consulate in Colombo.[89]
  • Sri Lanka is represented in Sri Lanka through its embassy in Vienna (Austria) and consulate in Zagreb.[90]

Southeast Asia

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
1999-09-03
1996-09-10
  • Croatia is represented in Cambodia through its embassy in Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia).
  • Cambodia isn't represented in Croatia.
1992-09-03
  • Croatia has embassy in Jakarta.
  • Indonesia has embassy in Zagreb.
  • Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration: list of bilateral treaties with Indonesia
1996-03-04
1992-05-04
  • Croatia is represented in Malaysia through its embassy in Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia).
  • Malaysia has embassy in Zagreb.
1993-02-25
  • Croatia has embassy in Manila.
  • Philippines have embassy in Zagreb.
  • Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration: list of bilateral treaties with Philippines
1992-11-23
  • Croatia is represented in Singapore through its embassy in Jakarta (Indonesia).
  • Singapore isn't represented in Croatia.
  • Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration: list of bilateral treaties with Singapore
1992-09-09
  • Croatia is represented in Thailand through its embassy in Jakarta (Indonesia) and through an consulate in Bangkok.[92]
  • Thailand is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Budapest (Hungary) and through consulate in Zagreb.[93]
  • Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration: list of bilateral treaties with Thailand
2003-02-05
1994-07-01
  • Croatia is represented in Vietnam through its embassy in Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia).
  • Vietnam is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Budapest (Hungary).
  • Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration: list of bilateral treaties with Vietnam
  • Vietnamese Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Croatia

East Asia

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
(People's Republic) 1992-05-13
  • Croatia has an embassy in Beijing and a general consulate in Hong Kong.[94]
  • China has an embassy in Zagreb.[95]
  • On May 16, 2002, Croatian president Stjepan Mesić made a state visit to China, while Chinese president Hu Jintao made a state visit to Croatia on June 19, 2009.
  • On May 21, 2007, Croatian Foreign Minister Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović visited Beijing.
  • Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Croatia
  • Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration: list of bilateral treaties with China
1993-03-05
  • Croatia has an embassy in Tokyo.
  • Japan has an embassy in Zagreb.[96]
  • Princess Sayako visited Croatia in 2002.[97]
  • Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs: list of bilateral treaties with Japan
  • Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Croatia
1993-03-10
  • Croatia is represented in Mongolia through its embassy in Beijing (China) and consulate in Ulaanbaatar.
  • Mongolia is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Vienna (Austria) and consulate in Zagreb.[98]
  • Croatian President Stjepan Mesić visited Mongolia in August 2008, while Mongolian President Tsakhia Elbegdorj visited Croatia on October 19, 2011.
  • During the Mongol invasion of Europe from 1241 to 1242, ancient Mongolians and Croats fought in battles in Pannonia and Dalmatia.[99][100][101]
  • Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration: bilateral treaties with Mongolia
  • Mongolian honorary consulate in Zagreb
  • Mongolian Ministry of Foreign Affairs: list of bilateral treaties with Croatia (in Mongolian only)
1992-11-30
  • Croatia is represented in North Korea through its embassy in Beijing (China).[102]
  • North Korea is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Bucharest (Romania).[103]
1992-11-18 See Foreign relations of South Korea

Oceania

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
1992-02-13
  • Australia has an embassy in Zagreb.[106]
  • Croatia has an embassy in Canberra and 3 Consulates-General in Melbourne, Perth and Sydney.
  • Since 2006, 118,051 people living in Australia declared themselves as Croats. Australian Ministry of Foreign Affairs believes that in Australia live around 150,000 Croats while the Croatian community in Australia claims to have 250,000 members.[107]
  • Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade about relations with Croatia
  • Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs: list of bilateral treaties with Australia
2000-12-14
  • Croatia is represented in Nauru through its embassy in Canberra (Australia).[108]
  • Nauru isn't represented in Croatia.
1992-02-25
  • Croatia is represented in New Zealand through its embassy in Canberra (Australia) and through consulate in Auckland.
  • New Zealand is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Rome (Italy)[109] and through an honorary consulate in Zagreb.
  • According to the Croatian community the number of Croats that live in New Zealand is around 20 and 60 thousand.[110]
  • Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration: list of bilateral treaties with New Zealand
1994-03-08
  • Croatia is represented in Samoa through its embassy in Canberra (Australia).
  • Samoa isn't represented in Croatia.

Americas

Caribbean

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
1999-09-20
  • Croatia is represented in Antigua and Barbuda through its Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York (USA).[111]
  • Antigua and Barbuda is represented in Croatia through its through its embassy in Vienna (Austria).
1992-09-23
  • Croatia is represented in Cuba through its embassy in Madrid (Spain).
  • Cuba is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Vienna (Austria).
  • Croatian President Stjepan Mesić made a state visit to Cuba in September 2009.
  • Croatia and Cuba signed 16 agreements about cooperation.
  • Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs: list of bilateral treaties with Cuba)
2000-05-19
  • Croatia is represented in Grenada through its Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York (USA).
1996-10-09
  • Croatia is represented in Jamaica through its Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York (USA).[112]
1997-12-10
  • Croatia is represented in Saint Lucia through its Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York (USA).
1994-10-07
  • Croatia is represented in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines through its Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York (USA).

Latin America

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
1992-04-13 See Argentine–Croatian relations
  • Croatia has an embassy in Buenos Aires.[113]
  • Argentina is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Vienna (Austria) and consulate in Zagreb.
  • More than 400,000 Argentinians are of Croatian descent.
  • List of Treaties ruling relations Argentina and Croatia (Argentine Foreign Ministry, in Spanish)
1992-11-26
1992-12-23
1992-04-15 See Chile–Croatia relations
1995-04-25
  • Colombia is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Vienna (Austria).
  • Croatia is represented in Colombia through its embassy in Brasilia (Brazil).
  • Croatia is defined as an ally by Colombia on the war on drugs and as an example to follow after a post-conflict situation[115]
1995-10-19
  • Croatia is represented in Costa Rica through its Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York (US).
  • Costa Rica is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Vienna (Austria).
1996-02-22
  • Croatia is represented in Ecuador through its embassy in Santiago (Chile).
  • Ecuador is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Budapest (Hungary).
1997-07-24
  • Croatia is represented in El Salvador through its Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York (US).
  • El Salvador isn't represented in Croatia.
1992-12-22
  • Croatia is represented in Guatemala through its Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York (US).
  • Guatemala isn't represented in Croatia.
1999-09-20
  • Croatia is represented in Grenada through its Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York (US).
  • Honduras isn't represented in Croatia.
1992-12-06
1996-03-29
  • Croatia is represented in Nicaragua through its Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York (US) and embassy in Brasilia (Brazil).
  • Nicaragua isn't represented in Croatia.
1996-06-12
  • Croatia is represented in Panama through its embassy in Washington D.C. (US).
  • Panama is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Piraeus (Greece).[118]
1992-03-13
  • Croatia is represented in Paraguay through its embassy in Buenos Aires (Argentina).
  • Paraguay isn't represented in Croatia.
1993-01-12
  • Croatia is represented in Peru through its embassy in Santiago (Chile) and consulate in Lima.
  • Peru is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Bucharest (Romania) and consulate in Zagreb.
  • There are around 6,500 people of Croatian descent living in Peru.
1997-12-17
  • Croatia is represented in Suriname through its Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York (US) and embassy in Brasilia (Brazil).[119]
  • Suriname isn't represented in Croatia.
1993 -05-04 See Croats in Uruguay
  • Croatia is represented in Uruguay through its embassy in Buenos Aires (Argentina) and consulate in Montevideo.
  • Uruguay isn't represented in Croatia.
  • According to UN estimates there are some 3,300 people of Croat descent living in Uruguay. Other estimates place the figure at around 5,000.
1992-10-09
  • Croatia is represented in Venezuela through its embassy in Brasilia (Brazil).
  • Venezuela is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Vienna (Austria).

North America

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
1993-04-14
1992-08-11 See Croatia–United States relations

No diplomatic relations

Croatia hasn't established diplomatic relations with these 21 UN member states:

Country

Croatia hasn't established diplomatic relations with these 9 States with limited recognition (except Kosovo):

Country

See also

References

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  37. ^ http://www.mvep.hr/hr/predstavnistva/veleposlanstva-stranih-drzava-u-rh/malta-split,443.html
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  44. ^ http://www.mvep.hr/hr/predstavnistva/dmkurh-u-svijetu/poljska-warszawa,88.html#p
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  46. ^ http://www.mvep.hr/hr/predstavnistva/veleposlanstva-stranih-drzava-u-rh/rumunjska-zagreb,186.html#p
  47. ^ (Russian) (Croatian) Embassy of Croatia in Moscow
  48. ^ (Russian) Embassy of The Russian Federation in Zagreb
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  50. ^ http://www.mvep.hr/hr/predstavnistva/veleposlanstva-stranih-drzava-u-rh/san-marino-,366.html#p
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  61. ^ http://www.mvep.hr/hr/predstavnistva/dmkurh-u-svijetu/angola-lisabon,207.html#p
  62. ^ http://www.mvep.hr/hr/predstavnistva/veleposlanstva-stranih-drzava-u-rh/angola-bec,264.html#p
  63. ^ http://www.mvep.hr/hr/predstavnistva/dmkurh-u-svijetu/benin-pariz,228.html#p
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  104. ^ http://hrv.mofa.go.kr/worldlanguage/europe/hrv/main/index.jsp
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  109. ^
  110. ^ http://www.hrvatiizvanrh.hr/hr/hmiu/hrvatsko-iseljenistvo-u-novom-zelandu/31
  111. ^ http://www.mvep.hr/hr/predstavnistva/dmkurh-u-svijetu/antigva-i-barbuda-new-york,208.html#p
  112. ^ http://www.mvep.hr/hr/predstavnistva/dmkurh-u-svijetu/jamajka-new-york,301.html#p
  113. ^ Croatian embassy in Buenos Aires
  114. ^ http://www.mvep.hr/hr/predstavnistva/dmkurh-u-svijetu/brazil-brasilia,16.html#p
  115. ^
  116. ^
  117. ^
  118. ^ http://www.mvep.hr/hr/predstavnistva/veleposlanstva-stranih-drzava-u-rh/panama-piraeus,383.html#p
  119. ^ http://www.mvep.hr/hr/predstavnistva/dmkurh-u-svijetu/surinam-brasilia,253.html#p

External links

  • Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration
  • Government of the Republic of Croatia
  • EBRD and Croatia
  • Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe
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