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GNU Compiler Collection

GNU Compiler Collection
Developer(s) GNU Project
Initial release 23 May 1987 (1987-05-23)[1]
Stable release 4.9.2[2] / 30 October 2014 (2014-10-30)
Preview release 4.9.0-rc1[3] / 11 April 2014 (2014-04-11)
Written in C
Operating system Cross-platform
Platform GNU
Type Compiler
License GNU GPL 3+ with GCC Runtime Library Exception[4]
Website .org.gnugcc

The GNU Compiler Collection (GCC) is a compiler system produced by the GNU Project supporting various programming languages. GCC is a key component of the GNU toolchain. The Free Software Foundation (FSF) distributes GCC under the GNU General Public License (GNU GPL). GCC has played an important role in the growth of free software, as both a tool and an example.

Originally named the GNU C Compiler, when it only handled the C programming language, GCC 1.0 was released in 1987 and the compiler was extended to compile C++ in December of that year.[1] Front ends were later developed for Objective-C, Objective-C++, Fortran, Java, Ada, and Go among others.[5]

GCC has been ported to a wide variety of processor architectures, and is widely deployed as a tool in the development of both free and proprietary software. GCC is also available for most embedded platforms, including Symbian (called gcce),[6] AMCC, and Freescale Power Architecture-based chips.[7] The compiler can target a wide variety of platforms, including video game consoles such as the PlayStation 2[8] and Dreamcast.[9]

As well as being the official compiler of the GNU operating system, GCC has been adopted as the standard compiler by many other modern Unix-like computer operating systems, including Linux and the BSD family, although FreeBSD is moving to the LLVM system. Versions are also available for Microsoft Windows and other operating systems.


  • History 1
  • Design 2
    • Front ends 2.1
    • GENERIC and GIMPLE 2.2
    • Optimization 2.3
    • Back end 2.4
    • Features 2.5
  • Languages 3
  • Architectures 4
  • Development 5
  • License 6
  • Uses 7
  • Revision history 8
  • See also 9
  • References 10
  • Further reading 11
  • External links 12


In an effort to bootstrap the GNU operating system, Richard Stallman asked Andrew S. Tanenbaum, the author of the Amsterdam Compiler Kit (also known as the Free University Compiler Kit) if he could use that software for GNU. When Tanenbaum told him that while the Free University was free, the compiler was not, Stallman decided to write his own.[10] Stallman's initial plan[11] was to rewrite an existing compiler from Lawrence Livermore Laboratory from Pastel to C with some help from Len Tower and others.[12] Stallman wrote a new C front end for the Livermore compiler, but then realized that it required megabytes of stack space, an impossibility on a 68000 Unix system with only 64K, and concluded he would have to write a new compiler from scratch.[11] None of the Pastel compiler code ended up in GCC, though Stallman did use the C front end he had written.[11]

GCC was first released March 22, 1987, available by FTP from MIT.[13] Stallman was listed as the author but cited others for their contributions, including Jack Davidson and Christopher Fraser for the idea of using RTL as an intermediate language, Paul Rubin for writing most of the preprocessor and Leonard Tower for "parts of the parser, RTL generator, RTL definitions, and of the Vax machine description."[14]

By 1991, GCC 1.x had reached a point of stability, but architectural limitations prevented many desired improvements, so the FSF started work on GCC 2.x.

As GCC was licensed under the GPL, programmers wanting to work in other directions — particularly those writing interfaces for languages other than C — were free to develop their own fork of the compiler, provided they meet the GPL's terms, including its requirements to distribute source code. Multiple forks proved inefficient and unwieldy, however, and the difficulty in getting work accepted by the official GCC project was greatly frustrating for many.[15] The FSF kept such close control on what was added to the official version of GCC 2.x that GCC was used as one example of the "cathedral" development model in Eric S. Raymond's essay The Cathedral and the Bazaar.

With the release of 4.4BSD in 1994, GCC became the default compiler for most BSD systems.

In 1997, a group of developers formed EGCS — Experimental/Enhanced GNU Compiler System[15][16] — to merge several experimental forks into a single project. The basis of the merger was a GCC development snapshot taken between the 2.7 and 2.81 releases. Projects merged included g77 (Fortran), PGCC (P5 Pentium-optimized GCC), many C++ improvements, and many new architectures and operating system variants.[17][18] EGCS development proved considerably more vigorous than GCC development, so much so that the FSF officially halted development on their GCC 2.x compiler, blessed EGCS as the official version of GCC and appointed the EGCS project as the GCC maintainers in April 1999. With the release of GCC 2.95 in July 1999 the two projects were once again united.

GCC has since been maintained by a varied group of programmers from around the world under the direction of a steering committee.[19] It has been ported to more kinds of processors and operating systems than any other compiler.[20]


To obtain a stable ABI, like e.g. the Linux Standard Base aims to procure, the Compiler version is important.

GCC's external interface follows Unix conventions. Users invoke a language-specific driver program (gcc for C, g++ for C++, etc.), which interprets command arguments, calls the actual compiler, runs the assembler on the output, and then optionally runs the linker to produce a complete executable binary.

Each of the language compilers is a separate program that reads source code and outputs machine code. All have a common internal structure. A per-language front end parses the source code in that language and produces an abstract syntax tree ("tree" for short).

These are, if necessary, converted to the middle end's input representation, called GENERIC form; the middle end then gradually transforms the program towards its final form. Compiler optimizations and static code analysis techniques (such as FORTIFY_SOURCE,[21] a compiler directive that attempts to discover some buffer overflows) are applied to the code. These work on multiple representations, mostly the architecture-independent GIMPLE representation and the architecture-dependent RTL representation. Finally, machine code is produced using architecture-specific pattern matching originally based on an algorithm of Jack Davidson and Chris Fraser.

GCC was written primarily in C except for parts of the Ada front end. The distribution includes the standard libraries for Ada, C++, and Java whose code is mostly written in those languages.[22] On some platforms, the distribution also includes a low-level runtime library, libgcc, written in a combination of machine-independent C and processor-specific machine code, designed primarily to handle arithmetic operations that the target processor cannot perform directly.[23]

In May 2010, the GCC steering committee decided to allow use of a C++ compiler to compile GCC.[24] The compiler was intended to be written in C plus a subset of features from C++. In particular, this was decided so that GCC's developers could use the destructors and generics features of C++.[25]

In August 2012, the GCC steering committee announced that GCC now uses C++ as its implementation language.[26] This means that to build GCC from sources, a C++ compiler is required that understands ISO/IEC C++03 standard.

Front ends

Each front end uses a parser to produce the syntax tree abstraction of a given source file. Due to the syntax tree abstraction, source files of any of the different supported languages can be processed by the same back end. GCC started out using LALR parsers generated with Bison, but gradually switched to hand-written recursive-descent parsers; for C++ in 2004,[27] and for C and Objective-C in 2006.[28] Currently all front ends use hand-written recursive-descent parsers.

Until recently, the tree representation of the program was not fully independent of the processor being targeted.

The meaning of a tree was somewhat different for different language front ends, and front ends could provide their own tree codes. This was simplified with the introduction of GENERIC and GIMPLE, two new forms of language-independent trees that were introduced with the advent of GCC 4.0. GENERIC is more complex, based on the GCC 3.x Java front end's intermediate representation. GIMPLE is a simplified GENERIC, in which various constructs are lowered to multiple GIMPLE instructions. The C, C++ and Java front ends produce GENERIC directly in the front end. Other front ends instead have different intermediate representations after parsing and convert these to GENERIC.

In either case, the so-called "gimplifier" then converts this more complex form into the simpler SSA-based GIMPLE form that is the common language for a large number of powerful language- and architecture-independent global (function scope) optimizations.


GENERIC is an intermediate representation language used as a "middle end" while compiling source code into executable binaries. A subset, called GIMPLE, is targeted by all the front ends of GCC.

The middle stage of GCC does all of the code analysis and optimization, working independently of both the compiled language and the target architecture, starting from the GENERIC[29] representation and expanding it to Register Transfer Language (RTL). The GENERIC representation contains only the subset of the imperative programming constructs optimized by the middle end.

In transforming the source code to GIMPLE,[30] complex expressions are split into a three address code using temporary variables. This representation was inspired by the SIMPLE representation proposed in the McCAT compiler[31] by Laurie J. Hendren[32] for simplifying the analysis and optimization of imperative programs.


Optimization can occur during any phase of compilation; however, the bulk of optimizations are performed after the syntax and semantic analysis of the front end and before the code generation of the back end; thus a common, even though somewhat contradictory, name for this part of the compiler is the "middle end."

The exact set of GCC optimizations varies from release to release as it develops, but includes the standard algorithms, such as loop optimization, jump threading, common subexpression elimination, instruction scheduling, and so forth. The RTL optimizations are of less importance with the addition of global SSA-based optimizations on GIMPLE trees,[33] as RTL optimizations have a much more limited scope, and have less high-level information.

Some of these optimizations performed at this level include dead code elimination, partial redundancy elimination, global value numbering, sparse conditional constant propagation, and scalar replacement of aggregates. Array dependence based optimizations such as automatic vectorization and automatic parallelization are also performed. Profile-guided optimization is also possible.[34]

Back end

The behavior of GCC's back end is partly specified by preprocessor macros and functions specific to a target architecture, for instance to define its endianness, word size, and calling conventions. The front part of the back end uses these to help decide RTL generation, so although GCC's RTL is nominally processor-independent, the initial sequence of abstract instructions is already adapted to the target. At any moment, the actual RTL instructions forming the program representation have to comply with the machine description of the target architecture.

The machine description file contains RTL patterns, along with operand constraints, and code snippets to output the final assembly. The constraints indicate that a particular RTL pattern might only apply (for example) to certain hardware registers, or (for example) allow immediate operand offsets of only a limited size (e.g. 12, 16, 24, ... bit offsets, etc.). During RTL generation, the constraints for the given target architecture are checked. In order to issue a given snippet of RTL, it must match one (or more) of the RTL patterns in the machine description file, and satisfy the constraints for that pattern; otherwise, it would be impossible to convert the final RTL into machine code.

Towards the end of compilation, valid RTL is reduced to a strict form in which each instruction refers to real machine registers and a pattern from the target's machine description file. Forming strict RTL is a complicated task; an important step is register allocation, where real hardware registers are chosen to replace the initially assigned pseudo-registers. This is followed by a "reloading" phase; any pseudo-registers that were not assigned a real hardware register are 'spilled' to the stack, and RTL to perform this spilling is generated. Likewise, offsets that are too large to fit into an actual instruction must be broken up and replaced by RTL sequences that will obey the offset constraints.

In the final phase, the machine code is built by calling a small snippet of code, associated with each pattern, to generate the real instructions from the target's instruction set, using the final registers, offsets, and addresses chosen during the reload phase. The assembly-generation snippet may be just a string, in which case a simple string substitution of the registers, offsets, and/or addresses into the string is performed. The assembly-generation snippet may also be a short block of C code, performing some additional work, but ultimately returning a string containing the valid machine code.


Some features of GCC include:

  • Link-time optimization optimizes across object file boundaries to directly improve the linked binary. Link-time optimization relies on an intermediate file containing the serialization of some -Gimple- representation included in the object file.[35] The file is generated alongside the object file during source compilation. Each source compilation generates a separate object file and link-time helper file. When the object files are linked, the compiler is executed again and uses the helper files to optimize code across the separately compiled object files.
  • Plugins can extend the GCC compiler directly.[36] Plugins allow a stock compiler to be tailored to specific needs by external code loaded as plugins. For example, plugins can add, replace, or even remove middle–end passes operating on Gimple representations.[37] Several GCC plugins have already been published, notably the GCC Python Plugin, which links against libpython, and allows one to invoke arbitrary Python scripts from inside the compiler. The aim is to allow GCC plugins to be written in Python. The MELT plugin provides a high-level Lisp-like language to extend GCC.[38]


The standard compiler releases since 4.6 include front ends for C (gcc), C++ (g++), Objective-C, Objective-C++, Fortran (gfortran), Java (gcj), Ada (GNAT), and Go (gccgo).[39] Also available, but not in standard are Pascal (gpc), Mercury, Modula-2, Modula-3, PL/I, D (gdc),[40] and VHDL (ghdl). A popular parallel language extension, OpenMP, is also supported.

The Fortran front end was g77 before version 4.0, which only supports FORTRAN 77. In newer versions, g77 is dropped in favor of the new gfortran front end that supports Fortran 95 and parts of Fortran 2003 as well.[41] A front-end for CHILL was dropped due to a lack of maintenance.[42]

A few experimental branches exist to support additional languages, such as the GCC UPC compiler[43] for Unified Parallel C.


GCC target processor families as of version 4.3 include:

Lesser-known target processors supported in the standard release have included:

Additional processors have been supported by GCC versions maintained separately from the FSF version:

The gcj Java compiler can target either a native machine language architecture or the Java Virtual Machine's Java bytecode.[46] When retargeting GCC to a new platform, bootstrapping is often used.


The current stable version of GCC is 4.9.2; which was released on 30 October 2014. GCC now uses C++ as its implementation language.[47]

GCC 4.6 supports many new Objective-C features, such as declared and synthesized properties, dot syntax, fast enumeration, optional protocol methods, method/protocol/class attributes, class extensions and a new GNU Objective-C runtime API. It also supports the Go programming language and includes the libquadmath library, which provides quadruple-precision mathematical functions on targets supporting the __float128 datatype. The library is used to provide the REAL(16) type in GNU Fortran on such targets.

GCC uses many standard tools in its build, including Perl, Flex, Bison, and other common tools. In addition it currently requires three additional libraries to be present in order to build: GMP, MPC, and MPFR.

The trunk concentrates the major part of the development efforts, where new features are implemented and tested. Eventually, the code from the trunk will become the next major release of GCC.


The GCC runtime exception[48] permits compilation of proprietary (and free software) programs with GCC and usage of free software plugins.


Several companies[49] make a business out of supplying and supporting GCC ports to various platforms, and chip manufacturers today consider a GCC port almost essential to the success of an architecture.

Revision history

Revision history[50][51]
Version Release date Notes
0.9 22 March 1987
1.0 23 May 1987
1.1 24 May 1987
1.2 1 June 1987
1.3 10 June 1987
1.4 13 June 1987
1.5 18 June 1987
1.6 2 July 1987
1.7 21 July 1987
1.8 10 August 1987
1.9 18 August 1987
1.10 22 August 1987
1.11 5 September 1987
1.12 3 October 1987
1.13 12 October 1987
1.14 6 November 1987
1.15 28 November 1987
g++ 1.15.3 18 December 1987
1.16 19 December 1987
1.17 9 January 1988
1.18 4 February 1988
1.19 29 March 1988
1.20 19 April 1988
1.21 1 May 1988
1.22 22 May 1988
1.23 26 June 1988
1.24 2 July 1988
1.25 3 August 1988
1.26 18 August 1988
1.27 5 September 1988
1.28 14 September 1988
1.29 6 October 1988
1.30 13 October 1988
1.31 19 November 1988
1.32 21 December 1988
1.33 1 February 1989
1.34 23 February 1989
1.35 26 April 1989
1.36 24 September 1989
g++ 1.36.3 16 January 1990
g++ 1.36.4 30 January 1990
1.37 11 February 1990
1.37.1 21 February 1990
g++ 1.37.0 28 February 1990
g++ 1.37.1 1 March 1990
1.38 21 December 1990
1.39 16 January 1991
g++ 1.39.1 4 May 1991
1.40 1 June 1991
g++ 1.40.3 19 October 1991
g++ 1.41.0 13 July 1992
1.41 27 August 1992
1.42 20 September 1992
g++ 1.42.0 20 September 1992
2.0 22 February 1992 Supported C, C++, and Objective C. Prior to this the C++ compiler was released separately from the C compiler
2.1 24 March 1992
2.2 8 June 1992
2.2.1 9 June 1992
2.2.2 14 June 1992
2.3 31 October 1992
2.3.1 1 November 1992
2.3.2 27 November 1992
2.3.3 26 December 1992
2.4.0 17 May 1993
2.4.1 26 May 1993
2.4.2 31 May 1993
2.4.3 1 June 1993
2.4.4 19 June 1993
2.4.5 20 June 1993
2.5.0 22 October 1993
2.5.1 31 October 1993
2.5.2 1 November 1993
2.5.3 11 November 1993
2.5.4 16 November 1993
2.5.5 27 November 1993
2.5.6 3 December 1993
2.5.7 12 December 1993
2.5.8 24 January 1994
2.6.0 14 July 1994
2.6.1 1 November 1994
2.6.2 12 November 1994
2.6.3 30 November 1994
2.7.0 16 June 1995
2.7.1 12 November 1995
2.7.2 26 November 1995 29 June 1996 29 January 1997 22 August 1997
egcs 1.0 3 December 1997 Added Fortran front end (g77). However, g77 was not included with releases 2.8.0 or 2.8.1
egcs 1.0.1 6 January 1998
2.8.0 7 January 1998
2.8.1 2 March 1998
egcs 1.0.2 16 March 1998
egcs 1.0.3 15 May 1998
egcs 1.1 3 September 1998
egcs 1.1.1 1 December 1998
egcs 1.1.2 15 March 1999
2.95 31 July 1999 Included front ends for C, C++, Objective C, CHILL, Fortran (g77), and Java (gcj)
2.95.1 19 August 1999
2.95.2 24 October 1999
2.95.3 16 March 2001
3.0 18 June 2001 CHILL compiler removed[14]
3.0.1 20 August 2001
3.0.2 25 October 2001
3.0.3 20 December 2001
3.0.4 20 February 2002
3.1 15 May 2002 Added Ada compiler (gnat)
3.1.1 25 July 2002
3.2 14 August 2002
3.2.1 19 November 2002
3.2.2 5 February 2003
3.2.3 22 April 2003
3.3 13 May 2003
3.3.1 8 August 2003
3.3.2 17 October 2003
3.3.3 14 February 2004
3.4.0 18 April 2004 First version to require a C89 compiler to build
3.3.4 31 May 2004
3.4.1 1 July 2004
3.4.2 6 September 2004
3.3.5 30 September 2004
3.4.3 4 November 2004
3.3.6 3 May 2005
3.4.4 18 May 2005
4.0.0 20 April 2005 Fortran front end changed from g77 to gfortran
4.0.1 7 July 2005
4.0.2 28 September 2005
3.4.5 30 November 2005
4.1.0 28 February 2006
3.4.6 6 March 2006
4.0.3 10 March 2006
4.1.1 24 May 2006
4.0.4 31 January 2007
4.1.2 13 February 2007
4.2.0 13 May 2007
4.2.1 18 July 2007 Last GPLv2 version
4.2.2 7 October 2007
4.2.3 1 February 2008
4.3.0 5 March 2008
4.2.4 19 May 2008
4.3.1 6 June 2008
4.3.2 27 August 2008
4.3.3 24 January 2009
4.4.0 21 April 2009
4.4.1 22 July 2009
4.3.4 4 August 2009
4.4.2 15 October 2009
4.4.3 21 January 2010
4.5.0 14 April 2010 Several minor new features (new targets, new language dialects) and a couple of major new features: link-time optimization and plugins
4.4.4 29 April 2010
4.3.5 22 May 2010
4.5.1 31 July 2010
4.4.5 1 October 2010
4.5.2 16 December 2010
4.6.0 25 March 2011 Support added for the Go language
4.4.6 16 April 2011
4.5.3 28 April 2011
4.3.6 27 June 2011
4.6.1 27 June 2011
4.6.2 26 October 2011
4.6.3 1 March 2012
4.4.7 13 March 2012
4.7.0 22 March 2012
4.7.1 14 June 2012
4.5.4 2 July 2012
4.7.2 20 September 2012
4.8.0 22 March 2013 First version to require a C++98 compiler to build
4.7.3 11 April 2013
4.6.4 12 April 2013
4.8.1 31 May 2013
4.8.2 16 October 2013
4.9.0 22 April 2014
4.8.3 22 May 2014
4.9.1 16 July 2014
4.9.2 30 October 2014

See also


  1. ^ a b "GCC Releases". GNU Project. Retrieved 2006-12-27. 
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. ^ "GCC Runtime Library Exception". Retrieved 2013-02-28. 
  5. ^ "Programming Languages Supported by GCC". GNU Project. Retrieved 2014-06-23. 
  6. ^ "Symbian GCC Improvement Project". Retrieved 2007-11-08. 
  7. ^ "Linux Board Support Packages". Retrieved 2008-08-07. 
  8. ^ "setting up gcc as a cross-compiler". ps2stuff. 2002-06-08. Retrieved 2008-12-12. 
  9. ^ "sh4 g++ guide". Archived from the original on 2002-12-20. Retrieved 2008-12-12. 
  10. ^ The Definitive Guide to GCC 2nd Edition (Definitive Guides). pp. XXVII. 
  11. ^ a b c Stallman, Richard (September 20, 2011). "About the GNU Project". The GNU Project. Retrieved October 9, 2011. 
  12. ^ Puzo, Jerome E., ed. (February 1986). "Gnu's Zoo". GNU'S Bulletin (Free Software Foundation) 1 (1). Retrieved 2007-08-11. 
  13. ^ Richard M. Stallman (forwarded by Leonard H. Tower, Jr.) (March 22, 1987). "GNU C compiler beta test release".  
  14. ^ Stallman, Richard M. (24 April 1988), "Contributors to GNU CC", Internals of GNU CC, Free Software Foundation, Inc., p. 7, retrieved October 3, 2011 
  15. ^ a b Henkel-Wallace, David (15 August 1997), A new compiler project to merge the existing GCC forks, retrieved May 25, 2012 
  16. ^ "Pentium Compiler FAQ". 
  17. ^ "A Brief History of GCC". 
  18. ^ "The Short History of GCC development". 
  19. ^ "GCC Steering Committee". 
  20. ^ Linux Information Project (LINFO) accessed 2010-04-27
  21. ^ "Security Features: Compile Time Buffer Checks (FORTIFY_SOURCE)". Retrieved 2009-03-11. 
  22. ^ "languages used to make GCC". 
  23. ^ GCC Internals,, Retrieved March 01, 2010.
  24. ^ "GCC allows C++ – to some degree".  
  25. ^ "An email by Richard Stallman on emacs-devel". 
  26. ^ "GCC 4.8 Release Series — Changes, New Features, and Fixes". Retrieved 4 October 2013. 
  27. ^ GCC 3.4 Release Series Changes, New Features, and Fixes
  28. ^ GCC 4.1 Release Series Changes, New Features, and Fixes
  29. ^ GENERIC in GNU Compiler Collection Internals
  30. ^ GIMPLE in GNU Compiler Collection Internals
  31. ^ McCAT at the Wayback Machine (archived August 12, 2004)
  32. ^ Laurie J. Hendren
  33. ^ From Source to Binary: The Inner Workings of GCC, by Diego Novillo, Red Hat Magazine, December 2004
  34. ^ Profile-guided optimization is demonstrated here:
  35. ^ "Link Time Optimization". GCC wiki. October 3, 2009. Retrieved July 8, 2013. 
  36. ^ "Plugins". GCC online documentation. Retrieved July 8, 2013. 
  37. ^ Starynkevitch, Basile. "GCC plugins thru the MELT example". Retrieved 10 April 2014. 
  38. ^ "About GCC MELT". Retrieved July 8, 2013. 
  39. ^ "GCC Front Ends",, Retrieved November 25, 2011.
  40. ^ "gdc project on bitbucket". Retrieved 3 July 2010. 
  41. ^ "Fortran 2003 Features in GNU Fortran". 
  42. ^ [PATCH] Remove chill,, Retrieved July 29, 2010.
  43. ^ "GCC UPC (GCC Unified Parallel C) |". Retrieved 2009-03-11. 
  44. ^ "Hexagon Project Wiki". 
  45. ^ "sx-gcc: port gcc to nec sx vector cpu". 
  46. ^ "The GNU Compiler for the Java Programming Language". Retrieved 2010-04-22. 
  47. ^ "GCC 4.9 Release Series". Retrieved 2014-04-22. 
  48. ^ "GCC runtime exception". Retrieved 10 April 2014. 
  49. ^ "FSF Service Directory". 
  50. ^ GCC Releases, Accessed on line Mar. 26, 2014.
  51. ^ GCC Development Plan, Accessed on line Mar. 26, 2014.

Further reading

  • Using the GNU Compiler Collection (GCC), Free Software Foundation, 2008.
  • GNU Compiler Collection (GCC) Internals, Free Software Foundation, 2008.
  • An Introduction to GCC, Network Theory Ltd., 2004 (Revised August 2005). ISBN 0-9541617-9-3.
  • Arthur Griffith, GCC: The Complete Reference. McGrawHill / Osborne, 2002. ISBN 0-07-222405-3.

External links

  • Official website
  • GCC optimisations
  • Collection of GCC 4.0.2 architecture and internals documents at I.I.T. Bombay.
  • Kerner, Sean Michael (2006-03-02). "New GCC Heavy on Optimization". 
  • Kerner, Sean Michael (2005-04-22). "Open Source GCC 4.0: Older, Faster". 
  • From Source to Binary: The Inner Workings of GCC, by Diego Novillo, Red Hat Magazine, December 2004
  • A 2003 paper on GENERIC and GIMPLE
  • Marketing Cygnus Support, an essay covering GCC development for the 1990s, with 30 monthly reports for in the "Inside Cygnus Engineering" section near the end.
  • EGCS 1.0 announcement
  • EGCS 1.0 features list
  • Fear of Forking, an essay by Rick Moen recording seven well-known forks, including the GCC/EGCS one
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