World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Graveyard orbit

Article Id: WHEBN0001244926
Reproduction Date:

Title: Graveyard orbit  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: List of Spacebus satellites, Geocentric orbit, Geosynchronous orbit, Satellite, INSAT-3E
Collection: Astrodynamics, Earth Orbits, Satellites, Spacecraft Endings
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Graveyard orbit

A graveyard orbit, also called a junk orbit or disposal orbit, is an orbit that lies significantly away from common operational orbits, where spacecraft are intentionally placed at the end of their operational life. Most commonly, it refers to a supersynchronous orbit that lies significantly above synchronous orbit. It is a measure performed in order to lower the probability of collisions with operational spacecraft and of the generation of additional space debris (known as Kessler syndrome).

A graveyard orbit is used when the change in velocity required to perform a de-orbit maneuver is too high. De-orbiting a geostationary satellite requires a delta-v of about 1,500 metres per second (4,900 ft/s), whereas re-orbiting it to a graveyard orbit only requires about 11 metres per second (36 ft/s).[1]

For satellites in geostationary orbit and geosynchronous orbits, the graveyard orbit is a few hundred kilometers above the operational orbit. The transfer to a graveyard orbit above geostationary orbit requires the same amount of fuel that a satellite needs for approximately three months of stationkeeping. It also requires a reliable attitude control during the transfer maneuver. While most satellite operators try to perform such a maneuver at the end of the operational life, only one-third succeed in doing so.[2]

According to the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC)[3] the minimum perigee altitude \Delta{H} \, above the geostationary orbit is:

\Delta{H} = 235\mbox{ km} + \left ( 1000 C_R \frac{A}{m} \right )\mbox{ km}

where C_R \, is the solar radiation pressure coefficient (typically between 1.2 and 1.5) and \frac{A}{m} \, is the aspect area [m²] to mass [kg] ratio of the satellite. This formula includes about 200 km for the GEO protected zone to also permit orbit maneuvers in GEO without interference with the graveyard orbit. Another 35 kilometres (22 mi) of tolerance must be allowed for the effects of gravitational perturbations (primarily solar and lunar). The remaining part of the equation considers the effects of the solar radiation pressure, which depends on the physical parameters of the satellite.

In order to obtain a license to provide telecommunications services in the United States, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) requires all geostationary satellites launched after March 18, 2002, to commit to moving to a graveyard orbit at the end of their operational life.[4] U.S. government regulations require a boost, \Delta{H}, of ~300 km.[5]

See also

References

  1. ^ Method for re-orbiting a dual-mode propulsion geostationary spacecraft - Patent # 5651515 - PatentGenius
  2. ^ Space debris mitigation: the case for a code of conduct / Operations / Our Activities / ESA
  3. ^ http://www.iadc-online.org/Documents/IADC-UNCOPUOS-final.pdf
  4. ^ "FCC Enters Orbital Debris Debate". 
  5. ^ "US Government Orbital Debris Standard Practices" (PDF). 
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.