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Greek Muslims

Greek Muslims
Ελληνόφωνοι μουσουλμάνοι
Total population
1.4 million
Regions with significant populations
Languages
Russian, Arabic
Religion
Sunni Islam
Related ethnic groups
Other Greeks, Turks

Greek Muslims, also known as Greek-speaking Muslims,[1][2][3][4][5][6] are Laz-speaking) Muslim population. Apart from their elders, sizable numbers, even the young within these Grecophone Muslim communities have retained a knowledge of Greek and or its dialects such as Cretan Greek and Pontic Greek,[1] though very few are likely to call themselves Greek Muslims. This is due to gradual assimilation into Turkish society, as well as the close association of Greece and Greeks with Orthodox Christianity and their perceived status as a historic, military threat to the Turkish Republic. Whereas in Greece, Greek speaking Muslims are not usually considered as forming part of the Greek nation.[7] In the late Ottoman period (particularly following the Greek-Turkish war of 1897-98) several communities of Grecophone Muslims from Crete and southern Greece were also relocated to Libya, Lebanon and Syria, where in towns like al-Hamidiyah some of the older generation continue to speak Greek.[8] Historically, Greek Orthodoxy has been associated with being Romios, i.e. Greek, and Islam with being Turkish, despite ethnic or linguistic references.[9]

Most Greek speaking Muslims in Greece left for Turkey during the 1920s population exchanges under the Convention Concerning the Exchange of Greek and Turkish Populations (sometimes in return for Turkish-speaking Christians such as the Karamanlides).[10] Due to the historical role of the millet system, religion and not ethnicity or language was the main factor used during the exchange of populations.[10] All Muslims who departed Greece were seen as "Turks", whereas all Orthodox people leaving Turkey were considered "Greeks", regardless of ethnicity or language.[10] An exception was made for Muslims (Pomaks and Western Thrace Turks) in East Macedonia and Thrace, Northern Greece, who are officially recognized as a religious, but controversially not as an ethnic minority by the Greek Government.[11]

In Turkey, where most Greek speaking Muslims live, there are various groups of Grecophone Muslims, some autochthonous, some from parts of present-day Greece and Cyprus who migrated to Turkey under the population exchanges or immigration.

A Muslim Greek Mamluk (Louis Dupré, oil on canvas, 1825).

Contents

  • Reasons for conversion to Islam 1
  • Greek Muslims of Pontus and the Caucasus 2
  • Cretan Muslims 3
  • Epirote Muslims 4
  • Macedonian Greek Muslims 5
  • Cypriot Muslims 6
  • Crimea 7
  • Lebanon and Syria 8
  • Central Asia 9
  • Other Greek Muslims 10
  • Muslims of partial Greek descent (non-conversions) 11
  • Muslims of Greek descent (non-conversions) 12
  • Greek converts to Islam 13
  • See also 14
  • References 15
  • Further reading 16
  • External links 17

Reasons for conversion to Islam

  • www.GreekMuslims.com
  • Karalahana.com
  • Trebizond Greek: A language without a tongue
  • Radio Ocena
  • Rest in Crimea

External links

Further reading

  1. ^ a b Mackridge, Peter (1987). "Greek-speaking Moslems of north-east Turkey: prolegomena to a study of the Ophitic sub-dialect of Pontic." Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies. 11. (1): 117.
  2. ^ a b c Philliou, Christine (2008). “The Paradox of Perceptions: Interpreting the Ottoman Past through the National Present”. Middle Eastern Studies. 44. (5): 672. “The second reason my services as an interpreter were not needed was that the current inhabitants of the village which had been vacated by apparently Turkish-speaking Christians en route to Kavala, were descended from Greek-speaking Muslims that had left Crete in a later stage of the same population exchange. It was not infrequent for members of these groups, settled predominantly along coastal Anatolia and the Marmara Sea littoral in Turkey, to be unaware that the language they were speaking was Greek. Again, it was not illegal for them to be speaking Greek publicly in Turkey, but it undermined the principle that Turks speak Turkish, just like Frenchmen speak French and Russians speak Russian.”
  3. ^ a b c Lambros Baltsiotis (2011). The Muslim Chams of Northwestern Greece: The grounds for the expulsion of a “non-existent” minority community. European Journal of Turkish Studies. "It’s worth mentioning that the Greek speaking Muslim communities, which were the majority population at Yanina and Paramythia, and of substantial numbers in Parga and probably Preveza, shared the same route of identity construction, with no evident differentiation between them and their Albanian speaking co-habitants."
  4. ^ a b c d Koukoudis, Asterios (2003). The Vlachs: Metropolis and Diaspora. Zitros. p. 198. “In the mid-seventeenth century, the inhabitants of many of the villages in the upper Aliakmon valley-in the areas of Grevena, Anaselitsa or Voio, and Kastoria— gradually converted to Islam. Among them were a number of Kupatshari, who continued to speak Greek, however, and to observe many of their old Christian customs. The Islamicised Greek-speaking inhabitants of these areas came to be better known as “Valaades”. They were also called “Foutsides”, while to the Vlachs of the Grevena area they were also known as “Vlăhútsi”. According to Greek statistics, in 1923 Anavrytia (Vrastino), Kastro, Kyrakali, and Pigadtisa were inhabited exclusively by Moslems (i.e Valaades), while Elatos (Dovrani), Doxaros (Boura), Kalamitsi, Felli, and Melissi (Plessia) were inhabited by Moslem Valaades and Christian Kupatshari. There were also Valaades living in Grevena, as also in other villages to the north and east of the town. It should be noted that the term “Valaades” refers to Greek-speaking Moslems not only of the Grevena area but also of Anaselitsa. In 1924, despite even their own objections, the last of the Valaades being Moslems, were forced to leave Greece under the terms of the compulsory exchange of populations between Greece and Turkey. Until then they had been almost entirely Greek-speakers. Many of the descendants of the Valaades of Anaseltisa, now scattered through Turkey and particularly Eastern Thrace (in such towns as Kumburgaz, Büyükçekmece, and Çatalca), still speak Greek dialect of Western Macedonia, which, significantly, they themselves call Romeïka “the language of the Romii”. It is worth noting the recent research carried out by Kemal Yalçin, which puts a human face on the fate of 120 or so families from Anavryta and Kastro, who were involved in the exchange of populations. They set sail from Thessaloniki for Izmir, and from there settled en bloc in the village of Honaz near Denizli.”
  5. ^ a b Beckingham, Charles Fraser (1957). "The Turks of Cyprus." Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. 87. (2): 170-171. “While many Turks habitually speak Turkish there are 'Turkish', that is, Muslim villages in which the normal language is Greek; among them are Lapithou, Platanisso, Ayios Simeon and Galinoporni. This fact has not yet been adequately investigated. With the growth of national feeling and the spread of education the phenomenon is becoming not only rarer but harder to detect. In a Muslim village the school teacher will be a Turk and will teach the children Turkish. They already think of themselves as Turks, and having once learnt the language, will sometimes use it in talking to a visitor in preference to Greek, merely as matter of national pride. It has been suggested that these Greek-speaking Muslims are descended from Turkish- speaking immigrants who have retained their faith but abandoned their language because of the greater flexibility and commercial usefulness of Greek. It is open to the objection that these villages are situated in the remoter parts of the island, in the western mountains and in the Carpass peninsula, where most of the inhabitants are poor farmers whose commercial dealings are very limited. Moreover, if Greek had gradually replaced Turkish in these villages, one would have expected this to happen in isolated places, where a Turkish settlement is surrounded by Greek villages rather than where there are a number of Turkish villages close together as there are in the Carpass. Yet Ayios Simeon (F I), Ayios Andronikos (F I), and Galinoporni (F I) are all Greek-speaking, while the neighbouring village of Korovia (F I) is Turkish-speaking. It is more likely that these people are descended from Cypriots converted to Islam after 1571, who changed their religion but kept their language. This was the view of Menardos (1905, p. 415) and it is supported by the analogous case of Crete. There it is well known that many Cretans were converted to Islam, and there is ample evidence that Greek was almost the only language spoken by either community in the Cretan villages. Pashley (1837, vol. I, p. 8) ‘soon found that the whole rural population of Crete understands only Greek. The Aghás, who live in the principal towns, also know Turkish; although, even with them, Greek is essentially the mother-tongue.’”
  6. ^ a b Werner, Arnold (2000). “The Arabic dialects in the Turkish province of Hatay and the Aramaic dialects in the Syrian mountains of Qalamun: two minority languages compared”. In Owens, Jonathan, (ed.). Arabic as a minority language. Walter de Gruyter. p. 358. “Greek speaking Cretan Muslims”.
  7. ^ a b Mackridge, Peter (2010). Language and national identity in Greece, 1766-1976. Oxford University Press. p. 65. “Greek-speaking Muslims have not usually been considered as belonging to the Greek nation. Some communities of Greek-speaking Muslims lived in Macedonia. Muslims, most of them native speakers of Greek, formed a slight majority of the population of Crete in the early nineteenth century. The vast majority of these were descended from Christians who had voluntarily converted to Islam in the period following the Ottoman conquest of the island in 1669.”
  8. ^ Barbour, S., Language and Nationalism in Europe, Oxford University Press, 2000, ISBN 0-19-823671-9
  9. ^ Hodgson, Marshall (2009). The Venture of Islam, Volume 3: The Gunpower Empires and Modern Times. University of Chicago Press. Chicago. pp. 262-263. "Islam, to be sure, remained, but chiefly as woven into the character of the Turkish folk. On this level, even Kemal, unbeliever as he was, was loyal to the Muslim community as such. Kemal would not let a Muslim-born girl be married to an infidel. Especially in the early years (as was illustrated in the transfer of populations with Greece) being a Turk was still defined more by religion than by language: Greek-speaking Muslims were Turks (and indeed they wrote their Greek with the Turkish letters) and Turkish-speaking Christians were Greeks (they wrote their Turkish with Greek letters). Though language was the ultimate criterion of the community, the folk- religion was so important that it might outweigh even language in determining basic cultural allegiance, within a local context."
  10. ^ a b c Poulton, Hugh (2000). "The Muslim experience in the Balkan states, 1919‐1991." Nationalities Papers. 28. (1): 46. "In these exchanges, due to the influence of the millet system (see below), religion not ethnicity or language was the key factor, with all the Muslims expelled from Greece seen as “Turks,” and all the Orthodox people expelled from Turkey seen as “Greeks” regardless of mother tongue or ethnicity."
  11. ^ See Hugh Poulton, 'The Balkans: minorities and states in conflict', Minority Rights Publications, 1991.
  12. ^ Crypto-Christians of the Trabzon Region of Pontos
  13. ^ The preaching of Islam: a history of the propagation of the Muslim faith By Sir Thomas Walker Arnold, pg. 135-144
  14. ^ Ortaylı, İlber. "Son İmparatorluk Osmanlı (The Last Empire: Ottoman Empire)", İstanbul, Timaş Yayınları (Timaş Press), 2006. pp. 87–89. ISBN 975-263-490-7 (Turkish).
  15. ^ Eastern Europe: An Introduction to the People, Lands, and Culture, Richard C. Frucht, ISBN 1576078000, ABC-CLIO, 2005, p. 803.
  16. ^ Taxation in the Ottoman Empire
  17. ^ Νικόλαος Φιλιππίδης (1900). Επίτομος Ιστορία του Ελληνικού Έθνους 1453-1821. Εν Αθήναις: Εκ του Τυπογραφείου Α. Καλαράκη. Ανακτήθηκε στις 23 Ιουλίου 2010.
  18. ^ Ιωάννης Λυκούρης (1954). Η διοίκησις και δικαιοσύνη των τουρκοκρατούμενων νήσων : Αίγινα - Πόρος - Σπέτσαι - Ύδρα κλπ., επί τη βάσει εγγράφων του ιστορικού αρχείου Ύδρας και άλλων. Αθήνα. Ανακτήθηκε στις 7 Δεκεμβρίου 2010.
  19. ^ Παναγής Σκουζές (1777 - 1847) (1948). Χρονικό της σκλαβωμένης Αθήνας στα χρόνια της τυρανίας του Χατζή Αλή (1774 - 1796). Αθήνα: Α. Κολολού. Ανακτήθηκε στις 6 Ιανουαρίου 2011.
  20. ^ Bat Yeʼor (2002). Islam and Dhimmitude: where civilizations collide. Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press. p. 131.  
  21. ^ Wilkinson, Sir John Gardner (1843). Modern Egypt and Thebes: Being a Description of Egypt; Including the Information Required for Travellers in that County, Volume 1. J. Murray. pp. 247–249.  
  22. ^ Mackridge. Greek-speaking Moslems of north-east Turkey. 1987. p. 115-116.
  23. ^ Özkan, Hakan (2013). "The Pontic Greek spoken by Muslims in the villages of Beşköy in the province of present-day Trabzon." Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies. 37. (1): 130-131.
  24. ^ a b Hakan. The Pontic Greek spoken by Muslims. 2013. p. 131.
  25. ^ a b c Mackridge. Greek-speaking Moslems of north-east Turkey. 1987. p. 117.
  26. ^ Poutouridou, Margarita (1997). "[2] The Of valley and the coming of Islam: The case of the Greek-speaking muslims." Bulletin of the Centre for Asia Minor Studies. 12: 47-70.
  27. ^ Mackridge. Greek-speaking Moslems of north-east Turkey. 1987. p. 117. "lack of any apparent sense of identity other than Turkish".
  28. ^ Bortone, Pietro (2009). "Greek with no models, history or standard: Muslim Pontic Greek." In Silk, Michael & Alexandra Georgakopoulou (eds.). Standard languages and language standards: Greek, past and present. Ashgate Publishing. p. 68-69. “Muslim Pontic Greek speakers, on the other hand, did not regard themselves as in any way Greek. They therefore had no contact with Greeks from Greece, and no exposure to the language of Greece. To this day, they have never seen Modern Greek literature, have never heard Biblical Greek, have never studied classical Greek, have never learnt any Standard Greek (not even the Greek alphabet), have not heard Greek radio or TV, nor any form of the Greek language other than their own — and have not been touched by the strict Greek policies of language standardization, archaization and purism. In other words, their Greek has had no external models for centuries. Furthermore, it is not written, printed, or broadcast. So it has no recorded local tradition and therefore no internal models to refer back to either.”.
  29. ^ Hakan. The Pontic Greek spoken by Muslims. 2013. p. 137-138. “Trabzon is well known for its staunch nationalists. Beşköy is no exception to this rule. Because of the danger of being perceived as Greeks (Rum) clinging to their language and culture, or even worse as Pontians who seek ‘their lost kingdom of Pontus’ (which is an obscure accusation voiced by Turkish nationalists), it comes as no surprise that MP-speaking people are particularly sensitive to questions of identity. It has to be clarified at this point that the English term ‘Greek’ is not identical to the Turkish Rum, which means Greek-speaking people of Turkey. Nobody in Beşköy would identify themselves as Yunan, which denotes everything Greek coming from Greece (T. Yunanistan). However, as Rum is perceived in Turkey as linked in some way to Greece or the Orthodox Church, the Greek-speaking Muslims cannot easily present their language as their own, as other minorities in the Black Sea region such as the Laz do. In addition to the reasons stated above, many of the MP-speakers of Beşköy strive to be the best Turks and the most pious Muslims. I had no encounter with MP-speakers without the issue of identity being brought up in connection with their language. After a while the MP-speakers themselves would begin to say something on this very sensitive topic. Precisely because of the omnipresence and importance of this issue I cannot leave it uncommented in this introduction. Nevertheless, I did not question people systematically with the use of prepared questionnaires about their identity, their attitude vis-à-vis the language, i.e. if they like speaking it, if they want to pass it on to their children consciously, if they encountered difficulties because they speak MP, if they consider themselves of Turkish or Greek descent, if they can be Turks and Greeks at the same time, and how they regard Greece and the Pontians who live there. Appropriate answers to these very important sociolinguistic questions can only be found through extensive fieldwork that is endorsed by the Turkish authorities and a dedicated analysis of the data in a sizeable article or even a monograph. Nevertheless, I would like to dwell on some general tendencies that I have observed on the basis of the testimonies of my informants on their attitudes to language and identity. Of course I do not claim that these views are representative of MP-speakers in general, but they reflect the overwhelming impression I had during fieldwork in the region. Therefore I deem it necessary and valuable to give a voice to their opinions here. Many of the MP-speakers I met deny the Greekness of their language, although they know at least that many words in Standard Modern Greek (SMG) are identical to the ones in MP. As a linguist I was often asked to join them in their view in favour of the distinctness of their language. Without telling a lie I tried to reconcile the obvious truth that MP is a Greek dialect with the equally true assertion that MP and SMG are two different languages in the way that Italian and Spanish are distinct languages, to the extent that some characteristics are very similar and others completely different. In most cases they were satisfied with this answer."
  30. ^ Hakan. The Pontic Greek spoken by Muslims. 2013. p. 132-133.
  31. ^ a b c Hakan. The Pontic Greek spoken by Muslims. 2013. p. 133.
  32. ^ Professor. Department of Near Eastern Studies. Princeton University
  33. ^ Trabzon Şehrinin İslamlaşması ve Türkleşmesi 1461–1583 ISBN 975-518-116-4
  34. ^ a b Katsikas, Stefanos (2012). “Millet legacies in a national environment: Political elites and Muslim communities in Greece (1830s-1923)”. In Fortna, Benjamin C., Stefanos Katsikas, Dimitris Kamouzis, & Paraskevas Konortas (eds). State-nationalisms in the Ottoman Empire, Greece and Turkey: Orthodox and Muslims, 1830-1945. Routledge. 2012. p.50. “Indeed, the Muslims of Greece included…. Greek speaking (Crete and West Macedonia, known as Valaades).”
  35. ^ a b Dedes, Yorgos (2010). "Blame it on the Turko-Romnioi (Turkish Rums): A Muslim Cretan song on the abolition of the Janissaries". In Balta, Evangelia & Mehmet Ölmez (eds.). Turkish-Speaking Christians, Jews and Greek-Speaking Muslims and Catholics in the Ottoman Empire. Eren. Istanbul. p. 324. “Neither the younger generations of Ottoman specialists in Greece, nor specialist interested in Greek-speaking Muslims have not been much involved with these works, quite possibly because there is no substantial corpus of them.”
  36. ^ a b c Kappler, Matthias (1996). "Fra religione e lingua/grafia nei Balcani: i musulmani grecofoni (XVIII-XIX sec.) e un dizionario rimato ottomano-greco di Creta." Oriente Moderno. 15. (76): 91. "In ogni caso, i musulmani cretesi, costituendo la maggior parte dei musulmani grecofoni, hanno risentito particolarmente dello scambio deile popolazioni del 1923 (anche se molti di loro erano emigrati già dagli anni ‘80 del secolo scorso, e in altre parti della Grecia addirittura subito dopo l’indipendenza), scambio che, come è noto, si basava sul criterio della millet ottomana, cioè sull’appartenenza religiosa, e non su quella linguistica (un’appartenenza “culturale” era impossibile da definirsi). Condividendo la sorte dei cristiani turcofoni venuti dall’Asia minore, i quali mutavano la struttura socio-culturale della Grecia, i musulmani grecofoni hanno dovuto lasciare le loro case, con la conseguenza che ancora fino a pochi anni fa in alcune città della costa anatolica (Çeşme, Izmir, Antalya) era possibile sentir conversare certe persone anziane, apparentemente “turche”, in dialetto greco-cretese."
  37. ^ Tsitselikis, Konstantinos (2012). Old and New Islam in Greece: From historical minorities to immigrant newcomers. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 45. "In the same period, there was a search for common standards to govern state-citizen relations based on principles akin to the Greek national ideology. Thus the Muslims found themselves more in the position of a being a national minority group rather than a millet. The following example is evocative. After long discussions, the Cretan Assembly adopted the proposal to abolish soldiers’ cap visors especially for Muslim soldiers. Eleftherios Venizelos, a fervent supporter of upgrading Muslims’ institutional status, voted against this proposal because he believed that by adopting this measure the Assembly “would widen instead of fill the breach between Christians and Muslims, which is national rather than religious”. As Greek Christians gradually began to envisage joining the Greek Kingdom through symbolic recognition of national ties to the ‘mother country’, the Muslim communities reacted and contemplated their alternative ‘mother nation’ or ‘mother state’, namely Turkishness and the Empire. Indicatively, Muslim deputies complained vigorously about a Declaration made by the plenary of the Cretan Assembly which stated that they body’s works would be undertaken ‘in the name of the King of Greece’. The transformation of a millet into a nation, a process which unfolded in response to both internal dynamics and outside pressures, was well underway."
  38. ^ a b c Kotzageorgis, Phokion (2010). “Reworking the Ascension in Ottoman Lands: An Eighteenth-Century Mi'rājnāma in Greek from Epirus”. In Gruber, Christiane J., & Frederick Stephen Colby (eds). The Prophet's ascension: cross-cultural encounters with the Islamic mi'rāj tales. Indiana University Press. p.297. “The element that makes this text a unicum is that it is written in Greek script. In the Ottoman Empire, the primary criterion for the selection of an alphabet in which to write was religion. Thus, people who did not speak—or even know—the official language of their religion used to write their religious texts in the languages that they knew, though in the alphabet where the sacred texts of that religion were written. Thus, the Grecophone Catholics of Chios wrote using the Latin alphabet, but in the Greek language (frangochiotika); the Turcophone Orthodox Christians of Cappadocia wrote their Turkish texts using the Greek alphabet (karamanlidika); and the Grecophone Muslims of the Greek peninsula wrote in Greek language using the Arabic alphabet (tourkogianniotika, tourkokretika). Our case is much stranger, since it is a quite early example for that kind of literature and because it is largely concerned with religious themes.”; p. 306. The audience for the Greek Mi'rājnāma was most certainly Greek-speaking Muslims, in particular the so-called Tourkogianniotes (literally, the Turks of Jannina).Although few examples have been discovered as yet, it seems that these people developed a religious literature mainly composed in verse form. This literary form constituted the mainstream of Greek aljamiado literature from the middle of the seventeenth century until the population exchange between Greece and Turkey in 1923. Tourkogianniotes were probably of Christian origin and were Islamized sometime during the seventeenth century. They did not speak any language other than Greek. Thus, even their frequency in attending mosque services did not provide them with the necessary knowledge about their faith. Given their low level of literacy, one important way that they could learn about their faith was to listen to religiously edifying texts such as the Greek Mi'rājnāma.
  39. ^ Mackridge. Greek-speaking Moslems of north-east Turkey. 1987. p. 117. "A similar adherence to Greek is shown by Moslem Cretans and their descendants who live on the western and southern coasts of Asia Minor; but these people defiantly talk about themselves as Cretan."
  40. ^ a b Comerford, Patrick (2000). “Defining Greek and Turk: Uncertainties in the search for European and Muslim identities”. Cambridge Review of International Affairs. 13.(2): 250. "Despite the provisions of the Lausanne Treaty, some surprising and unforeseen anomalies were to arise. As yet, the Greek state did not include the Dodecannese, and many of the Muslims from Crete moved to Kos and Rhodes, began to integrate with the local Muslim population. When the Dodecannese were incorporated in the Greek state in 1948, the Turks of Kos and Rhodes found once again that they were citizens of Greece. On many occasions I have passed the dilapidated refugee village of Kritika ('the Cretans') on the coast road out of Rhodes town on the way to the airport; in the town itself, it is easy to pick out Turkish names on the marquees of sandal-makers, or on the names of kafenia and kebab stands. In Kos, the domestic architecture of the bi-ethnic village of Platani can be strongly reminiscent of rural styles in provincial Crete."
  41. ^ a b Yildirim, Onur (2006). Diplomacy and displacement: reconsidering the Turco-Greek exchange of populations, 1922-1934. Taylor & Francis. p. 112. “As we learn from Riza Nur’s memoirs, the Anatolian section of Istanbul, especially the districts from Erenköy to Kartal, which had been populated by the wealthiest of the Greek minority, was subjected to the invasion of the Albanian refugees from Janina, who spoke only Greek.”
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  47. ^ Livanios, Dimitris (2008). "The Quest for Hellenism: Religion, Nationalism and Collective Identities in Greece (1453-1913)." The Historical Review/La Revue Historique. 3: 42. “in Macedonia there were also Greek-speaking Muslims, the valaades."
  48. ^ Tsitselikis. Old and New Islam in Greece. 2012. p. 63. "Greek-speaking Muslims (Valaades)".
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  50. ^ Who are the Macedonians? by Hugh Poulton. Published 2000, Indiana University Press; p. 85
  51. ^ Kappler. I musulmani grecofoni. 1996. p. 86. “Accenni alla loro religiosità popolare mistiforme “completano” questo quadro, ridotto, sulla trasmissione culturale di un popolo illetterato ormai scornparso: emigrati in Asia minore dalla fine del secolo scorso, e ancora soggetti allo scambio delle popolazioni del 1923, i “Vallahades”, o meglio i loro discendenti, sono ormai pienamente assimilati agli ambienti turchi di Turchia.”
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  55. ^ The forgotten Turks: Turkmens of Lebanon (report). Center for Middle Eastern Strategic Studies. February 2010. Retrieved 8-5-2015. p. 13. “The number of Cretan Turks in Lebanon is not known precisely, but their number is estimated to be around 10,000. Those people call themselves Turks, but they are aware that they are of Cretan origin, so they call themselves “muhacirler” (immigrants).”
  56. ^ The forgotten Turks.2010. p.14. "The locals of Hamidiye do not describe themselves as Cretan Turks, but as Cretan Muslims or Ottomans. Some of the better educated locals in Tripoli have researched their roots and define themselves as Cretan Turks."
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  65. ^ Ayşegül Yaraman-Başbuğu, Biyografya: Tevfik Fikret, Bağlam, 2006, ISBN 978-975-8803-60-6, p. 17., (Turkish) "Kökleri, baba tarafından Çankırı 'sancağı'nın Çerkeş kazasına, anne tarafından ise Sakız adalı, Islâmiyeti benimseyen Rum asıllı bir aileye uzanan Mehmet Tevfik (sonradan Tevfik Fikret) 24 Aralık 1867 tarihinde İstanbul'da doğmuş..."
  66. ^ Mehmet Kaplan, Tevfik Fikret: Devir- Şahsiyet- Eser, Dergâh Yayınları, 1987, p. 63., (Turkish) "Ana tarafına gelince: Fikret'in annesi Hatice Refia Hanım, annesi ve babası ihtida etmiş bir Sakızlı Rum ailesinden"
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References

See also

  • Narjis, mother of Muhammad al-Mahdi the twelfth and last Imam of Shi'a Islam, Byzantine Princess, reportedly the descendant of the disciple Simon Peter, the vicegerent of Jesus
  • Pargalı İbrahim Pasha (d. 1536), the first Grand Vizier appointed by Suleiman the Magnificent of the Ottoman Empire (reigned 1520 to 1566)
  • Raghib Pasha (1819–1884), was Prime Minister of Egypt.[125] He was of Greek ancestry[126][127][128][129] and was born in Greece[130] on 18 August 1819 on either the island of Chios following the great Massacre[131] or Candia[132] Crete. After being kidnapped to Anatolia he was brought to Egypt as a slave by Ibrahim Pasha in 1830[133] and converted to Islam. Raghib Pasha ultimately rose to levels of importance serving as Minister of Finance (1858–1860), then Minister of War (1860–1861). He became Inspector for the Maritime Provinces in 1862, and later Assistant (Arabic: باشمعاون‎) to viceroy Isma'il Pasha (1863–1865). He was granted the title of beylerbey and then appointed President of the Privy council in 1868. He was appointed President of the Chamber of Deputies (1866–1867), then Minister of Interior in 1867, then Minister of Agriculture and Trade in 1875. Isma'il Ragheb became Prime Minister of Egypt in 1882.
  • Rum Mehmed Pasha was an Ottoman statesman. He was Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire from 1466-1469.
  • Turgut Reis - (1485–1565) was a notorious Barbary pirate of the Ottoman Empire. He was born of Greek descent[134][135][136][137][138][139] in a village near Bodrum, on the Aegean coast of Asia Minor. After converting to Islam in his youth[138] he served as Admiral and privateer who also served as Bey of Algiers; Beylerbey of the Mediterranean; and first Bey, later Pasha, of Tripoli. Under his naval command the Ottoman Empire was extended across North Africa.[140] When Tugut was serving as pasha of Tripoli, he adorned and built up the city, making it one of the most impressive cities along the North African Coast.[141]
  • Yaqut al-Hamawi (Yaqut ibn-'Abdullah al-Rumi al-Hamawi) (1179–1229) (Arabic: ياقوت الحموي الرومي) was an Islamic biographer and geographer renowned for his encyclopedic writings on the Muslim world.
  • Cat Stevens) the famous singer of Cypriot Greek origin, converted to Islam at the height of his fame in December, 1977[142] and adopted his Muslim name, Yusuf Islam, the following year.
  • Jamilah Kolocotronis, Greek-German ex. Lutheran scholar and writer.
Grecophone Muslims of the 19th century Ottoman Empire. Left: Mustapha Khaznadar (ca. 1817–1878) was a muslim Greek who served as Prime Minister of Tunis.[118] Right: Raghib Pasha (ca. 1819–1884) was a Greek convert to Islam who served as Prime Minister of Egypt.
  • Al-Khazini - (flourished 1115–1130) was a Greek Muslim scientist, astronomer, physicist, biologist, alchemist, mathematician and philosopher - lived in Merv (modern-day Turkmenistan)
  • Atik Sinan or "Old Sinan" - Ottoman architect (not to be confused with the other Sinan whose origins are disputed between Greek, Albanian, Turk or Armenian (see below))
  • Carlos Mavroleon - son of a Greek ship-owner, Etonian heir to a £100m fortune, close to the Kennedys and almost married a Heseltine, former Wall Street broker and a war correspondent, leader of an Afghan Mujahideen unit during the Afghan war against the Soviets - died under mysterious circumstances in Peshawar, Pakistan
  • Damat Hasan Pasha, Ottoman Grand Vizier between 1703-1704.[95] He was originally a Greek convert to Islam from the Morea.[96][97]
  • Diam's (Mélanie Georgiades) French rapper of Greek origin.
  • Emetullah Rabia Gülnûş Sultan (1642–1715) was the wife of Ottoman Sultan Mehmed IV and Valide Sultan to their sons Mustafa II and Ahmed III (1695–1715). She was born to a priest in Rethymno, Crete, then under Venetian rule, her maiden name was Evmania Voria and she was an ethnic Greek.[59][98][99][100][101][102][103][104][105][106] She was captured when the Ottomans conquered Rethymno about 1646 and she was sent as slave to Constantinople, where she was given Turkish and Muslim education in the harem department of Topkapı Palace and soon attracted the attention of the Sultan, Mehmed IV.
  • Gawhar al-Siqilli,[107][108][109][110] (born c. 928-930, died 992), of Greek descent originally from Sicily, who had risen to the ranks of the commander of the Fatimid armies. He had led the conquest of North Africa[111] and then of Egypt and founded the city of Cairo[112] and the great al-Azhar mosque.
  • Gazi Evrenos - (d. 1417), an Ottoman military commander serving as general under Süleyman Pasha, Murad I, Bayezid I, Süleyman Çelebi and Mehmed I
  • Hamza Yusuf - American Islamic teacher and lecturer
  • Handan Sultan, wife of Ottoman Sultan Mehmed III
  • İbrahim Edhem Pasha, born of Greek ancestry[62][94][113][114][115] on the island of Chios, Ottoman statesman who held the office of Grand Vizier in the beginning of Abdulhamid II's reign between 5 February 1877 and 11 January 1878
  • İshak Pasha (? - 1497, Thessaloniki) was a Greek (though some reports say he was Croatian) who became an Ottoman general, statesman and later Grand Vizier. His first term as a Grand Vizier was during the reign of Mehmet II ("The Conqueror"). During this term he transferred Turkmen people from their Anatolian city of Aksaray to newly conquered İstanbul to populate the city which had lost a portion of its former population prior to conquest. The quarter of the city is where the Aksaray migrants had settled is now called Aksaray. His second term was during the reign of Beyazıt II.
  • John Tzelepes Komnenos - (Greek: Ἰωάννης Κομνηνὸς Τζελέπης) son of Isaac Komnenos (d. 1154). Starting about 1130 John and his father, who was a brother of Emperor John II Komnenos ("John the Beautiful"), plotted to overthrow his uncle the emperor. They made various plans and alliances with the Danishmend leader and other Turks who held parts of Asia Minor. In 1138 John and his father had a reconciliation with the Emperor, and received a full pardon. In 1139 John accompanied the emperor on his campaign in Asia Minor. In 1140 at the siege of Neocaesarea he defected. As John Julius Norwich puts it, he did so by "embracing simultaneously the creed of Islam and the daughter of the Seljuk Sultan Mesud I." John Komnenos' by-name, Tzelepes, is believed to be a Greek rendering of the Turkish honorific Çelebi, a term indicating noble birth or "gentlemanly conduct". The Ottoman Sultans claimed descent from John Komnenos.
  • Kösem Sultan - (1581–1651) also known as Mehpeyker Sultan was the most powerful woman in Ottoman history, consort and favourite concubine of Ottoman Sultan Ahmed I (r. 1603-1617), she became Valide Sultan from 1623–1651, when her sons Murad IV and Ibrahim I and her grandson Mehmed IV (1648–1687) reigned as Ottoman sultans; she was the daughter of a priest from the island of Tinos - her maiden name was Anastasia
  • Leo of Tripoli (Greek: Λέων ὸ Τριπολίτης) was a Greek renegade and pirate serving Arab interests in the early tenth century.
  • Mahfiruze Hatice Sultan - (d 1621), maiden name Maria, was the wife of the Ottoman Sultan Ahmed I and mother of Osman II.
  • Mahmud Pasha Angelović - Mahmud Pasha or Mahmud-paša Anđelović (1420–1474), also known simply as Adni, was Serbian-born, of Byzantine noble descent (Angeloi) who became an Ottoman general and statesman, after being abducted as a child by the Sultan. As Veli Mahmud Paşa he was Grand Vizier in 1456–1468 and again in 1472–1474. A capable military commander, throughout his tenure he led armies or accompanied Mehmed II on his own campaigns.
  • Mimar Sinan (1489–1588) - Ottoman architect - his origins are possibly Greek. There is not a single document in Ottoman archives which state whether Sinan was Armenian, Albanian, Turk or Greek, only "Orthodox Christian". Those who suggest that he could be Armenian do this with the mere fact that the largest Christian community living at the vicinity of Kayseri were Armenians, but there was also a considerably large Greek population (e.g. the father of Greek-American film director Elia Kazan) in Kayseri. Actually, in Ottoman records, Sinan's father is named "Hristo", which suggests Greek ancesty, and which is probably why Encyclopedia Britannica states that he was of Greek origin.
  • Misac Palaeologos Pasha, a member of the Byzantine Palaiologos dynasty and the Ottoman commander in the first Siege of Rhodes (1480). He was an Ottoman statesman and Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire from 1499-1501.
  • . Bey of Tunis, where he was sold as a slave to an envoy of the Constantinople and then Smyrna in 1822, while his father Stephanis Kalkias Stravelakis was killed. He was then taken to Massacre of Chios by the Ottomans during the [124] Along with his brother Yannis, he was captured and sold into slavery[122] in 1817.Chios he was born on the island of [123][122][121]
İbrahim Edhem Pasha (1819–1893) was an Ottoman statesman of Greek origin.[94]

Greek converts to Islam

  • Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt (Arabic: إبراهيم باشا) (1789 – 10 November 1848), a 19th-century general of Egypt. He is better known as the (adopted) son of Muhammad Ali of Egypt. Ibrahim was born in the town of Drama, in the Ottoman province of Rumelia, currently located in Macedonia to a Greek Christian woman and a man named Tourmatzis.
  • Hussein Hilmi Pasha - (1855–1922), Ottoman statesman born on Lesbos to a family of Greek ancestry[67][68][69][70] who had formerly converted to Islam.[71] He became twice Grand vizier[72] of the Ottoman Empire in the wake of the Second Constitutional Era and was also Co-founder and Head of the Turkish Red Crescent.[73] Hüseyin Hilmi was one of the most successful Ottoman administrators in the Balkans of the early 20th century becoming Ottoman Inspector-General of Macedonia[74] from 1902 to 1908, Ottoman Minister for the Interior[75] from 1908 to 1909 and Ottoman Ambassador at Vienna[76] from 1912 to 1918.
  • Ahmet Vefik Paşa (Istanbul, 3 July 1823 - 2 April 1891), was a famous Ottoman of Greek descent[77][78][79][80][81][82][83] (whose ancestors had converted to Islam).[77] He was a statesman, diplomat, playwright and translator of the Tanzimat period. He was commissioned with top-rank governmental duties, including presiding over the first Turkish parliament.[84] He also became a grand vizier for two brief periods. Vefik also established the first Ottoman theatre[85] and initiated the first Western style theatre plays in Bursa and translated Molière's major works.
  • Ahmed Resmî Efendi (English, "Ahmed Efendi of Resmo") (1700 – 1783) also called Ahmed bin İbrahim Giridî ("Ahmed the son of İbrahim the Cretan") was a Grecophone Ottoman statesman, diplomat and historian, who was born into a Muslim family of Greek descent in the Cretan town of Rethymno.[86][87][88][89] In international relations terms, his most important - and unfortunate - task was to act as the chief of the Ottoman delegation during the negotiations and the signature of the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca. In the literary domain, he is remembered for various works among which his sefâretnâme recounting his embassies in Berlin and Vienna occupy a prominent place. He was Turkey's first ever ambassador in Berlin.
  • Adnan Kahveci (1949-1993) was a noted Turkish politician who served as a key advisor to Prime Minister Turgut Özal throughout the 1980s. His family came from the region of Pontus and Kahveci was a fluent Greek speaker.[90]
  • Bülent Arınç (born. 25 May 1948) is a Deputy Prime Minister of Turkey since 2009. He is of Grecophone Cretan Muslim heritage with his ancestors arriving to Turkey as Cretan refugees during the time of Sultan Abdul Hamid II[91] and is fluent in Cretan Greek.[92] Arınç is a proponent of wanting to reconvert the Hagia Sophia into a mosque, which has caused diplomatic protestations from Greece.[93]
Ahmed Vefik Pasha (1823-1891) Ottoman statesman, diplomat and playwright of Greek ancestry who presided over the first Turkish parliament
Hüseyin Hilmi Pasha (1855–1922/1923) was born into a Muslim family of Greek descent on Lesbos.

Muslims of Greek descent (non-conversions)

  • Ahmed I - (1590–1617), Ottoman sultan, Greek mother Handan Sultan (originally named Helena (Eleni) - wife of Ottoman Sultan Mehmed III
  • Ahmed III - (1673–1736), Ottoman sultan, Greek mother (Emetullah Rabia Gülnûş Sultan), originally named Evemia, who was the daughter of a Greek Cretan priest
  • Bayezid I - (1354–1403), Ottoman sultan, Greek mother (Gulcicek Hatun or Gülçiçek Hatun) wife of Murad I
  • Bayezid II - (1447–1512), Ottoman sultan, Greek mother (Amina Gul-Bahar or Gulbahār Khātun, tr:I. Gülbahar Hatun), a Greek Orthodox woman of noble birth from the village of Douvera, Trabzon
  • Hasan Pasha (son of Barbarossa) (c. 1517-1572) was the son of Hayreddin Barbarossa and three-times Beylerbey of Algiers, Algeria. His mother was a Morisco. He succeeded his father as ruler of Algiers, and replaced Barbarossa's deputy Hasan Agha who had been effectively holding the position of ruler of Algiers since 1533.
  • Hayreddin Barbarossa, (c. 1478–1546), privateer and Ottoman admiral, Greek mother, Katerina from Mytilene on the island of Lesbos, (however most probably also his father had been a Greek Muslim convert)
  • Ibrahim I, (1615–1648), Ottoman sultan, Greek mother (Mahpeyker Kösem Sultan), the daughter of a priest from the island of Tinos; her maiden name was Anastasia and was one of the most powerful women in Ottoman history
  • Muhammad al-Mahdi (الإمام محمد بن الحسن المهدى) also known as Hujjat ibn al-Hasan, final Imām of the Twelve Imams Shi'a, Greek mother, Her Greatness Narjis (Melika), was a Byzantine princess who pretended to be a slave so that she might travel from her kingdom to Arabia
  • Murad I, (1360–1389) Ottoman sultan, Greek mother, (Nilüfer Hatun (water lily in Turkish), daughter of the Prince of Yarhisar or Byzantine Princess Helen (Nilüfer)
  • Murad IV (1612–1640), Ottoman sultan, Greek mother (Valide Sultan, Kadinefendi Kösem Sultan or Mahpeyker, originally named Anastasia)
  • Mustafa I - (1591–1639), Ottoman sultan, Greek mother (Valide Sultan, Handan Sultan, originally named Helena (Eleni)
  • Mustafa II - (1664–1703),[58][59][60][61] Ottoman sultan, Greek Cretan mother (Valide Sultan, Mah-Para Ummatullah Rabia Gül-Nush, originally named Evemia)
  • Oruç Reis, (also called Barbarossa or Redbeard), privateer and Ottoman Bey (Governor) of Algiers and Beylerbey (Chief Governor) of the West Mediterranean. He was born on the island of Midilli (Lesbos), mother was Greek (Katerina)
  • Selim I, Ottoman sultan, Greek mother (Gulbahar Sultan, also known by her maiden name Ayşe Hatun); his father, Bayezid II, was also half Greek through his mother's side (Valide Sultan Amina Gul-Bahar or Gulbahar Khatun - a Greek convert to Islam) - this made Selim I three-quarters Greek
  • Suleiman I (Suleiman the Magnificent), Ottoman sultan, his father Bayezid II was three-quarters Greek; (Suleiman's mother was of Georgian origin).
  • Shah Ismail I - (1487-1524) the founder of Turkic-Persian Safavid Dynasty of Iran: Ismā'il's mother was an Aq Qoyunlu (Turkmen) noble, Martha, the daughter of Turkmen Uzun Hasan by his Pontic Greek wife Theodora Megale Komnene, better known as Despina Hatun. Theodora was the daughter of Emperor John IV of Trebizond whom Uzun Hassan married in a deal to protect Trebizond from the Ottomans.
  • Kaykaus II, Seljuq Sultan. His mother was the daughter of a Greek priest; and it was the Greeks of Nicaea from whom he consistently sought aid throughout his life.
  • Osman Hamdi Bey - (1842 – 24 February 1910), Ottoman statesman and art expert and also a prominent and pioneering painter, the son of İbrahim Edhem Pasha,[62] a Greek[63] by birth abducted as a youth following the Massacre of Chios. He was the founder of the Archaeological Museum of Istanbul.[64]
  • Ibn al-Rumi - Arab poet was the son of a Persian mother and a half-Greek father.
  • Sheikh Bedreddin - (1359–1420) Revolutionary theologian, Greek mother named "Melek Hatun".
  • Tevfik Fikret (1867 – 1915) an Ottoman poet who is considered the founder of the modern school of Turkish poetry, his mother was a Greek convert to Islam from the island of Chios.[65][66]
Left: Tevfik Fikret (1867 – 1915) an Ottoman poet who is considered the founder of the modern school of Turkish poetry, his mother was a Greek convert to Islam from Chios. Right: Osman Hamdi Bey (1842 – 1910) an Ottoman statesman, archaeologist, intellectual, art expert and pioneering painter of Greek descent. He was the founder of Istanbul Archaeology Museums and of İstanbul Academy of Fine Arts (Sanayi-i Nefise Mektebi in Turkish), known today as the Mimar Sinan University of Fine Arts.

Muslims of partial Greek descent (non-conversions)

Other Greek Muslims

In the Middle Ages, after the Seljuq victory over the Byzantine Emperor Romanus IV, many Byzantine Greeks were taken as slaves to Central Asia. The most famous among them was Al-Khazini, a Byzantine Greek slave taken to Merv, then in the Khorasan province of Persia but now in Turkmenistan, who was later freed and became a famous Muslim scientist.[57]

Central Asia

By 1988, many Grecophone Muslims from both Lebanon and Syria had reported being subject to discrimination by the Greek embassy because of their religious affiliation. The community members would be regarded with indifference and even hostility, and would be denied visas and opportunities to improve their Greek through trips to Greece.[54]

Greek speaking Muslims[6] constitute 60% of Al Hamidiyah's population. The percentage may be higher but is not conclusive because of hybrid relationship in families. The community is very much concerned with maintaining its culture. The knowledge of the spoken Greek language is remarkably good and their contact with their historical homeland has been possible by means of satellite television and relatives. They are also known to be monogamous.[54] Today, Grecophone Hamidiyah residents identify themselves as Cretan Muslims, while some others as Cretan Turks.[56]

Many Grecophone Muslims of Lebanon somewhat managed to preserve their Cretan Muslim identity and Greek language [55] Unlike neighbouring communities, they are monogamous and consider divorce a disgrace. Until the Lebanese Civil War, their community was close-knit and entirely endogamous. However many of them left Lebanon during the 15 years of the war.[54]

There are about 7,000 Greek speaking Muslims living in Tripoli, Lebanon and about 8,000 in Al Hamidiyah, Syria.[54] The majority of them are Muslims of Cretan origin. Records suggest that the community left Crete between 1866 and 1897, on the outbreak of the last Cretan uprising against the Ottoman Empire, which ended the Greco-Turkish War of 1897.[54] Sultan Abdul Hamid II provided Cretan Muslim families who fled the island with refuge on the Levantine coast. The new settlement was named Hamidiye after the sultan.

Lebanon and Syria

In the Middle Ages the Greek population of Crimea traditionally adhered to Eastern Orthodox Christianity, even despite undergoing linguistic assimilation by the local Crimean Tatars. In 1777–1778, when Catherine the Great of Russia conquered the peninsula from the Ottoman Empire, the local Orthodox population was forcibly deported and settled north of the Azov Sea. In order to avoid deportation, some Greeks chose to convert to Islam. Crimean Tatar-speaking Muslims of the village of Kermenchik (renamed to Vysokoe in 1945) kept their Greek identity and were practising Christianity in secret for a while. In the nineteenth century the lower half of Kermenchik was populated with Christian Greeks from Turkey, whereas the upper remained Muslim. By the time of the Stalinist deportation of 1944, the Muslims of Kermenchik had already been identified as Crimean Tatars, and were forcibly expelled to Central Asia together with the rest of Crimea's ethnic minorities.[53]

Crimea

In 1878 the Muslim inhabitants of Cyprus (constituting about 1/3 of the island's population, which then numbered 40,000 inhabitants) were classified as being either Turkish or "neo-Muslim." The latter were of Greek origin, Islamised but speaking Greek, and similar in character to the local Christians. The last of such groups was reported to arrive at Antalya in 1936. These communities are thought to have abandoned Greek in the course of integration.[52] During the 1950s, there were still four Greek speaking Muslim settlements in Cyprus: Lapithou, Platanisso, Ayios Simeon and Galinoporni that identified themselves as Turks.[5]

Cypriot Muslims

In the twentieth century, the Vallahades were considered by other Greeks to have become Turkish and were not exempt from the 1922-1923 population exchange between Greece and Turkey, which was based on religious affiliation (Christian Orthodox and Muslim) rather than language and ethnicity. The Vallahades were resettled in western Asia Minor, in such towns as Kumburgaz, Büyükçekmece, and Çatalca or in villages like Honaz near Denizli.[4] Many Vallahades still continue to speak the Greek language, which they call Romeïka[4] and have become completely assimilated into the Turkish Muslim mainstream as Turks.[51]

Greek speaking Muslims[4][7][34][47][48] lived in the Haliacmon of western Macedonia.[49] They were known collectively as Vallahades and had probably converted to Islam en masse in the late 1700s. Although the Vallahades had retained much of their Greek culture and language, unlike most Muslim converts from Greek Macedonia and elsewhere in the southern Balkans who generally adopted the Turkish language and identity. In contrast, most Grecophone Muslims from Epirus, Thrace, and other parts of Macedonia who converted to Islam in the earlier Ottoman period, generally also adopted Turkish and more speedily and thoroughly assimilated into the Ottoman ruling elite. According to Todor Simovski's assessment (1972), in 1912 in the region of Macedonia in Greece there were 13,753 Muslim Greeks.[50]

Macedonian Greek Muslims

Muslims from the region of [38] The community now is fully integrated into Turkish culture. Those Muslims from Epirus of mainly Albanian rather than Greek convert origin are usually described as Cham Albanians.

Epirote Muslims

The term [38] although little of it has been studied.[35] Today in various settlements along the Aegean coast elderly Grecophone Cretan Muslims are still conversant in Cretan Greek.[36] Amongst younger generations of Cretan Grecophone Muslims, many are fluent in the Greek language.[39] Often members from the Muslim Cretan community are unaware that the language they speak is Greek.[2] They often name the language as Cretan (Kritika (Κρητικά) or Giritçe) instead of Greek. The Grecophone Cretan Muslims are Sunnis of the (Hanafi) rite with a highly influential Bektashi minority that helped shape the folk Islam and religious tolerance of the entire community. Significant numbers of Cretan Muslims were re-settled in other Ottoman controlled areas around the eastern Mediterranean by the Ottomans following the establishment of the autonomous Cretan State in 1898. Most ended up in coastal Syria and Lebanon, particularly the town of Al-Hamidiyah, in Syria, (named after the Ottoman sultan who settled them there), and Tripoli in Lebanon where many continue to speak Greek as their mother tongue. Others were resettled in Ottoman Tripolitania especially in the east side cities like Susa and Benghazi, where they are distinguishable by their Greek surnames. Many of the older members of this community still speak Cretan Greek in their homes.[36] A small community of Grecophone Cretan Muslims still resides in Greece in the Dodecanese Islands of Rhodes and Kos.[40] These communities were formed prior to the area becoming part of Greece in 1948 when their ancestors migrated there from Crete and are integrated into the local Muslim population as Turks today.[40]

Cretan Muslims

Many of those defined as Ottoman following Resid Mehmed Pasha, who ironically played an important role in the Ottoman attempt to crush the Greek War of Independence in central and northwestern Greece in the 1820s.

have a great impact. Naqshbandi and Qadiri orders such as Sufi [25] and are renowned for producing many Koranic teachers.school Hanafi of the Sunni Islam are of Pontic Greek origin. Grecophone Pontian Muslims are known in Turkey for their conservative adherence of Anatolia region in northeastern Pontic Alps and the Trebizond of Turks) with Halil İnalcık, it is claimed that most Tahrir Defteri ([33] great work about Ottoman tax books[32] According to Heath W. Lowry's[31].Grekçe or Eski Yunanca, whereas the ancient Greek language is called Yunanca is referred to as modern Greek In Turkey standard [31] during the early nineteenth century.Romeiika or Greek, an appellation that replaced the previous term ελληνικά Current day Greeks refer to their language as [31] origins.Byzantine with Roman or ρωμαίικα derived from the word Romeyka is the name used in Turkish to call all Greek dialects spoken in Turkey, a term akin to Rumca [30].Rumcika or Rumca, whereas when conversing in Turkish they call it Romeyka Grecophone Muslim Pontians when speaking their language refer to it as [29][28] is perceived within Turkey to be associated with Greece and or Christianity and they refuse to be identified as such.Rum in the English language, the term Greek meaning Greek in Turkish or Yunan, although as with the word Rum In Turkey, their communities are sometimes referred to as [27] regard themselves and identify as Turks.[26] Muslims of

Greek Muslims of Pontus and the Caucasus

described the state of enslaved Greeks who had converted to Islam in Egypt: Sir John Gardner Wilkinson where they and sold as slaves. Several decades later in 1843, the English traveler and writer Egypt The enslaved Greeks were subsequently transferred to [20].en masse where the Muslim Egyptian soldiers enslaved vast numbers of Christian Greek children and women. Ibrahim arranged for the enslaved Greek children to be forcefully converted to Islam Morea ravaged the island of Crete and the Greek countryside of the Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt, Ottoman Egyptian troops under the leadership of Greek War of Independence During the [19][18][17] whereby a document was issued which stated that "the holder of this certificate is able to keep his head on the shoulders since he paid the Χαράτσι tax for this year ...". All these of course were waived if the person would convert and become Muslim,.haraç and the more severe İspençe and Defter Major taxes were the [16]

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