The Gardner–Salinas braille codes are a method of encoding mathematical and scientific notation linearly using braille cells for tactile reading by the visually impaired. The most common form of Gardner–Salinas braille is the 8cell variety, commonly called GS8. There is also a corresponding 6cell form called GS6.^{[1]}
The codes were developed as a replacement for Nemeth Braille by John Gardner, a physicist at Oregon State University, and Norberto Salinas, an Argentinian mathematician.
The Gardner–Salinas braille codes are an example of a compact humanreadable markup language. The syntax is based on the LaTeX system for scientific typesetting.
Table of Gardner–Salinas 8dot (GS8) braille
The set of lowercase letters, the period, comma, semicolon, colon, exclamation mark, apostrophe, and opening and closing double quotes are the same as in Grade2 English Braille.^{[1]}
Digits
Apart from 0, this is the same as the Antoine notation used in French and Luxembourgish Braille.
Uppercase letters
GS8 uppercase letters are indicated by the same cell as standard English braille (and GS8) lowercase letters, with dot #7 added.
Symbol

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

L

M

Braille














Symbol

N

O

P

Q

R

S

T

U

V

W

X

Y

Z

Braille














Compare Luxembourgish Braille.
Greek letters
Dot 8 is added to the letter forms of International Greek Braille to derive Greek letters:
Symbol

α

β

γ

δ

ε

ζ

η

θ

ι

κ

λ

μ

Braille













Symbol

ν

ξ

ο

π

ρ

σ

τ

υ

φ

χ

ψ

ω

Braille













Symbol

Γ

Δ

Θ

Λ

Ξ

Π

Σ

Υ

Φ

Ψ

Ω

Braille












Characters differing from English Braille
Symbol

Parentheses

Brackets

single quote


open

close

open

close

open

close

?

Braille








ASCII symbols and mathematical operators
Symbol

"

$

&

@

\

^

_

`

{

}

~

Braille












Symbol

#

%

*

+

/

<

=

>

×

·

÷

Braille












Text symbols
Math/Science symbols
Symbol

∼

≈

≡

∝

x (abs. value)

∞

∫

line ∫

closed ∫

Braille










Symbol

〈

〉

∇

∂

…

→

←

○

ℵ

∈

⇌

Braille












Markup
Symbol

Superscript

Subscript

Leftsuperscript

Leftsubscript

Begin fraction

Denominator

End fraction

Over *

Braille









* Encodes the fractionslash for the single adjacent digits/letters as numerator and denominator.
Symbol

√

complex radicand *

displayed equation **

math expressions **

hyperlink **

Open

Close

Open

Close

Open

Close

Open

Close

Braille










* Used for any > 1 digit radicand.
** Used for markup to represent inkprint text.
Symbol

Array




Begin

End

End element

End line

vert. stack

horiz. combo

superposition

Braille








Symbol

Misc. Symbol *



Modifiers

Begin

End

Quantity

Markup indicator

Inverted

Stroke/Not

Variant

Large

Braille









Typeface indicators
Symbol

Script

Bold

Italic

Underline

Definable font 1

Fractur

Roman

Underline

Braille









Shape symbols
Set theory
References

^ ^{a} ^{b} "Index of Topics in Braille Section". Oregon State University Science Access Project Braille topics. Retrieved 20120429.

Blind physicist creates better Braille — a CNN news item, November 9, 1995

The world of blind mathematicians — article in Notices of the AMS, November 2002
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