World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Germany national football team

Shirt badge/Association crest
Nickname(s) Nationalelf (national eleven)
DFB-Elf (DFB Eleven)
Die Mannschaft (The Team)[1][2]
Association German Football Association
(Deutscher Fußball-Bund – DFB)
Confederation UEFA (Europe)
Head coach Joachim Löw
Captain Bastian Schweinsteiger
Most caps Lothar Matthäus (150)
Top scorer Miroslav Klose (71)
FIFA ranking
Current 2 1 (1 October 2015)
Highest 1[3] (December 1992, August 1993, December 1993, February 1994 – March 1994, June 1994, July 2014 – July 2015)
Lowest 22[3] (March 2006)
Elo ranking
Current 1 (1 October 2015)
Highest 1 (1990–92, 1993–94, 1996–97, July 2014 – present)
Lowest 17 (1923)
First international
  Switzerland 5–3 Germany
(Basel, Switzerland; 5 April 1908)[4]
Biggest win
Germany 16–0 Russian Empire
(Stockholm, Sweden; 1 July 1912)[5]
Biggest defeat
England Amateurs 9–0 Germany
(Oxford, England; 13 March 1909)[6][7]
World Cup
Appearances 18 (First in 1934)
Best result Champions, 1954, 1974, 1990, 2014
European Championship
Appearances 11 (First in 1972)
Best result Champions, 1972, 1980, 1996
Confederations Cup
Appearances 2 (First in 1999)
Best result Third place, 2005

The Germany national football team (German: Die deutsche Fußballnationalmannschaft) is the men's football team that has represented Germany in international competition since 1908.[4] It is governed by the German Football Association (Deutscher Fußball-Bund), founded in 1900.[8][9] Ever since the DFB was reinaugurated in 1949 the team has represented the Federal Republic of Germany. Under Allied occupation and division, two other separate national teams were also recognised by FIFA: the Saarland team representing the Saarland (1950–1956) and the East German team representing the German Democratic Republic (1952–1990). Both have been absorbed along with their records[10][11] by the current national team. The official name and code "Germany FR (FRG)" was shortened to "Germany (GER)" following the reunification in 1990.

Germany is one of the most successful national teams in international competitions, having won a total of four World Cups (1954, 1974, 1990, 2014) and three European Championships (1972, 1980, 1996).[8] They have also been runners-up three times in the European Championships, four times in the World Cup, and have won a further four third places.[8] East Germany won Olympic Gold in 1976.[12] Germany is the only nation to have won both the men's and women's World Cups. At the end of the 2014 FIFA World Cup, Germany earned the highest Elo rating of any national football team in history, with a record 2200 points.[13] Germany is also the only European nation that has won the FIFA World Cup in South America. The current head coach of the national team is Joachim Löw.


  • History 1
    • Early years 1.1
    • Three German teams 1.2
    • 1954 World Cup victory 1.3
    • Memorable losses: Wembley goal and game of the century 1.4
    • 1974 World Cup title on home soil 1.5
    • Late 1970s and early 1980s 1.6
    • Beckenbauer's coaching success 1.7
    • Olympic football 1.8
    • Berti Vogts years (1990–1998) 1.9
    • 2000–2006: Oliver Kahn/Michael Ballack era 1.10
    • Joachim Löw years (2006-present) 1.11
  • Results and fixtures 2
    • 2015 2.1
    • 2016 2.2
    • 2017 2.3
  • Stadiums 3
  • Kit 4
    • Kit evolution 4.1
  • Media coverage 5
  • Competition records 6
    • FIFA World Cup record 6.1
    • UEFA European Championship record 6.2
    • FIFA Confederations Cup record 6.3
  • FIFA ranking history 7
  • Honours 8
  • Personnel 9
    • Current technical staff 9.1
  • Players 10
    • Current squad 10.1
    • Recent call-ups 10.2
    • Famous past players 10.3
      • Most capped players 10.3.1
      • Top goalscorers 10.3.2
    • World Cup winning captains 10.4
  • Titles 11
  • See also 12
  • References 13
  • External links 14


Early years

Between 1899 and 1901, prior to the formation of a national team, there were five unofficial international matches between different German and English selection teams, which all ended as large defeats for the German teams. Eight years after the establishment of the German Football Association (DFB), the first official match of the Germany national football team[14] was played on 5 April 1908, against Switzerland in Basel, with the Swiss winning 5–3.[4] Coincidentally, the first match after World War I in 1920, the first match after World War II in 1950 when Germany was still banned from most international competitions, and the first match in 1990 with former East German players were all against Switzerland as well. Germany's first championship title was even won in Switzerland.

At that time the players were selected by the DFB, as there was no dedicated coach. The first manager of the Germany national team was Otto Nerz, a school teacher from Mannheim, who served in the role from 1926 to 1936.[15] The German FA could not afford travel to Uruguay for the first World Cup staged in 1930 during the Great Depression, but finished third in the 1934 World Cup in their first appearance in the competition. After a poor showing at the 1936 Olympic Games in Berlin, Sepp Herberger became coach. In 1937 he put together a squad which was soon nicknamed the Breslau Elf (the Breslau Eleven) in recognition of their 8–0 win over Denmark in the then German city of Breslau, Lower Silesia (now Wrocław, Poland).[16][17]

After Austria became part of Germany in the Anschluss of March 1938, that country's national team – one of Europe's better sides at the time due to professionalism – was disbanded despite having already qualified for the 1938 World Cup. As required by Nazi politicians, five or six ex-Austrian players, from the clubs Rapid Vienna, Austria Vienna, First Vienna FC, were ordered to join the all-German team on short notice in a staged show of unity orchestrated for political reasons. In the 1938 World Cup that began on 4 June, this "united" German team managed only a 1–1 draw against Switzerland, and then lost the replay 2–4 in front of a hostile crowd in Paris, France. That early exit stands as Germany's worst ever World Cup result (excluding the 1930 and 1950 tournaments in which they did not compete).

During World War II, the team played over 30 international games between September 1939 and November 1942, when national team games were suspended, as most players had to join the armed forces. Many of the national team players were gathered together under coach Herberger as Rote Jäger through the efforts of a sympathetic air force officer trying to protect the footballers from the most dangerous wartime service.

Three German teams

After the Second World War, Germany was banned from competition in most sports until 1950. The DFB was not a full member of FIFA, and none of the three new German states — West Germany, East Germany, and Saarland — entered the 1950 World Cup qualifiers.

The Federal Republic of Germany, which was referred to as West Germany, continued the DFB. With recognition by FIFA and UEFA, the DFB maintained and continued the record of the pre-war team. Switzerland was once again the first team that played West Germany in 1950.[18] West Germany qualified for the 1954 World Cup.

their own team to the 1952 Summer Olympics and to the 1954 World Cup qualifiers. In 1957, Saarland acceded to the Federal Republic of Germany.

In 1949, the communist German Democratic Republic (East Germany) was founded. In 1952 the Deutscher Fußball-Verband der DDR (DFV) was established and the East Germany national football team took to the field. They were the only team to beat the 1974 FIFA World Cup winning West Germans in the only meeting of the two sides of the divided nation. East Germany won the gold medal at the 1976 Olympics. After German reunification in 1990, the eastern football competition was reintegrated into the DFB.

1954 World Cup victory

Helmut Rahn scored the winning goal in the 1954 FIFA World Cup final.

West Germany, captained by Fritz Walter, met in the 1954 World Cup Turkey, Yugoslavia and Austria. When playing favourites Hungary in the group stage, Germany lost 3–8. West Germany met the Hungary Mighty Magyars again in the final. Hungary had gone unbeaten for 32 consecutive matches. In an upset, West Germany won 3–2, with Helmut Rahn scoring the winning goal.[19] The success is called "The Miracle of Bern" (Das Wunder von Bern).[20]

Memorable losses: Wembley goal and game of the century

After finishing fourth in the 1958 World Cup and reaching only the quarter-finals in the 1962 World Cup, the DFB made changes. Professionalism was introduced, and the best clubs from the various Regionalligas were assembled into the new Bundesliga. In 1964, Helmut Schön took over as coach, replacing Herberger who had been in office for 28 years.

In the 1966 World Cup, West Germany reached the final after beating the USSR in the semifinal, facing hosts England. In extra time, the first goal by Geoff Hurst was one of the most contentious goals in the history of the World Cup: the linesman signalled the ball had crossed the line for a goal, after bouncing down from the crossbar, when replays showed it did not appear to have fully crossed the line. Hurst then scored another goal giving England a 4–2 win.[21][22]

West Germany in the 1970 World Cup knocked England out in the quarter-finals 3–2, before they suffered a 4–3 extra time loss in the semi-final against Italy. This match with five goals in extra time is one of the most dramatic in World Cup history, and is called the "Game of the Century" in both Italy and Germany.[23][24] West Germany claimed third by beating Uruguay 1–0. Gerd Müller finished as the tournament's top scorer with 10 goals.

1974 World Cup title on home soil

In 1971, Franz Beckenbauer became captain of the national team, and he led West Germany to victory at the European Championship at Euro 1972, defeating the Soviet Union 3–0 in the final.[25][26]

As hosts of the 1974 World Cup, they won their second World Cup, defeating the Netherlands 2–1 in the final in Munich.[27] Two matches in the 1974 World Cup stood out for West Germany. The first group stage saw a politically charged match as West Germany played a game against East Germany. The East Germans won 1–0.[28] The West Germans advanced to the final against the Johan Cruijff-led Dutch team and their brand of "Total Football". The Dutch took the lead from a penalty. However, West Germany tied the match on a penalty by Paul Breitner, and won it with Gerd Müller's fine finish soon after.[29][30]

Late 1970s and early 1980s

Gerd Müller in 2006

West Germany failed to defend their titles in the next two major international tournaments. They lost to Czechoslovakia in the final of Euro 1976 in a penalty shootout 5–3.[31] Since that loss, Germany has not lost a penalty shootout in major international tournaments.

In the 1978 World Cup, Germany was eliminated in the second group stage after losing 2–3 to Austria. Schön retired as coach afterward, and the post was taken over by his assistant, Jupp Derwall.

West Germany's first tournament under Derwall was successful, as they earned their second European title at Euro 1980 after defeating Belgium 2–1 in the final.[32] West Germany reached the final of the 1982 World Cup, though not without difficulties. They were upset 1–2 by Algeria in their first match,[33] but advanced to the second round with a controversial 1–0 win over Austria. In the semifinal against France, they tied the match 3–3 and won the penalty shootout 5–4.[34][35] In the final, they were defeated by Italy 1–3.[36]

During this period, West Germany's Gerd Müller racked up fourteen goals in two World Cups (1970 and 1974). His ten goals in 1970 are the third-most ever in a tournament. (Müller's all-time World Cup record of 14 goals was broken by Ronaldo in 2006 which has been further broken by Miroslav Klose in 2014 with 16 goals[37]).

Beckenbauer's coaching success

Franz Beckenbauer

After West Germany were eliminated in the first round of Euro 1984, Franz Beckenbauer returned to the national team to replace Derwall as coach.[38] At the 1986 World Cup in Mexico, West Germany finished as runners-up for the second consecutive tournament after beating France 2–0 in the semi-finals, but losing to the Diego Maradona-led Argentina in the final, 2–3.[39][40] In Euro 1988, West Germany's hopes of winning the tournament on home soil were spoiled by the Netherlands, as the Dutch beat them 2–1 in the semifinals.[41]

At the 1990 World Cup in Italy, West Germany won their third World Cup title, in its unprecedented third consecutive final appearance.[42] Captained by Lothar Matthäus, they defeated Yugoslavia (4–1), UAE (5–1), the Netherlands (2–1), Czechoslovakia (1–0), and England (1–1, 4–3 on penalty kicks) on the way to a final rematch against Argentina, played in the Italian capital of Rome.[43][44] West Germany won 1–0, with the only goal being a penalty scored in the 85th minute by Andreas Brehme.[42] Beckenbauer, who won the World Cup as the national team's captain in 1974, thus became the first person to win the World Cup as both captain and coach.[38]

Olympic football

Olympic medal record
Olympic Games
1988 Seoul Team

Prior to 1984, Olympic football was an amateur event, meaning that only non-professional players could participate. Due to this, West Germany was never able to achieve the same degree of success at the Olympics as at the World Cup, with the only medal coming in the 1988 Olympics, when they won the bronze medal. However, for the next six Olympic games no German team has managed to qualify for the main tournament, even after the change of rules to include professionals, among them three athletes over 23 years old. West Germany also reached the second round in both 1972 and 1984. On the other hand, East Germany did far better, winning a gold, a silver and two bronze medals (one representing the United Team of Germany).

Berti Vogts years (1990–1998)

Berti Vogts

In February 1990, months after the fall of the Berlin Wall, the draw for the 1992 European Championship qualifying tournament saw East Germany and West Germany drawn together. After West Germany's 1990 World Cup win, assistant Berti Vogts took over as the national team coach from the retiring Beckenbauer. The members of the East German association Deutscher Fußball-Verband acceded to the DFB in November, while the 1990–91 seasons would continue, with the restructuring of leagues scheduled for 1991–92. The first game with a unified German team was against Switzerland on 19 December.

In Euro 1992, Germany reached the final, but lost 0–2 to Denmark.[45] In the 1994 World Cup, they were upset 1–2 in the quarterfinals by Bulgaria.[46][47]

Reunified Germany won its first major international title at Euro 1996, becoming European champions for the third time.[48] They defeated hosts England in the semifinals,[49] and the Czech Republic 2–1 in the final on a golden goal in extra time.[50]

However, in the 1998 World Cup, Germany were eliminated in the quarterfinals in a 0–3 defeat to Croatia, all goals being scored after defender Christian Wörns received a straight red card.[51] Vogts stepped down afterwards and was replaced by Erich Ribbeck.[52]

2000–2006: Oliver Kahn/Michael Ballack era

In Euro 2000, the team went out in the first round, drawing with Romania, then suffering a 1–0 defeat to England and were routed 3–0 by Portugal (which fielded their backup players, having already advanced).[53] Ribbeck resigned, and was replaced by Rudi Völler.[54]

Coming into the 2002 World Cup, expectations of the German team were low due to poor results in the qualifiers and not directly qualifying for the finals for the first time. The team advanced through group play, and in the knockout stages they produced three consecutive 1–0 wins against Paraguay,[55] the United States,[56] and co-hosts South Korea, all three goals being scored by Michael Ballack, although he picked up a second yellow card against Korea for a tactical foul and was suspended for the subsequent match.[57] This set up a final against Brazil, the first World Cup meeting between the two. Germany lost 0–2 thanks to two Ronaldo goals.[58] Nevertheless, German captain and goalkeeper Oliver Kahn won the Golden Ball,[59] the first time in the World Cup that a goalkeeper was named the best player of the tournament.[60]

People watching the 2006 Germany v. Argentina match at the Donau Arena in Regensburg

Germany again exited in the first round of Euro 2004, drawing their first two matches and losing the third to the Czech Republic (who had fielded a second-string team).[61] Völler resigned afterwards, and Jürgen Klinsmann was appointed head coach.[62][63]

Klinsmann's main task was to lead the national team to a good showing at the 2006 World Cup in Germany. Klinsman relieved goalkeeper Kahn of the captaincy and announced that Kahn and longtime backup Jens Lehmann would be competing for the position of starting goaltender, a decision that angered Kahn and Lehmann eventually won that contest.[64] Expectations for the team were low, which was not helped by veteran defender Christian Wörns being dropped (after Wörns criticized Klinsmann for designating him only as a backup player on the squad), a choice roundly panned in Germany. Italy routed Germany 4–1 in a March exhibition game, and Klinsmann bore the brunt of the criticism as the team was ranked only 22nd in the world entering the 2006 FIFA World Cup.[65]

As World Cup hosts, Germany won all three group-stage matches to finish top of their group. The team defeated Sweden 2–0 in the round of 16.[66] Germany faced Argentina in the quarter-finals. The match ended 1–1, and Germany won the penalty shootout 4–2.[67] In the semi-final against Italy, the match was scoreless until near the end of extra time when Germany conceded two goals.[68] In the third place match, Germany defeated Portugal 3–1.[69] Miroslav Klose was awarded the Golden Boot for his tournament-leading five goals.[70]

Joachim Löw years (2006-present)

Germany's entry into the Euro 2008 qualifying round was marked by the promotion of Joachim Löw to head coach, since Klinsmann retired.[71] At the UEFA Euro 2008, Germany won two out of three matches in group play to advance to the knockout round.[72] They defeated Portugal 3–2 in the quarterfinal,[73] and won their semifinal against Turkey.[74] Germany lost the final against Spain 0–1, finishing as the runners-up.[75]

In the 2010 World Cup, Germany won the group and advanced to the knockout stage. In the round of 16, Germany defeated England 4–1.[76] The game controversially had a valid goal by Frank Lampard disallowed.[77][78][79] In the quarterfinals, Germany defeated Argentina 4–0,[80] and Miroslav Klose tied German Gerd Müller's record of 14 World Cup goals.[81] In the semi-final, Germany lost 1–0 to Spain.[82] Germany defeated Uruguay 3–2 to take third place (their second third place after 2006).[83] German Thomas Müller won the Golden Boot and the Best Young Player Award.[84][85]

German national team during Euro 2012 qualifiers

In the Euro 2012, Germany was placed in group B along with Portugal, Netherlands, and Denmark. Germany won all three group matches. Germany defeated Greece in the quarter-final and set a record of 15 consecutive wins in all competitive matches.[86] In the semi-finals, Germany lost to Italy by 1–2.

Germany lifting the World Cup trophy in 2014

Germany finished first in their qualification group for the 2014 World Cup. The draw for the 2014 FIFA World Cup finals placed Germany in Group G,[87] with Portugal, Ghana, and United States. They first faced Portugal in a match billed by some as the "team of all the talents against the team of The Talent (Cristiano Ronaldo)", routing the Portuguese 4–0 thanks to a hat-trick by Thomas Müller.[88][89] In their match with Ghana, they led the game with Götze's second half goal, but then conceded two consecutive goals, then at the 71st minute Klose scored a goal to help Germany to draw 2–2 with Ghana. With that goal, Klose also nudged home his 15th World Cup goal to join former Brazil striker Ronaldo at the pinnacle of World Cup Finals scorers. They then went on to defeat the United States team 1–0, securing them a spot in the round of sixteen against Algeria.

In the round of sixteen knockout match against Algeria, the match remained goalless after regulation time and resulted in extra time being played. In the 92nd minute, André Schürrle scored a goal from a pass from Thomas Müller, while Mesut Özil scored the second goal in the 120th minute. Although Algeria managed to score one goal in injury time it wasn't enough for them and the match ended 2–1 securing Germany a place in the quarter final, setting them up to play France.

In the quarter-final match against France, Mats Hummels scored in the 13th minute as Germany won the game 1–0 to advance to a record fourth consecutive semi-finals[90]

The semi-final win (7–1) against Brazil was a major accomplishment. Germany became the first team in history to score five goals in 18 minutes during the first half. They scored four goals in just 400 seconds and were 5–0 against Brazil by the end of the first half with goals from Thomas Müller, Miroslav Klose, Sami Khedira and two from Toni Kroos. Klose's goal in the 23rd minute, his 16th World Cup goal, gave him sole possession of the record for most goals scored during World Cup Finals, dethroning former Brazilian national Ronaldo.

Germany posing with Champions banner after 2014 FIFA World Cup Final

In the second half of the game, substitute André Schürrle scored twice for Germany to lead 7–0, the highest score against Brazil in a single game. Germany did, however, concede a late goal to Brazil's Oscar. It was Brazil's worst ever World Cup defeat.[91] whilst Germany broke multiple World Cup records with the win, including the record broken by Klose, the first team to reach four consecutive World Cup semi finals, the first team to score seven goals in a World Cup Finals knockout phase game, the fastest five consecutive goals in World Cup history (four of which in just 400 seconds), the first team to score five goals in the first half in a World Cup semi final as well as being the topic of the most tweets ever on Twitter about a certain subject when the previous social media record was smashed after Germany scored their fourth goal. Also, Germany's seven goals took their total tally in World Cup history to 223, surpassing Brazil's 221 goals to first place overall.[92]

The World Cup Final was held at the Maracana in Rio de Janeiro on 13 July, and billed as the world's best player (Lionel Messi) versus the world's best team (Germany).[93][94] Mario Götze's 113th-minute goal helped Germany beat Argentina 1–0, becoming the first-ever European team to win a FIFA World Cup in the Americas.[95][96]

After several players retired from the team following the 2014 World Cup win, including Philipp Lahm, Per Mertesacker and Miroslav Klose, the team had a disappointing start in the qualifiers. They defeated Scotland 2–1 at home, then suffered a 2–0 loss at Poland (the first in their history), a 1–1 draw against the Republic of Ireland, and a 4–0 win over Gibraltar. The year ended with an away 0–1 friendly win against Spain, the reigning European champions of 2008 and 2012.

Throughout qualifying for the 2016 European Championship the German national team faced some difficulties, losing 2-0 against group rival Poland (defeating them on the return leg), and drawing at home, as well as losing away, to Ireland; the team also only narrowly defeated Scotland on two occasions, but handily won against Gibraltar (who competed for the first time). Eventually however topping their group and qualifying to the tournament through a 2-1 victory against Georgia on 11 October 2015 (having won the first match against them).

Results and fixtures


v  Germany




Olympic Stadium (Berlin)

Germany plays its home matches among various stadiums, in rotation, around the country. They have played home matches in 43 different cities so far, including venues that were German at the time of the match, such as Vienna, Austria, which staged three games between 1938 and 1942.

National team matches have been held most often (44 times) in the stadiums of Berlin, which was the venue of Germany's first home match (in 1908 against England). Other common host cities include Hamburg (33 matches), Stuttgart (31), Hanover (26) and Dortmund. Another notable location is Munich, which has hosted numerous notable matches throughout the history of German football, including the 1974 FIFA World Cup Final, which Germany won against the Netherlands.


The 2006 World Cup saw a widespread public display of the German national flag.

Adidas AG is the longstanding kit provider to the national team, a sponsorship that began in 1954 and is contracted to continue until at least 2018. In the 70s, Germany wore Erima kits (a German brand, formerly a subsidiary of Adidas).[97][98]

The national team's home kit has always been a white shirt and black shorts. The colours are derived from the 19th-century flag of the north German State of Prussia. Since 1988, many of the home kit's designs incorporate details patterned after the modern German flag (with the noted exception of the 2002 World Cup kit, which was a reversal to the pure black-and-white scheme). The away shirt colour has changed several times. For the 2014 World Cup, the German team used white shorts rather than the traditional black due to FIFA's kit clashing rule for the tournament.[99] Historically, green shirt with white shorts is the most often used alternative colour combination, derived from the DFB colours – though it is often erroneously reported that the choice is in recognition of the fact that Ireland, whose home shirts are green, were the first nation to play Germany in a friendly game after World War II. However, the first team to play Germany after WWII, as stated above, was actually Switzerland.[100] Other colours such as red, grey and black have also been used.

A change from black to red came in 2005 on the request of Jürgen Klinsmann,[101] but Germany played every game at the 2006 World Cup in its home white colours. In 2010, the away colours then changed back to a black shirt and white shorts, but at the tournament the team dressed up in the black shorts from the home kit. The German team next resumed the use of a green shirt on its away kit, but then changed again to red-and-black striped shirts with white stripes and letters, and black shorts.

Kit evolution

World Cup
World Cup
1938 [103]
World Cup
World Cup
World Cup
World Cup
World Cup
World Cup
Euro 1980
World Cup 1982
World Cup
Euro 1988 and World Cup 1990
World Cup
World Cup
World Cup
World Cup
World Cup
World Cup
World Cup
1954 – 1958
World Cup
1966 – 1970
World Cup
1974 – 1978
Euro 1980 – World Cup 1982
Euro 1984
World Cup 1986
Euro 1988 – World Cup 1990
World Cup
World Cup
World Cup
ConFed Cup
World Cup
World Cup
World Cup

Media coverage

Germany's qualifying matches are currently televised by privately owned RTL; friendlies by public broadcasters ARD and ZDF. World Cup & European Championships matches featuring the German national team are among the most-watched events in the history of television in Germany.

Competition records

Germany has won the World Cup four times, behind only Brazil (five titles).[104] It has finished as runners-up four times.[104] In terms of semifinal appearances, Germany leads with 13, two more than Brazil's 11, which had participated in two more tournaments.[104] In the last 16 World Cup tournaments, Germany has always reached at least the stage of the last eight teams.[104] Germany has also qualified for every one of the 18 World Cups for which it has entered – it did not enter the inaugural competition in Uruguay of 1930 for economic reasons, and could not qualify for or compete in the post-war 1950 World Cup as the DFB was reinstated as a FIFA member only two months after this tournament. Germany also have the distinction of having the highest Elo football rating of all time (2200) following their victory in the 2014 World Cup.

Germany has also won the European Championship three times (Spain and France are the only other multiple-time winners with three and two titles respectively), and finished as runners-up three times as well.[105] The Germans have qualified for every European Championship tournament except for the very first European Championship they entered in 1968.[105] For that tournament, Germany was in the only group of three teams and thus only played four qualifying games. The deciding game was a scoreless draw in Albania which gave Yugoslavia the edge, having won in their neighbour country. The team's worst result in the competition was a first round elimination in 2000 and 2004.[106][107]

See also East Germany and Saarland for the results of these separate German teams, and Austria for the team that was merged into the German team from 1938 to 1945.

FIFA World Cup record

     Champions       Runners-up       Third Place       Fourth Place  

FIFA World Cup record FIFA World Cup Qualification record
Year Round Position Pld W D* L GF GA Pld W D L GF GA
1930 Did Not Enter
1934 Third Place 3rd 4 3 0 1 11 8 1 1 0 0 9 1
1938 First Round 10th 2 0 1 1 3 5 3 3 0 0 11 1
1950 Banned
1954 Champions 1st 6 5 0 1 25 14 4 3 1 0 12 3
1958 Fourth Place 4th 6 2 2 2 12 14 Qualified as Defending Champions
1962 Quarter-Final 7th 4 2 1 1 4 2 4 4 0 0 11 5
1966 Runners-up 2nd 6 4 1 1 15 6 4 3 1 0 14 2
1970 Third Place 3rd 6 5 0 1 17 10 6 5 1 0 20 3
1974 Champions 1st 7 6 0 1 13 4 Qualified as Hosts
1978 Second Group Stage 6th 6 1 4 1 10 5 Qualified as Defending Champions
1982 Runners-up 2nd 7 3 2 2 12 10 8 8 0 0 33 3
1986 Runners-up 2nd 7 3 2 2 8 7 8 5 2 1 22 9
1990 Champions 1st 7 5 2 0 15 5 6 3 3 0 13 3
1994 Quarter-Final 5th 5 3 1 1 9 7 Qualified as Defending Champions
1998 Quarter-Final 7th 5 3 1 1 8 6 10 6 4 0 23 9
2002 Runners-up 2nd 7 5 1 1 14 3 10 6 3 1 19 12
2006 Third Place 3rd 7 5 1 1 14 6 Qualified as Hosts
2010 Third Place 3rd 7 5 0 2 16 5 10 8 2 0 26 5
2014 Champions 1st 7 6 1 0 18 4 10 9 1 0 36 10
2018 To Be Determined
Total 4 Titles 18/20 106 66 20* 20 224 121 84 64 18 2 249 66
*Denotes draws include knockout matches decided on penalty kicks.
**Gold background colour indicates that the tournament was won.
***Red border color indicates tournament was held on home soil.

UEFA European Championship record

FIFA Confederations Cup record

FIFA Confederations Cup record
Year Round Position GP W D* L GS GA Squad
1992 Did Not Enter [108]
1995 Did Not Qualify
1997 Did Not Enter [109]
1999 Group Stage 5th 3 1 0 2 2 6 Squad
2001 Did Not Qualify
2003 Did Not Enter [110]
2005 Third Place 3rd 5 3 1 1 15 11 Squad
2009 Did Not Qualify
2017 Qualified
2021 To Be Determined
Total Third Place 2/8 8 4 1 3 17 17 -
*Denotes draws including knockout matches decided on penalty kicks.
**Gold background colour indicates that the tournament was won.
***Red border color indicates tournament was held on home soil.

Note All tournaments from 1950 to 1990 inclusively were competed as West Germany.

FIFA ranking history


1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
1 5 2 2 2 3 5 11 12 4 12 19 17 6 5 2 6 3 3 2 2 1


FIFA World Cup
UEFA European Championship
FIFA Confederations Cup
Competition Total
World Cup 4 4 4 12
European Championship 3 3 2 8
Confederations Cup 0 0 1 1
Total 7 7 7 21


Current technical staff

Löw (left) and former assistant coach Flick in 2006
Position Name
Head coach Joachim Löw
Assistant coach Thomas Schneider
Goalkeeping coach Andreas Köpke
Fitness coach Yann-Benjamin Kugel
Mental coach Dr Hans-Dieter Hermann
Business manager Oliver Bierhoff
Sporting director Hans-Dieter Flick


Current squad

The following players were called up for the

  • DFB's German national football team page
  • DFB's statistics of the German team
  • FIFA website: Germany FIFA World Cup victories Winner (1954, 1974, 1990, 2014) Runners-Up (1966, 1982, 1986, 2002) Third (1934, 1970, 2006, 2010) Fourth (1958)
  • Schwarz und Weiß: A website about the German National Team in English
  • RSSSF archive of Germany results
  • Reports for all official matches
  • RSSSF archive of most capped players and highest goalscorers

External links

  1. ^ In Germany, the team is typically referred to as Die Nationalmannschaft (the national team), DFB-Elf (DFB eleven), DFB-Auswahl (DFB selection) or Nationalelf (national eleven). Whereas in foreign media, they are regularly described as (Die) Mannschaft (literally meaning the team). As of June 2015, this was acknowledged by the DFB as official branding of the team.
  2. ^ "DFB unveil new "Die Mannschaft" branding". DFB. Retrieved 8 June 2015. 
  3. ^ a b "Germany: FIFA/Coca-Cola World Ranking".  
  4. ^ a b c "All matches of The National Team in 1908".  
  5. ^ "All matches of The National Team in 1912". DFB. Retrieved 1 August 2008. 
  6. ^ "All matches of The National Team in 1909". DFB. Retrieved 1 August 2008. 
  7. ^ Note that this match is not considered to be a full international by the English FA, and does not appear in the records of the England team
  8. ^ a b c "Germany". FIFA. Retrieved 14 January 2012. 
  9. ^ "Germany's strength in numbers". UEFA. Retrieved 14 January 2012. 
  10. ^ a b "Statistics – Most-capped players". DFB. Retrieved 11 October 2011. 
  11. ^ a b "Statistics – Top scorers". DFB. Retrieved 11 October 2011. 
  12. ^ "Olympic Football Tournament Montreal 1976". FIFA. Retrieved 28 December 2011. 
  13. ^  
  14. ^ In early times it was simply called "die 11 besten Spieler von Deutschland" or just "die Bundesauswahl" (the Federation XI). Tags like "National team" or "National XI" weren't introduced until after World War I
  15. ^ "Professor Otto Nerz". DFB (in German). Retrieved 13 March 2012. 
  16. ^ Muras, Udo (16 May 2007). "Nur Hitler konnte sie stoppen" (in German). Retrieved 7 March 2012. 
  17. ^ "All matches of The National Team in 1937". DFB. Retrieved 1 January 2009. 
  18. ^ "(West) Germany – International Results". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation. Retrieved 1 January 2009. 
  19. ^ Nick Amies (1 April 2010). "World Cup Final, 1954: Hungary vs. West Germany". The Making of a World Cup Legend. Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 30 March 2012. 
  20. ^ "The Miracle of Bern". FIFA. Retrieved 8 March 2012. 
  21. ^ Nick Amies (1 April 2010). "World Cup Final, 1966: England vs. West Germany". The Making of a World Cup Legend. Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 30 March 2012. 
  22. ^ "England’s claim to the firmament". FIFA. Retrieved 8 March 2012. 
  23. ^ Nick Amies (1 April 2010). "World Cup Semi-Final, 1970: Italy vs. West Germany". The Making of a World Cup Legend. Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 30 March 2012. 
  24. ^ "A test of endurance and will". FIFA. Retrieved 8 March 2012. 
  25. ^ "Müller the menace in German masterclass".  
  26. ^ "West Germany make their mark". UEFA. Retrieved 2 March 2012. 
  27. ^ "1974 FIFA World Cup Germany – Dutch take plaudits but Germany take the prize". FIFA. Retrieved 7 March 2012. 
  28. ^ "East edge battle of brothers". FIFA. Retrieved 8 March 2012. 
  29. ^ Nick Amies (1 April 2010). "World Cup Final, 1974: West Germany vs. The Netherlands". The Making of a World Cup Legend. Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 30 March 2012. 
  30. ^ "Oranje crushed in Munich". FIFA. Retrieved 8 March 2012. 
  31. ^ "Panenka's panache seals Czech triumph".  
  32. ^ "Hrubesch turns West Germany's unlikely hero".  
  33. ^ "Les Fennecs spring a surprise". FIFA. Retrieved 8 March 2012. 
  34. ^ Nick Amies (1 April 2010). "World Cup Semi-Final, 1982: West Germany vs. France". The Making of a World Cup Legend. Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 30 March 2012. 
  35. ^ "Battling Germans knock out brave Bleus". FIFA. Retrieved 8 March 2012. 
  36. ^ "Italians triumph in heavyweight rumble". FIFA. Retrieved 8 March 2012. 
  37. ^ "World Cup 2014: Miroslav Klose breaks finals goals record". BBC. 8 July 2014. Retrieved 13 July 2014. 
  38. ^ a b "Franz Beckenbauer". FIFA. Retrieved 1 February 2012. 
  39. ^ "1986 FIFA World Cup Mexico – Maradona lights up the world – with a helping hand". FIFA. Retrieved 1 February 2012. 
  40. ^ "1986 FIFA World Cup Mexico – Matches". FIFA. Retrieved 1 February 2012. 
  41. ^ "Van Basten sparks Netherlands joy". UEFA. Retrieved 1 February 2012. 
  42. ^ a b "1990 FIFA World Cup Italy – Germany hit winning note as Italian chorus fades". FIFA. Retrieved 1 February 2012. 
  43. ^ "Gazza weeps as Germans prevail". FIFA. Retrieved 8 March 2012. 
  44. ^ "1990 FIFA World Cup Italy – Matches". FIFA. Retrieved 1 February 2012. 
  45. ^ "Gatecrashing Denmark down Germany".  
  46. ^ "Bulgaria Ends Germany's Reign".  
  47. ^ Mifflin, Lawrie (11 July 1994). "WORLD CUP '94; Bulgaria, a Small Foot in Soccer, Steps Closer to Glass Slipper".  
  48. ^ Thomsen, Ian (1 July 1996). "'"Germany Wins Euro 96 With a 'Golden Goal.  
  49. ^ "Hosts denied by Germany in epic semi-final".  
  50. ^ "Bierhoff hero of Germany's EURO '96 win".  
  51. ^ Longman, Jere (5 July 1998). "WORLD CUP '98; Croatia Stuns Germany With the Aid Of a Red Card".  
  52. ^ Hughes, Rob (9 September 1998). "Another Day, Another Coach Gone:Now It's Vogts". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 March 2012. 
  53. ^ "Holders Germany suffer heavy defeat". BBC Sport. 20 June 2000. Retrieved 11 March 2012. 
  54. ^ "Ribbeck quits as Germans head home". BBC Sport. 21 June 2000. Retrieved 11 March 2012. 
  55. ^ "Germany edge out Paraguay". BBC Sport. 15 June 2002. Retrieved 11 February 2012. 
  56. ^ "Germany beat valiant USA". BBC Sport. 22 June 2002. Retrieved 11 February 2012. 
  57. ^ "Germany shatter Korea". BBC Sport. 25 June 2002. Retrieved 11 February 2012. 
  58. ^ "Brazil crowned world champions". BBC Sport. 30 June 2002. Retrieved 11 February 2012. 
  59. ^ "Kahn wins Golden Ball award". BBC Sport. 2 July 2002. Retrieved 11 February 2012. 
  60. ^ "Kahn named top keeper". BBC Sport. 30 June 2002. Retrieved 11 February 2012. 
  61. ^ "Germany 1–2 Czech Rep". BBC Sport. 23 June 2004. Retrieved 16 March 2012. 
  62. ^ "Voeller quits Germany role".  
  63. ^ "Klinsmann takes German post".  
  64. ^ [3]
  65. ^ [4]
  66. ^ "Germany 2–0 Sweden". BBC Sport. 24 June 2006. Retrieved 12 February 2012. 
  67. ^ "Lehmann had penalty taker notes". BBC Sport. 1 July 2006. Retrieved 8 March 2012. 
  68. ^ "Germany 0–2 Italy (aet)". BBC Sport. 4 July 2006. Retrieved 11 February 2012. 
  69. ^ "Germany 3–1 Portugal". BBC Sport. 8 July 2006. Retrieved 11 February 2012. 
  70. ^ "Klose finishes as leading scorer".  
  71. ^ "Klinsmann quits as Germany coach".  
  72. ^ Chowdhury, Saj (16 June 2008). "Austria 0–1 Germany & Poland 0–1 Croatia". BBC Sport. Retrieved 11 February 2012. 
  73. ^ McKenzie, Andrew (19 June 2008). "Portugal 2–3 Germany". BBC Sport. Retrieved 11 February 2012. 
  74. ^ McNulty, Phil (25 June 2008). "Germany 3–2 Turkey". BBC Sport. Retrieved 18 February 2012. 
  75. ^ McNulty, Phil (29 June 2008). "Germany 0–1 Spain". BBC Sport. Retrieved 11 February 2012. 
  76. ^ McCarra, Kevin (27 June 2010). "World Cup 2010: Germany tear down England's defence".  
  77. ^ "FAW boss Jonathan Ford rejects technology idea". BBC News. 28 June 2010. Retrieved 2 February 2012. 
  78. ^ Garside, Kevin (27 June 2010). "England v Germany: Frank Lampard's disallowed goal highlights stupidity of Fifa". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 2 February 2012. 
  79. ^ "England v Germany: Frank Lampard denied goal by Uruguayan linesman – in pictures". The Daily Telegraph (London). 27 June 2010. Retrieved 2 February 2012. 
  80. ^ Fifield, Dominic (3 July 2010). "World Cup 2010: Germany dump Diego Maradona and Argentina out".  
  81. ^ "FIFA World Cup Record – Players". FIFA. Retrieved 14 January 2012. 
  82. ^ McCarra, Kevin (7 July 2010). "World Cup 2010: Spain overcome Germany after Carles Puyol winner".  
  83. ^ Duxbury, Nick (10 July 2010). "World Cup 2010: Germany defeated Uruguay 3–2 to take third place. in third-place thriller".  
  84. ^ "Golden Boot". FIFA. Retrieved 2 March 2012. 
  85. ^ "Muller named Hyundai Best Young Player". FIFA. 9 March 2011. Retrieved 5 November 2011. 
  86. ^ "Germany overpower Greece in Gdansk". UEFA. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 7 July 2012. 
  87. ^ "2014 Fifa World Cup – Group G". FIFA. Retrieved 1 June 2014. 
  88. ^ Ronay, Barney (16 June 2014). "Portugal’s Cristiano Ronaldo outshone by Germany’s Thomas Müller". The Guardian. Retrieved 1 October 2014. 
  89. ^ James, David (14 June 2014). "Why Germany’s team ethic could be too much for even Cristiano Ronaldo". The Guardian. Retrieved 1 October 2014. 
  90. ^ "France 0–1 Germany – watch again – BBC Sport". BBC. 1 January 1970. Retrieved 13 July 2014. 
  91. ^ "Brazil 1–7 Germany: Match replay (UK only) – BBC Sport". BBC. 9 July 2014. Retrieved 13 July 2014. 
  92. ^ "The Mineirazo in numbers". FIFA. 9 July 2014. 
  93. ^ "Why Mueller is the World Cup superstar Messi only dreams of being". Yahoo!. 12 July 2014. Retrieved 1 October 2014. 
  94. ^ Futterman, Matthew (11 July 2014). "The World Cup Final: The Best Team vs. the Best Player". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 1 October 2014. 
  95. ^ Raish, Dave. "Götze volley gives Germany their fourth World Cup title". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 14 July 2014. 
  96. ^ "Germans End Long Wait: 24 Years and a Bit Extra". The New York Times. 13 July 2014. Retrieved 14 July 2014. 
  97. ^ "Deutsche Fußball-Nationalmannschaft 1978–1980". 4 May 2012. Retrieved 9 February 2012. 
  98. ^ "DFB-Trikot 2012". Retrieved 9 February 2012. 
  99. ^ "2014 FIFA World Cup Regulations" (PDF). UEFA. Retrieved 29 June 2014. 
  100. ^ "Why does Germany wear green? The Ireland myth and". A Football Report. Retrieved 13 July 2014. 
  101. ^ Jürgen Zelustek, Thomas Niklaus / sid (1 February 2006). "Traditionstrikot vor dem Aus – Klinsmann steht auf Rot".  
  102. ^ a b "Germany Football Shirts – Old Football Kits". Retrieved 25 December 2011. 
  103. ^ "FIFA World Cup 1938 – Historical Football Kits". Retrieved 13 July 2014. 
  104. ^ a b c d "The FIFA World Cup". Retrieved 13 March 2012. 
  105. ^ a b "The UEFA European Football Championship". Retrieved 13 March 2012. 
  106. ^ In Euro 2000, the team went out in the first round, drawing with Romania, then suffering a 1–0 defeat to England and were routed 3–0 by Portugal.
  107. ^ In Euro 2004, Germany again exited in the first round, drawing their first two matches and losing the third to the Czech Republic.
  108. ^ As 1990 FIFA World Cup Champions
  109. ^ As UEFA Euro 1996 Champions
  110. ^ As 2002 FIFA World Cup Runners-up
  111. ^ FIFA-ranking
  112. ^ """The "Mannschaft.  


See also

Preceded by
World Champions
1954 (First title)
Succeeded by
Preceded by
World Champions
1974 (Second title)
Succeeded by
Preceded by
World Champions
1990 (Third title)
Succeeded by
Preceded by
World Champions
2014 (Fourth title)
Succeeded by
Preceded by
European Champions
1972 (First title)
Succeeded by
Preceded by
European Champions
1980 (Second title)
Succeeded by
Preceded by
European Champions
1996 (Third title)
Succeeded by
Preceded by
FC Bayern Munich
Laureus World Team of the Year
Succeeded by


Year Name Caps Goals
1954 Fritz Walter 61 33
1974 Franz Beckenbauer 103 14
1990 Lothar Matthäus 150 23
2014 Philipp Lahm 113 5

World Cup winning captains

# Player Period Goals Caps Average
1 Miroslav Klose 2001–2014 71 137 0.52
2 Gerd Müller 1966–1974 68 62 1.10
3 Lukas Podolski 2004–2014 48 126 0.39
4 Rudi Völler 1982–1994 47 90 0.52
Jürgen Klinsmann 1987–1998 47 108 0.45
6 Karl-Heinz Rummenigge 1976–1986 45 95 0.49
7 Uwe Seeler 1954–1970 43 72 0.66
8 Michael Ballack 1999–2010 42 98 0.44
9 Oliver Bierhoff 1996–2002 37 70 0.53
10 Fritz Walter 1940–1958 33 61 0.54
Miroslav Klose is Germany's all-time top scorer with 71 goals.

Below is a list of the top 10 goalscorers for Germany, as of 8 September 2015.[11] (bold denotes players still available for selection). Former East Germany players (in the scope of this list: Streich 55 and Kirsten 34: 14 East Germany and 20 Germany) are not included in this WorldHeritage list, though they are included in DFB records.

Top goalscorers

# Player Period Caps Goals
1 Lothar Matthäus 1980–2000 150 23
2 Miroslav Klose 2001–2014 137 71
3 Lukas Podolski 2004–present 126 48
4 Philipp Lahm 2004–2014 113 5
Bastian Schweinsteiger 2004–present 113 23
6 Jürgen Klinsmann 1987–1998 108 47
7 Jürgen Kohler 1986–1998 105 2
8 Per Mertesacker 2004–2014 104 4
9 Franz Beckenbauer 1965–1977 103 14
10 Thomas Häßler 1988–2000 101 11
Lothar Matthäus is Germany's most capped player with 150 caps.

Below is a list of the 10 players with the most caps for Germany, as of 8 September 2015.[10] (bold denotes players still available for selection). Players who had played for the separate East German Team (in the scope of this list: Streich 102) do not appear in this list.

Most capped players

Famous past players

Pos. Player Date of birth (age) Caps Goals Club Latest call-up
GK Ron-Robert Zieler (1989-02-12) 12 February 1989 6 0 Hannover 96 v.  Scotland, 7 September 2015
GK Roman Weidenfeller (1980-08-06) 6 August 1980 5 0 Borussia Dortmund v.  Gibraltar, 13 June 2015
DF Erik Durm (1992-05-12) 12 May 1992 7 0 Borussia Dortmund v.  Gibraltar, 13 June 2015
DF Antonio Rüdiger (1993-03-03) 3 March 1993 6 0 Roma v.  Gibraltar, 13 June 2015
DF Benedikt Höwedes (1988-02-29) 29 February 1988 32 2 Schalke 04 v.  Georgia, 29 March 2015
DF Holger Badstuber (1989-03-13) 13 March 1989 31 1 Bayern Munich v.  Georgia, 29 March 2015
MF Sami Khedira (1987-04-04) 4 April 1987 56 5 Juventus v.  Gibraltar, 13 June 2015
MF Patrick Herrmann (1991-02-12) 12 February 1991 2 0 Borussia Mönchengladbach v.  Gibraltar, 13 June 2015
MF Lars Bender (1989-04-27) 27 April 1989 19 4 Bayer Leverkusen v.  Spain, 18 November 2014

The following players have also been called up to the Germany squad within the last 12 months and are still available for selection.

Recent call-ups

0#0 Pos. Player Date of birth (age) Caps Goals Club
1 1GK Manuel Neuer (1986-03-27) 27 March 1986 62 0 Bayern Munich
12 1GK Bernd Leno (1992-03-04) 4 March 1992 0 0 Bayer Leverkusen
22 1GK Marc-André ter Stegen (1992-04-30) 30 April 1992 4 0 Barcelona
2 2DF Shkodran Mustafi (1992-04-17) 17 April 1992 8 0 Valencia
3 2DF Jonas Hector (1990-05-27) 27 May 1990 9 0 1. FC Köln
4 2DF Sebastian Rudy (1990-02-28) 28 February 1990 9 0 1899 Hoffenheim
5 2DF Mats Hummels (1988-12-16) 16 December 1988 43 4 Borussia Dortmund
6 2DF Matthias Ginter (1994-01-19) 19 January 1994 7 0 Borussia Dortmund
14 2DF Emre Can (1994-01-12) 12 January 1994 2 0 Liverpool
17 2DF Jérôme Boateng (1988-09-03) 3 September 1988 56 0 Bayern Munich
7 3MF Bastian Schweinsteiger (Captain) (1984-08-01) 1 August 1984 113 23 Manchester United
8 3MF Mesut Özil (1988-10-15) 15 October 1988 70 18 Arsenal
9 3MF André Schürrle (1990-11-06) 6 November 1990 49 20 VfL Wolfsburg
10 3MF Lukas Podolski (1985-06-04) 4 June 1985 126 48 Galatasaray
11 3MF Marco Reus (1989-05-31) 31 May 1989 27 9 Borussia Dortmund
13 3MF Thomas Müller (1989-09-13) 13 September 1989 67 31 Bayern Munich
16 3MF Karim Bellarabi (1990-04-08) 8 April 1990 10 1 Bayer Leverkusen
18 3MF Toni Kroos (1990-01-04) 4 January 1990 62 9 Real Madrid
20 3MF Christoph Kramer (1991-02-19) 19 February 1991 11 0 Bayer Leverkusen
21 3MF İlkay Gündoğan (1990-10-24) 24 October 1990 15 4 Borussia Dortmund
15 4FW Kevin Volland (1992-07-30) 30 July 1992 4 0 1899 Hoffenheim
19 4FW Mario Götze (1992-06-03) 3 June 1992 48 16 Bayern Munich
23 4FW Max Kruse (1988-03-19) 19 March 1988 14 4 VfL Wolfsburg

Caps and goals as of 11 October 2015 after the game against Georgia.

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.