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Garden of the Gods

Garden of the Gods
Garden of the Gods, Colorado Springs, Colorado
Location Colorado Springs, Colorado, U.S.
Coordinates
Area 1,367 acres (553 ha)
Established 1909
Governing body Colorado Springs, Colorado
Designated 1971
Balanced Rock presents a popular photo opportunity
The formation known as the Three Graces
Sentinel Spires, a common tourist attraction in Garden of the Gods

Garden of the Gods is a public park located in Colorado Springs, Colorado, US. It was designated a National Natural Landmark in 1971.[1]

Contents

  • Name 1
  • History 2
  • Geological formations 3
  • Ecology 4
  • Recreation 5
  • Visitor and nature center 6
  • Hours and admission 7
  • Designations 8
  • Gallery 9
  • See also 10
  • References 11
  • Further reading 12
  • External links 13

Name

The area was first called Red Rock Corral.[2] Then, in August 1859, two surveyors who helped to set up Colorado City explored the site. One of the surveyors, M. S. Beach, suggested that it would be a "capital place for a beer garden". His companion, the young Rufus Cable, awestruck by the impressive rock formations, exclaimed, "Beer Garden! Why it is a fit place for the gods to assemble. We will call it the Garden of the Gods."[3]

History

The Garden of the Gods' red rock formations were created during a geological upheaval along a natural fault line millions of years ago. Archaeological evidence shows that prehistoric people visited Garden of the Gods about 1330 BC. At about 250 BC, Native American people camped in the park; they are believed to have been attracted to wildlife and plant life in the area and used overhangs created by the rocks for shelter. There are many native peoples who have reported a connection to Garden of the Gods, including Apache, Cheyenne, Comanche, Kiowa, Lakota, Pawnee, Shoshone, and Ute people.[4]

Multiple tribes traveled through Garden of the Gods. The Utes' oral traditions tell of their creation at the Garden of the Gods, and

  • Official Garden of the Gods website
  • Garden of the Gods at "Only In Colorado"
  • Virtual Tour ��� Roundus
  • Garden of the Gods Trading Post website

External links

  • Bob D'Antonio (2000). Garden of the Gods, Colorado. Falcon.  
  • Views of the Garden of the Gods. P. Goerke. 1905. 

Further reading

  1. ^ a b "National Natural Landmark". National Park Service. Retrieved 11 December 2012. 
  2. ^ a b Toni Hamill; The Manitou Springs Heritage Center (March 2012). Garden of the Gods. Arcadia Publishing. pp. 7–8.  
  3. ^ "Education: Park History". Garden Of The Gods. Retrieved July 4, 2013. 
  4. ^ a b Toni Hamill; The Manitou Springs Heritage Center (March 2012). Garden of the Gods. Arcadia Publishing. p. 7.  
  5. ^ a b Toni Hamill; The Manitou Springs Heritage Center (March 2012). Garden of the Gods. Arcadia Publishing. p. 9.  
  6. ^ Stewart M. Green (June 1, 2008). Scenic Driving Colorado. Globe Pequot Press. p. 106.  
  7. ^ Toni Hamill; The Manitou Springs Heritage Center (March 2012). Garden of the Gods. Arcadia Publishing. pp. 11–13.  
  8. ^ Toni Hamill; The Manitou Springs Heritage Center (March 2012). Garden of the Gods. Arcadia Publishing. pp. 14–15.  
  9. ^ Garden Of The Gods Park | Ecological and cultural history
  10. ^ Garden Of The Gods Park | Recreational Hotspot
  11. ^ "Garden of the Gods Perkins Central Garden Trail interpretive guide". Mark Cubb. Retrieved July 4, 2013. 
  12. ^ "Technical Climbing Regulations and Guidelines" (PDF). Garden of the Gods. Retrieved July 4, 2013. 
  13. ^ Bobbi Sankey (March 4, 2006). "Garden of Gods climber falls to his death". The Gazette (Colorado Springs, Colorado). Colorado Springs Gazette. Retrieved July 4, 2013. 
  14. ^ "Garden of the Gods Visitor and Nature Center". City of Colorado Springs. Retrieved July 4, 2013. 
  15. ^ "Exhibits". Garden of the Gods. Retrieved July 4, 2013. 
  16. ^ "Activities". Garden of the Gods. Retrieved July 4, 2013. 
  17. ^ "Park Rules and Times". Garden of the Gods. Retrieved July 4, 2013. 
  18. ^ Great American Place
  19. ^ Tripadvisor.com Travelers' Choice 2013

References

See also

Gallery

  • National Natural Landmark in 1971[1]
  • Great American Public Place of 2011 by the American Planning Association. The Great American Places are defined by many criteria, including architectural features, accessibility, functionality and community involvement.[18]
  • Ranked second best park in the nation and the third best in the world on TripAdvisor's Travelers' Choice Attractions 2013 list[19]

Designations

The Garden of the Gods Park and Visitor and Nature Center are free to the public. As of July, 2013, the park hours are 5 a.m. to 11 p.m. from May 1 to October 31; 5 a.m. to 9 p.m. from November 1 to April 30. The Visitor and Nature Center is open 8 a.m. to 8 p.m. from Memorial Day weekend through Labor Day weekend; the remainder of the year it is open from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m.[17]

Hours and admission

Natural history exhibits include minerals, geology, plants and local wildlife, as well as Native Americans who visited the park.[15] Programs include nature hikes and talks, a Junior Ranger program, narrated bus tours, movies, educational programs and special programs.[16]

The Garden of the Gods Visitor and Nature Center is located at 1805 N. 30th Street and offers a view of the park. The center's information center and 30 educational exhibits are staffed by Parks, Recreation and Culture employees of the City of Colorado Springs. A short movie, How Did Those Red Rocks Get There?, runs every 20 minutes. A portion of the proceeds from the center's privately owned store and cafe support the non-profit Garden of the Gods Foundation; the money is used for maintenance and improvements to the park.[14]

Visitor and nature center

Because of the unusual and steep rock formations in the park, it is an attractive goal for rock climbers. Rock climbing is permitted, with annual permits obtained at the Garden of the Gods Visitor and Nature Center. The requirements are following the "Technical Climbing Regulations and Guidelines", using proper equipment, climbing with a "buddy" and staying on established climbing routes. Precipitation makes rocks unstable and therefore climbing is not allowed when the rocks are wet or icy.[12] There are fines for unregistered climbers and possibly rescue costs. Several fatalities have occurred over the years, generally because the climber was not wearing safety equipment or the equipment failed.[13]

The main trail in the park, Perkins Central Garden Trail, is a paved, wheelchair-accessible 1.1-mile trail, "through the heart of the park's largest and most scenic red rocks". The trail begins at the North Parking lot, the main parking lot off of Juniper Way Loop.[11]

The Garden of the Gods Park is popular for hiking, technical rock climbing, road and mountain biking and horseback riding. It attracts more than two million visitors a year, making it the city’s most visited park. There are more than 15 miles of trails with a 1.5-mile trail running through the heart of the park that is paved and wheelchair accessible. Annual events including two summer running races, recreational bike rides and Pro Cycling Challenge Prologue also take place in this park.[10]

Recreation

The Garden of the Gods Park is a rich ecological resource. Retired biology professor Richard Beidleman notes that the park is "the most striking contrast between plains and mountains in North America" with respect to biology, geology, climate and scenery. Dinosaur species Theiophytalia kerri was found in the park, in 1878, and studies of the skull in 2006 reveal it to be a new species. A honey ant never before recorded was also discovered in 1879 and named for the park. Mule deer, bighorn sheep and fox abound in this area. The park is also home to more than 130 species of birds including white-throated swifts, swallows and canyon wrens.[9]

Ecology

The resulting rocks had different shapes: toppled, overturned, stood-up, pushed around and slanted. Balanced Rock, a fountain formation, is a combination of coarse sand, gravel, silica and hematite. It is hematite that gives the large balancing rock rock its red hue. It toppled off of a ledge, first resting on sand that was gradually worn away at the base. Gateway Rock and Three Graces are stood-up rocks that had been pushed up vertically. The Tower of Babel is Lyons Formation, a stone made of fine sand from an ancient beach.[8]

The outstanding geologic features of the park are the ancient sedimentary beds of deep-red, pink and white sandstones, conglomerates and limestone that were deposited horizontally, but have now been tilted vertically and faulted into "fins" by the immense mountain building forces caused by the uplift of the Rocky Mountains and the Pikes Peak massif. The following Pleistocene Ice Age resulted in erosion and glaciation of the rock, creating the present rock formations. Evidence of past ages can be read in the rocks: ancient seas, eroded remains of ancestral mountain ranges, alluvial fans, sandy beaches and great sand dune fields.[7]

Geological formations

Having purchased additional surrounding land, the City of Colorado Springs' park grew to 1,364 acres. In 1995 the Garden of the Gods Visitor and Nature Center was opened just outside of the park.[5]

Helen Hunt Jackson wrote of the park, "You wind among rocks of every conceivable and inconceivable shape and size... all bright red, all motionless and silent, with a strange look of having been just stopped and held back in the very climax of some supernatural catastrophe."[6]

In 1879 Charles Elliott Perkins, a friend of William Jackson Palmer, purchased 480 acres of land that included a portion of the present Garden of the Gods. Upon Perkins' death, his family gave the land to the City of Colorado Springs in 1909, with the provision that it would be a free public park. Palmer had owned the Rock Ledge Ranch and upon his death it was donated to the city.[5]

[2]

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