World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article


Article Id: WHEBN0014850094
Reproduction Date:

Title: Goal  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Regulatory focus theory, Management, Leadership, Social undermining, The Public Authority for Applied Education and Training
Collection: Goal, Management, Motivation, Project Management
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


A goal is a deadlines.

It is roughly similar to purpose or aim, the anticipated result which guides reaction, or an end, which is an object, either a physical object or an abstract object, that has intrinsic value.


  • Goal setting 1
    • Short-term goals 1.1
  • Personal goals 2
    • Achieving personal goals 2.1
    • Personal goal achievement and happiness 2.2
  • Self-concordance model 3
    • Self-concordant goals 3.1
  • Goal management in organizations 4
  • See also 5
  • References 6
  • Further reading 7

Goal setting

Goal-setting ideally involves establishing specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bounded (S.M.A.R.T.) objectives. Work on the goal-setting theory suggests that it can serve as an effective tool for making progress by ensuring that participants have a clear awareness of what they must do to achieve or help achieve an objective. On a personal level, the process of setting goals allows people to specify and then work towards their own objectives most commonly, financial or career-based goals. Goal-setting comprises a major component of personal development.

A goal can be long-term or short-term. The primary difference is the time required to achieve them.[1]

Short-term goals

Short-term goals expect accomplishment in a short period of time, such as trying to get a bill paid in the next few days. The definition of a short-term goal need not relate to any specific length of time. In other words, one may achieve (or fail to achieve) a short-term goal in a day, week, month, year, etc. The time-frame for a short-term goal relates to its context in the overall time line that it is being applied to. For instance, one could measure a short-term goal for a month-long project in days; where as one might measure a short-term goal for someone's lifetime in months or in years. Planners usually define short-term goals in relation to a long-term goal or goals.

Personal goals

Individuals can set personal goals. A student may set a goal of a high mark in an exam. An athlete might run five miles a day. A traveler might try to reach a destination-city within three hours. Financial goals are a common example, to save for retirement or to save for a purchase.

Managing goals can give returns in all areas of personal life. Knowing precisely what one wants to achieve makes clear what to concentrate and improve on, and often subconsciously prioritizes that goal.

Goal setting and planning ("goal work") promotes long-term vision and short-term motivation. It focuses intention, desire, acquisition of knowledge, and helps to organize resources.

Efficient goal work includes recognizing and resolving all guilt, inner conflict or limiting belief that might cause one to sabotage one's efforts. By setting clearly defined goals, one can subsequently measure and take pride in the achievement of those goals. One can see progress in what might have seemed a long, perhaps impossible, grind.

Achieving personal goals

Achieving complex and difficult goals requires focus, long-term diligence and effort. Success in any field requires forgoing excuses and justifications for poor performance or lack of adequate planning; in short, success requires emotional maturity. The measure of belief that people have in their ability to achieve a personal goal also affects that achievement.

Long-term achievements rely on short-term achievements. Emotional control over the small moments of the single day makes a big difference in the long term.

Personal goal achievement and happiness

There has been a lot of research conducted looking at the link between achieving desired goals, changes to self-efficacy and integrity and ultimately changes to Subjective well-being.[2] Goal Efficacy refers to how likely an individual is to succeed in achieving their goal. Goal integrity refers to how consistent one's goals are with core aspects of the self. Research has shown that a focus on goal efficacy is associated with well being factor happiness (subjective well-being) and goal integrity is associated with the well-being factor meaning (psychology).[3] Multiple studies have shown the link between achieving long-term goals and changes in subjective well-being, most research showing that achieving goals that hold personal meaning to an individual, increases feelings of subjective well-being.[4][5][6]

Self-concordance model

The Self-concordance model is a model that looks at the sequence of steps that occur from the commencement of a goal to attaining that goal.[7] It looks at the likelihood and impact of goal achievement based on the type of goal and meaning of the goal to the individual. Different types of goals impact goal achievement and the sense of Subjective well-being brought about by achieving the goal. The model breaks down factors that promote striving to achieve a goal, achieving a goal, and the factors that connect goal achievement to changes in Subjective well-being.

Self-concordant goals

Goals that are pursued to fulfill intrinsic values or are important as they are integrated into an individuals self-concept are called self-concordant goals. Self-concordant goals fulfill basic needs and are aligned with an individual's True Self. Because these goals have personal meaning to an individual and reflect an individual's self-identity, self-concordant goals are more likely to receive sustained effort over time. In contrast, goals that do not reflect an individual's internal drive and are pursued due to external factors (e.g. social pressures) emerge from a non-integrated region of a person and are therefore more likely to be abandoned when obstacles occur.[8] "Those who attain self-concordant goals reap greater well-being benefits from their attainment. Attainment-to-well-being effects are mediated by need satisfaction, i.e., daily activity-based experiences of autonomy, competence, and relatedness that accumulate during the period of striving. The model is shown to provide a satisfactory fit to 3 longitudinal data sets and to be independent of the effects of self-efficacy, implementation intentions, avoidance framing, and life skills." [9] Furthermore the Self-determination theory and research surrounding this theory shows that if an individual effectively achieves a goal, but that goal is not-self endorsed or self-concordant, well-being levels do not change despite goal attainment.[10]

Goal management in organizations

Organizationally, goal management consists of the process of recognizing or inferring goals of individual team-members, abandoning no longer relevant goals, identifying and resolving conflicts among goals, and prioritizing goals consistently for optimal team-collaboration and effective operations.

For any successful commercial system, it means deriving profits by making the best quality of goods or the best quality of services available to the end-user (customer) at the best possible cost. Goal management includes:

  • Assessment and dissolution of non-rational blocks to success
  • Time management
  • Frequent reconsideration (consistency checks)
  • Feasibility checks
  • Adjusting milestones and main-goal targets

Morten Lind and J.Rasmussen distinguish three fundamental categories of goals related to technological system management:

  1. Production goal
  2. Safety goal
  3. Economy goal

An organizational goal-management solution ensures that individual employee goals and objectives align with the vision and strategic goals of the entire organization. Goal-management provides organizations with a mechanism to effectively communicate corporate goals and strategic objectives to each person across the entire organization. The key consists of having it all emanate from a pivotal source and providing each person with a clear, consistent organizational-goal message. With goal-management, every employee understands how their efforts contribute to an enterprise's success.

An example of goal types in business management:

  • Consumer goals: this refers to supplying a product or service that the market/consumer wants
  • Product goals: this refers to supplying a product outstanding compared to other products perhaps due to the likes of quality, design, reliability and novelty
  • Operational goals: this refers to running the organization in such a way as to make the best use of management skills, technology and resources
  • Secondary goals: this refers to goals which an organization does not regard as priorities

See also


  1. ^ Kalnins, James (2013). Long Term Goal Setting. New York: Amazon. pp. 17–20. 
  2. ^ Emmons, R.A. (1996). The Psychology of action: Linking cognition and motivation to behaviour. New York: Guilford Press. pp. 313–337. 
  3. ^ McGregor, Ian; Brian R. Little (February 1998). "Personal projects, happiness, and meaning: On doing well and being yourself". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74 (2): 494–512.  
  4. ^ Brunstein, J (1993). "Personal goals and subjective well-being: A longitudinal study". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 65: 1061–1070.  
  5. ^ Elliott, A.J.; Sheldon, K.M. (1998). "Avoidance persona goals and the personality-illness relationship". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 75: 1282–1299.  
  6. ^ Sheldon, K.M.; Kasser, T. (1998). "Pursuing personal goals: Skills enable progress but not all progress is beneficial". Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 24: 564–557. 
  7. ^ Sheldon, Kennon M.; Eliott, Andrew J. (1999). "Goal Striving, Need Satisfaction and Longitudinal Well-Being: The Self-Concordance Model". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 76 (3): 482–497.  
  8. ^  
  9. ^ Sheldon, Kennon. "Goal striving, need satisfaction, and longitudinal well-being: The self-concordance model.". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol 76(3), Mar 1999, 482-497. American Psychological Association. Retrieved 21 April 2014. 
  10. ^ Ryan, Richard M (January 2000). "Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being". American Psychologist 55 (1): pp. 68–78.  

Further reading

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.