World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Green anarchism


Green anarchism (or eco-anarchism) is a school of thought within anarchism which puts a particular emphasis on environmental issues. A green anarchist theory is normally one that extends anarchist ideology beyond a critique of human interactions, and includes a critique of the interactions between humans and non-humans as well.[1] This often culminates in an anarchist revolutionary praxis that is not merely dedicated to human liberation, but also to some form of ecological liberation,[2] and that aims to bring about an environmentally sustainable anarchist society.

Important early influences were Henry David Thoreau, Leo Tolstoy[3] and Élisée Reclus.[4] In the late 19th century there emerged anarcho-naturism as the fusion of anarchism and naturist philosophies within individualist anarchist circles in France, Spain, Cuba,[5] and Portugal.[3][6] Important contemporary currents (some of which may be mutually exclusive) include anarcho-primitivism, which offers a critique of technology and argues that anarchism is best suited to pre-"civilised" ways of life, veganarchism, which argues that human liberation and animal liberation are inseparable,[7] and social ecology, which argues that the hierarchical domination of nature by human stems from the hierarchical domination of human by human.[8]


  • Early ecoanarchism 1
    • Henry David Thoreau 1.1
    • Élisée Reclus 1.2
    • Anarcho-naturism 1.3
      • France 1.3.1
        • Henri Zisly
      • Cuba 1.3.2
      • Spain 1.3.3
        • Isaac Puente
      • Other countries 1.3.4
    • Leo Tolstoy and tolstoyanism 1.4
  • Mid twentieth century 2
    • Leopold Kohr 2.1
    • Murray Bookchin 2.2
    • Jacques Ellul 2.3
  • Contemporary developments 3
    • Social ecology and communalism 3.1
    • Green Anarchist 3.2
    • Fredy Perlman 3.3
    • Anarcho-primitivism 3.4
      • John Zerzan 3.4.1
      • Green Anarchy 3.4.2
      • Species Traitor 3.4.3
    • Vegan anarchism 3.5
    • Derrick Jensen 3.6
    • CrimethInc. 3.7
    • Direct action 3.8
      • Convictions 3.8.1
  • See also 4
  • References 5
  • Bibliography 6
  • External links 7

Early ecoanarchism

Henry David Thoreau

Henry David Thoreau, influential early green-anarchist who wrote Walden
Anarchism started to have an ecological view mainly in the writings of American anarchist and transcendentalist Henry David Thoreau. In his book Walden he advocates simple living and self-sufficiency among natural surroundings in resistance to the advancement of industrial civilization.[9] The work is part personal declaration of independence, social experiment, voyage of spiritual discovery, satire, and manual for self-reliance.[10] First published in 1854, it details Thoreau's experiences over the course of two years, two months, and two days in a cabin he built near Walden Pond, amidst woodland owned by his friend and mentor Ralph Waldo Emerson, near Concord, Massachusetts. The book compresses the time into a single calendar year and uses passages of four seasons to symbolize human development. By immersing himself in nature, Thoreau hoped to gain a more objective understanding of society through personal introspection. Simple living and self-sufficiency were Thoreau's other goals, and the whole project was inspired by transcendentalist philosophy, a central theme of the American Romantic Period. As Thoreau made clear in his book, his cabin was not in wilderness but at the edge of town, about two miles (3 km) from his family home.

As such "Many have seen in Thoreau one of the precursors of ecologism and [9] John Zerzan himself included the text "Excursions" (1863) by Thoreau in his edited compilation of writings called Against civilization: Readings and reflections from 1999.[11]

Élisée Reclus

Élisée Reclus, French anarchist geographer and early environmentalist

Élisée Reclus (15 March 1830 – 4 July 1905), also known as Jacques Élisée Reclus, was a renowned French geographer, writer and anarchist. He produced his 19-volume masterwork La Nouvelle Géographie universelle, la terre et les hommes ("Universal Geography"), over a period of nearly 20 years (1875–1894). In 1892 he was awarded the prestigious Gold Medal of the Paris Geographical Society for this work, despite his having been banished from France because of his political activism. According to Kirkpatrick Sale:[12]

His geographical work, thoroughly researched and unflinchingly scientific, laid out a picture of human-nature interaction that we today would call bioregionalism. It showed, with more detail than anyone but a dedicated geographer could possibly absorb, how the ecology of a place determined the kinds of lives and livelihoods its denizens would have and thus how people could properly live in self-regarding and self-determined bioregions without the interference of large and centralized governments that always try to homogenize diverse geographical areas.

For the authors of An Anarchist FAQ Reclus "argued that a "secret harmony exists between the earth and the people whom it nourishes, and when imprudent societies let themselves violate this harmony, they always end up regretting it." Similarly, no contemporary ecologist would disagree with his comments that the "truly civilised man [and women] understands that his [or her] nature is bound up with the interest of all and with that of nature. He [or she] repairs the damage caused by his predecessors and works to improve his domain."[13]

Reclus advocated nature conservation and opposed meat-eating and cruelty to animals. He was a vegetarian.[14] As a result, his ideas are seen by some historians as anticipating the modern social ecology and animal rights movements.[15] Shortly before his death, Reclus completed L'Homme et la terre (1905).[16] In it, he added to his previous greater works by considering humanity's development relative to its geographical environment. Reclus was also an early proponent of naturism.[4]


In the late 19th century Anarchist naturism appeared as the union of anarchist and naturist philosophies.[3][17][18][19] Mainly it had importance within individualist anarchist circles[6][20] in Spain,[3][6][18] France,[6][21] Portugal,[22] and Cuba.[23]

Anarcho-naturism advocated vegetarianism, free love, nudism and an ecological world view within anarchist groups and outside them.[3][20] Anarcho-naturism promoted an ecological worldview, small ecovillages, and most prominently nudism as a way to avoid the artificiality of the industrial mass society of modernity.[24] Naturist individualist anarchists saw the individual in his biological, physical and psychological aspects and tried to eliminate social determinations.[24] Important promoters of this were Henri Zisly and Emile Gravelle who collaborated in La Nouvelle Humanité followed by Le Naturien, Le Sauvage, L'Ordre Naturel, & La Vie Naturelle[25]


Richard D. Sonn comments on the influence of naturist views in the wider French anarchist movement:

Henri Zisly

Henri Zisly (born in Paris, November 2, 1872; died in 1945)[27] was a cooperative Colonie de Vaux established in Essômes-sur-Marne, in l'Aisne.

Zisly's political activity, "primarily aimed at supporting a return to 'natural life' through writing and practical involvement, stimulated lively confrontations within and outside the anarchist environment. Zisly vividly criticized progress and civilization, which he regarded as 'absurd, ignoble, and filthy.' He openly opposed industrialization, arguing that machines were inherently authoritarian, defended nudism, advocated a non-dogmatic and non-religious adherence to the 'laws of nature,' recommended a lifestyle based on limited needs and self-sufficiency, and disagreed with vegetarianism, which he considered 'anti-scientific.'"[29]


The historian Kirwin R. Schaffer in his study of Cuban anarchism reports anarcho-naturism as "A third strand within the island's anarchist movement" alongside anarcho-communism and anarcho-syndicalism.[5] Naturism was a global alternative health and lifestyle movement. Naturists focused on redefining one's life to live simply, eat cheap but nutritious vegetarian diets, and raise one's own food if possible. The countryside was posited as a romantic alternative to urban living, and some naturists even promoted what they saw as the healthful benefits of nudism. Globally, the naturist movement counted anarchists, liberals, and socialists as its followers. However, in Cuba a particular "anarchist" dimension evolved led by people like Adrián del Valle, who spearheaded the Cuban effort to shift naturism's focus away from only individual health to naturism having a "social emancipatory" function."[5]

Schaffer reports the influence that anarcho-naturism had outside naturists circles. So "For instance, nothing inherently prevented an anarcho-syndicalist in the Havana restaurant workers' union from supporting the alternative health care programs of the anarcho-naturists and seeing those alternative practices as "revolutionary."".[5] "Anarcho-naturists promoted a rural ideal, simple living, and being in harmony with Nature as ways to save the laborers from the increasingly industrialized character of Cuba. Besides promoting an early twentieth-century "back-to-the-land" movement, they used these romantic images of Nature to illustrate how far removed a capitalist industrialized Cuba had departed from an anarchist view of natural harmony."[5] The main propagandizer in Cuba of anarcho-naturism was the Catalonia born "Adrián del Valle (aka Palmiro de Lidia)...Over the following decades, Del Valle became a constant presence in not only the anarchist press that proliferated in Cuba but also mainstream literary publications...From 1912 to 1913 he edited the freethinking journal El Audaz. Then he began his largest publishing job by helping to found and edit the monthly alternative health magazine that followed the anarcho-naturist line Pro-Vida.[5]


Anarcho-naturism was quite important at the end of the 1920s in the [30] In France, later important propagandists of anarcho-naturism include Henri Zisly[31] and Émile Gravelle whose ideas were important in individualist anarchist circles in Spain, where Federico Urales (pseudonym of Joan Montseny) promoted the ideas of Gravelle and Zisly in La Revista Blanca (1898–1905).[32]

The "relation between Anarchism and Naturism gives way to the Naturist Federation, in July 1928, and to the lV Spanish Naturist Congress, in September 1929, both supported by the Libertarian Movement. However, in the short term, the Naturist and Libertarian movements grew apart in their conceptions of everyday life. The Naturist movement felt closer to the Libertarian individualism of some French theoreticians such as Henri Ner (real name of [30] This ecological tendency in Spanish anarchism was strong enough as to call the attention of the CNTFAI in Spain. Daniel Guérin in Anarchism: From Theory to Practice reports:

Isaac Puente

Isaac Puente was an influential Spanish anarchist during the 1920s and 1930s and an important propagandist of anarcho-naturism,[34][35] was a militant of both the CNT anarcho-syndicalist trade union and Iberian Anarchist Federation. He published the book El Comunismo Libertario y otras proclamas insurreccionales y naturistas (en:Libertarian Communism and other insurrectionary and naturist proclaims) in 1933, which sold around 100,000 copies,[36] and wrote the final document for the Extraordinary Confederal Congress of Zaragoza of 1936 which established the main political line for the CNT for that year.[37] Puente was a doctor who approached his medical practice from a naturist point of view.[34] He saw naturism as an integral solution for the working classes, alongside Neo-Malthusianism, and believed it concerned the living being while anarchism addressed the social being.[38] He believed capitalist societies endangered the well-being of humans from both a socioeconomic and sanitary viewpoint, and promoted anarcho-communism alongside naturism as a solution.[34]

Other countries

Naturism also met [41]

Leo Tolstoy and tolstoyanism

Tolstoy dressed in peasant clothing, by Ilya Repin (1901)
Russian christian anarchist and anarcho-pacifist Leo Tolstoy is also recognized as an early influence in green anarchism.[3] The novelist was struck by the description of Christian, Buddhist, and Hindu ascetic renunciation as being the path to holiness. After reading passages such as the following, which abound in Schopenhauer's ethical chapters, the Russian nobleman chose poverty and formal denial of the will:
But this very necessity of involuntary suffering (by poor people) for eternal salvation is also expressed by that utterance of the Savior (Matthew 19:24): "It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle, than for a rich man to enter into the kingdom of God." Therefore those who were greatly in earnest about their eternal salvation, chose voluntary poverty when fate had denied this to them and they had been born in wealth. Thus Buddha Sakyamuni was born a prince, but voluntarily took to the mendicant's staff; and Francis of Assisi, the founder of the mendicant orders who, as a youngster at a ball, where the daughters of all the notabilities were sitting together, was asked: "Now Francis, will you not soon make your choice from these beauties?" and who replied: "I have made a far more beautiful choice!" "Whom?" "La poverta (poverty)": whereupon he abandoned every thing shortly afterwards and wandered through the land as a mendicant.[42]

Despite his misgivings about Edward Bellamy.,[49] as well as in Russia,[50] England[51] and the Netherlands.[52]

Mid twentieth century

Several anarchists from the mid twentieth century, including [54]

Leopold Kohr

Part of a series on
Green politics
Sunflower symbol

Leopold Kohr (5 October 1909 in small is beautiful movement. For almost twenty years he was Professor of Economics and Public Administration at the University of Puerto Rico. He described himself as a "philosophical anarchist." In 1937, Kohr became a freelance correspondent during the Spanish Civil War, where he was impressed by the limited, self-contained governments of the separatist states of Catalonia and Aragon, as well as the small Spanish anarchist city states of Alcoy and Caspe. In his first published essay "Disunion Now: A Plea for a Society based upon Small Autonomous Units", published in Commonweal in 1941, Kohr wrote about a Europe at war: "We have ridiculed the many little states, now we are terrorized by their few successors." He called for the breakup of Europe into hundreds of city states.[53] Kohr developed his ideas in a series of books, including The Breakdown of Nations (1957), Development without Aid (1973) and The Overdeveloped Nations (1977).[55] From Leopold Kohr's most popular work The Breakdown of Nations:

[...] there seems to be only one cause behind all forms of social misery: bigness. Oversimplified as this may seem, we shall find the idea more easily acceptable if we consider that bigness, or oversize, is really much more than just a social problem. It appears to be the one and only problem permeating all creation. Whenever something is wrong, something is too big. [...] And if the body of a people becomes diseased with the fever of aggression, brutality, collectivism, or massive idiocy, it is not because it has fallen victim to bad leadership or mental derangement. It is because human beings, so charming as individuals or in small aggregations, have been welded into overconcentrated social units.

Later in his academic and writing career he protested the "cult of bigness" and economic growth and promoted the concept of human scale and small community life. He argued that massive external aid to poorer nations stifled local initiatives and participation. His vision called for a dissolution of centralized political and economic structures in favor of local control.[55] Kohr was an important inspiration to the Green, bioregional, Fourth World, decentralist, and anarchist movements, Kohr contributed often to John Papworth's `Journal for the Fourth World', Resurgence. One of Kohr's students was economist E. F. Schumacher, another prominent influence on these movements, whose best selling book Small Is Beautiful took its title from one of Kohr's core principles.[56] Similarly, his ideas inspired Kirkpatrick Sale's books Human Scale (1980) and Dwellers in the Land: The Bioregional Vision (1985). Sale arranged the first American publication of The Breakdown of Nations in 1978 and wrote the foreword.[53]

Murray Bookchin

Murray Bookchin (January 14, 1921 – July 30, 2006)[57] was an American libertarian socialist author, orator, and philosopher. In 1958, Murray Bookchin defined himself as an anarchist,[58] seeing parallels between anarchism and ecology. His first book, Our Synthetic Environment, was published under the pseudonym Lewis Herber in 1962, a few months before Rachel Carson's Silent Spring.[59] The book described a broad range of environmental ills but received little attention because of its political radicalism. His groundbreaking essay "Ecology and Revolutionary Thought" introduced ecology as a concept in radical politics.[60] In 1968 he founded another group that published the influential Anarchos magazine, which published that and other innovative essays on post-scarcity and on ecological technologies such as solar and wind energy, and on decentralization and miniaturization. Lecturing throughout the United States, he helped popularize the concept of ecology to the counterculture.

Post-Scarcity Anarchism is a collection of essays written by Murray Bookchin and first published in 1971 by Ramparts Press.[61] It outlines the possible form anarchism might take under conditions of post-scarcity. It is one of Bookchin's major works,[62] and its radical thesis provoked controversy for being utopian and messianic in its faith in the liberatory potential of technology.[63] Bookchin argues that post-industrial societies are also post-scarcity societies, and can thus imagine "the fulfillment of the social and cultural potentialities latent in a technology of abundance".[63] The self-administration of society is now made possible by technological advancement and, when technology is used in an ecologically sensitive manner, the revolutionary potential of society will be much changed.[64] In 1982, his book The Ecology of Freedom had a profound impact on the emerging ecology movement, both in the United States and abroad. He was a principal figure in the Burlington Greens in 1986-90, an ecology group that ran candidates for city council on a program to create neighborhood democracy. In From Urbanization to Cities (originally published in 1987 as The Rise of Urbanization and the Decline of Citizenship), Bookchin traced the democratic traditions that influenced his political philosophy and defined the implementation of the libertarian municipalism concept. A few years later The Politics of Social Ecology, written by his partner of 20 years, Janet Biehl, briefly summarized these ideas.

Jacques Ellul

Jacques Ellul (January 6, 1912 – May 19, 1994) was a French philosopher, law professor, sociologist, lay theologian, and Christian anarchist. He wrote several books about Christianity, the technological society, propaganda, and the interaction between religion and politics. Professor of History and the Sociology of Institutions on the Faculty of Law and Economic Sciences at the University of Bordeaux, he authored 58 books and more than a thousand articles over his lifetime in all, the dominant theme of which has been the threat to human freedom and religion created by modern technique. The Ellulian concept of technique is briefly defined within the "Notes to Reader" section of The Technological Society (1964). What many consider to be Ellul's most important work, The Technological Society (1964) was originally titled: La Technique: L'enjeu du siècle (literally, "The Stake of the Century").[65] In it, Ellul set forth seven characteristics of modern technology that make efficiency a necessity: rationality, artificiality, automatism of technical choice, self-augmentation, monism, universalism, and autonomy.[66]

For Ellul the rationality of technique enforces logical and mechanical organization through division of labor, the setting of production standards, etc. And it creates an artificial system which "eliminates or subordinates the natural world." Today, he argues, the technological society is generally held sacred (cf. Saint Steve Jobs[67]). Since he defines technique as "the totality of methods rationally arrived at, and having absolute efficiency (for a given stage of development) in every field of human activity",[68] it is clear that his sociological analysis focuses not on the society of machines as such, but on the society of "efficient techniques".

Contemporary developments

Notable contemporary writers espousing green anarchism include John Zerzan, Starhawk and Alan Carter.[69]

Social ecology and communalism

Social ecology is closely related to the work and ideas of Murray Bookchin and influenced by anarchist Peter Kropotkin. Social ecologists assert that the present ecological crisis has its roots in human social problems, and that the domination of human-over-nature stems from the domination of human-over-human.[70]

Bookchin later developed a political philosophy to complement social ecology which he called "Communalism" (spelled with a capital "C" to differentiate it from other forms of communalism). While originally conceived as a form of Social anarchism, he later developed Communalism into a separate ideology which incorporates what he saw as the most beneficial elements of Anarchism, Marxism, syndicalism, and radical ecology.

Politically, Communalists advocate a network of directly democratic citizens' assemblies in individual communities/cities organized in a confederal fashion. This method used to achieve this is called Libertarian Municipalism which involves the establishment of face-to-face democratic institutions which are to grow and expand confederally with the goal of eventually replacing the nation-state.

Janet Biehl (born 1953) is a writer associated with social ecology, the body of ideas developed and publicized by Murray Bookchin. In 1986, she attended the Institute for Social Ecology and there, began a collaborative relationship with Bookchin, working intensively with him over the next two decades in the explication of social ecology from their shared home in Burlington, Vermont.[71]

From 1987 to 2000, she and Bookchin co-wrote and co-published the theoretical newsletter Green Perspectives, later renamed Left Green Perspectives.[72] She is the editor and compiler of The Murray Bookchin Reader (1997);[73] the author of The Politics of Social Ecology: Libertarian Municipalism (1998) and Rethinking Ecofeminist Politics (1991); and coauthor (with Peter Staudenmaier) of Ecofascism: Lessons from the German Experience (1995).

Green Anarchist

Cover of the first issue of 'Green Anarchist' magazine (Summer 1984), featuring artwork by then editor Richard Hunt

The magazine Green Anarchist was for a while the principal voice in the GANDALF Defence campaign. Three of the editors of Green Anarchist, Noel Molland, Saxon Wood and Booth were jailed for 'conspiracy to incite'. However, all three were shortly afterwards released on appeal.

Fredy Perlman

Fredy Perlman (August 20, 1934 – July 26, 1985) was a Czech-born, naturalised American author, publisher and militant. His most popular work, the book Against His-Story, Against Leviathan!, details the rise of state domination with a retelling of history through the Hobbesian metaphor of the Leviathan. The book remains a major source of inspiration for anti-civilization perspectives in contemporary anarchism, most notably on the thought of philosopher John Zerzan.[74]


John Zerzan, anarcho-primitivism theorist
Anarcho-primitivism is an technologies. There are other non-anarchist forms of primitivism, and not all primitivists point to the same phenomenon as the source of modern, civilized problems. Anarcho-primitivists are often distinguished by their focus on the praxis of achieving a feral state of being through "rewilding".

John Zerzan

John Zerzan is an American anarchist and primitivist philosopher and author. His works criticize agricultural civilization as inherently oppressive, and advocate drawing upon the ways of life of hunter gatherers as an inspiration for what a free society should look like. Some subjects of his criticism include domestication, language, symbolic thought (such as mathematics and art) and the concept of time.

His five major books are Elements of Refusal (1988), ultra-left theorist Grandizo Munis that included an essay by Zerzan which previously appeared in the journal Telos. Over the next 20 years, Zerzan became intimately involved with the Fifth Estate, Anarchy: A Journal of Desire Armed, Demolition Derby and other anarchist periodicals. He began to question civilization in the early 80's, after having sought to confront issues around the neutrality of technology and division of labour, at the time when Fredy Perlman was making similar conclusions.[75]

Green Anarchy

Green Anarchy was a magazine published by a collective located in Eugene, Oregon. The magazine's focus was primitivism, post-left anarchy, radical environmentalism, African American struggles, anarchist resistance, indigenous resistance, earth and animal liberation, anti-capitalism and supporting political prisoners. It had a circulation of 8,000, partly in prisons, the prison subscribers given free copies of each issue as stated in the magazine.[76] Green Anarchy was started in 2000 and in 2009 the Green Anarchy website shut down, leaving a final, brief message about the cessation of the magazine's publication. The subtitle of the magazine is "An Anti-Civilization Journal of Theory and Action". Author John Zerzan was one of the publication's editors.[77]

Species Traitor

Species Traitor is a sporadically published journal of insurrectionary anarcho-primitivism. It is printed as a project of Black and Green Network and edited by anarcho-primitivist writer, Kevin Tucker.[78] ST was initially labeled as a project of the Coalition Against Civilization (CAC) and the Black and Green Network (BAG). The CAC was started towards the end of 1999 in the aftermath of the massive street protests in Eugene (Reclaim the Streets) and in Seattle (WTO) of that year. That aftermath gave a new voice and standing for green anarchist and anarcho-primitivist writers and viewpoints within both the anarchist milieu and the culture at large. The first issue came out in winter of 2000-2001 (currently out of print) and contained a mix of reprints and some original articles from Derrick Jensen and John Zerzan among others. Issue two came in the following year in the wake of Sept. 11 and took a major step from the first issue in becoming something of its own rather than another mouthpiece of green anarchist rhetoric. The articles took a more in depth direction opening a more analytical and critical draw between anarchy and anthropology, attacks on Reason and the Progress/linear views of human history and Future that stand at the base of the ideology of civilization.

Vegan anarchism

Veganarchism or vegan anarchism, is the political philosophy of veganism (more specifically animal liberation and earth liberation) and anarchism,[79][80] creating a combined praxis that is designed to be a means for social revolution.[81][82] This encompasses viewing the state as unnecessary and harmful to animals, both human and non-human, whilst practising a vegan lifestyle. It is either perceived as a combined theory, or that both philosophies are essentially the same.[83] It is further described as an anti-speciesist perspective on green anarchism, or an anarchist perspective on animal liberation.[82]

Veganarchists typically view oppressive dynamics within society to be interconnected, from statism, racism and sexism to human supremacy[84] and redefine veganism as a radical philosophy that sees the state as harmful to animals.[85] Those who believe in veganarchy can be either against reform for animals or for it, although do not limit goals to changes within the law.[86][87]

Derrick Jensen

Derrick Jensen is an [91]

A Language Older Than Words uses the lens of domestic violence to look at the larger violence of western culture. The Culture of Make Believe begins by exploring racism and misogyny and moves to examine how this culture’s economic system leads inevitably to hatred and atrocity. Strangely Like War is about deforestation. Walking on Water is about education (It begins: "As is true for most people I know, I’ve always loved learning. As is also true for most people I know, I always hated school. Why is that?").[92] Welcome to the Machine is about surveillance, and more broadly about science and what he perceives to be a Western obsession with control. Resistance Against Empire consists of interviews with J. W. Smith (on poverty), Kevin Bales (on slavery), Anuradha Mittal (on hunger), Juliet Schor ('globalization' and environmental degradation), Ramsey Clark (on US 'defense'), Stephen Schwartz (editor of The Nonproliferation Review, on nukes), Alfred McCoy (politics and heroin), Christian Parenti (the US prison system), Katherine Albrecht (on RFID), and Robert McChesney (on (freedom of) the media) conducted between 1999 and 2004. Endgame is about what he describes as the inherent unsustainability of civilization. In this book he asks: "Do you believe that this culture will undergo a voluntary transformation to a sane and sustainable way of living?" Nearly everyone he talks to says no. His next question is: "How would this understanding — that this culture will not voluntarily stop destroying the natural world, eliminating indigenous cultures, exploiting the poor, and killing those who resist — shift our strategy and tactics? The answer? Nobody knows, because we never talk about it: we’re too busy pretending the culture will undergo a magical transformation." Endgame, he says, is "about that shift in strategy, and in tactics."[93] Jensen co-wrote the book Deep Green Resistance: Strategy to Save the Planet with Lierre Keith and Aric McBay


CrimethInc. is a decentralized 2004 re-election campaign.[99][100] The creation of propaganda has been described as the collectives' core function.[101] Among their best-known publications are the books Days of War, Nights of Love, Expect Resistance, Evasion, Recipes for Disaster: An Anarchist Cookbook and the pamphlet Fighting For Our Lives (of which, to date, they claim to have printed 600,000 copies),[102] the hardcore punk/political zine Inside Front, and the music of hardcore punk bands. As well as the traditional anarchist opposition to the state and capitalism, agents have, at times, advocated a straight edge lifestyle, the total supersession of gender roles,[103] violent insurrection against the state,[104] and the refusal of work.[105]

Direct action

Some Green Anarchists engage in Earth First!, Root Force, or more drastically, the Earth Liberation Front (ELF), Earth Liberation Army (ELA) and Animal Liberation Front (ALF). They may take direct action against what they see as systems of oppression, such as the logging industry, the meat and dairy industries, animal testing laboratories, genetic engineering facilities and, more rarely, government institutions.

Such actions are usually, though not always, non-violent, with groups such as The Olga Cell attempting assassinations of nuclear scientists, and other related groups sending letterbombs to nano tech and nuclear tech-related targets.[106] Though not necessarily Green anarchists, activists have used the names Animal Rights Militia, Justice Department and Revolutionary Cells among others, to claim responsibility for openly violent attacks.


Rod Coronado is an eco-anarchist and is an unofficial spokesperson for the Animal Liberation Front and Earth Liberation Front. On February 28, 1992, Coronado carried out an arson attack on research facilities at Michigan State University (MSU), and released mink from a nearby research farm on campus, an action claimed by the ALF, and for which Coronado was subsequently convicted.

In 1997, the editors of Green Anarchist magazine and two British supporters of the Animal Liberation Front were tried in connection with conspiracy to incite violence, in what came to be known as the GANDALF trial.

Green anarchist Tre Arrow[107][108] was sought by the FBI in connection with an ELF arson on April 15, 2001 at Ross Island Sand and Gravel in Portland, torching three trucks amounting of $200,000 in damage. Another arson occurred a month later at Ray Schoppert Logging Company in Estacada, Oregon, on June 1, 2001 against logging trucks and a front loader, resulting in $50,000 damage.[109] Arrow was indicted by a federal grand jury in Oregon and charged with four felonies for this crime on October 18, 2002.[110] On March 13, 2004, after fleeing to British Columbia, he was arrested in Victoria for stealing bolt cutters and was also charged with being in Canada illegally.[111] He was then sentenced on August 12, 2008 to 78 months in federal prison for his part in the arson and conspiracy ELF attacks in 2001.[112][113]

In January 2006, Eric McDavid, a green anarchist,[114][115] was convicted of conspiring to use fire or explosives to damage corporate and government property.[116] On March 8, he formally declared a hunger strike due to the jail refusing to provide him with vegan food. He has been given vegan food off and on since.[117] In September 2007, he was convicted on all counts after the two activists he conspired with pled guilty testified against him.[116][118][119] An FBI confidential source named "Anna" was revealed as a fourth participant, in what McDavid's defense argued was entrapment.[120] In May 2008, he was sentenced to nearly 20 years in prison.[121][122]

On March 3, 2006, a federal jury in Trenton, New Jersey convicted six members of SHAC, including green-anarchist Joshua Harper,[123][124][125] for "terrorism and Internet stalking", according to the New York Times, finding them guilty of using their website to "incite attacks" on those who did business with Huntingdon Life Sciences HLS.[126] In September 2006, the SHAC 7 received jail sentences of 3 to 6 years.

Other prisoners
  • Marco Camenisch; Italian green anarchist accused of arson against electricity pylon.[127][128]
  • Nicole Vosper; green anarchist who pleaded guilty to charges against HLS.[129][130]
  • Marie Jeanette Mason #04672-061, FMC Carswell, Federal Medical Center, P.O. Box 27137, Fort Worth, TX 76127, USA. Serving 21 years and 10 months for her involvement in an ELF arson against a University building carrying out Genetically Modified crop tests. Marie also pleaded guilty to conspiring to carry out ELF actions and admitted involvement in 12 other ELF actions. (vegan).[131]

See also


  1. ^ 'Green Anarchism: Towards the Abolition of Hierarchy'
  2. ^ 'Steve Best on total liberation'
  3. ^ a b c d e f EL NATURISMO LIBERTARIO EN LA PENÍNSULA IBÉRICA (1890-1939) by Jose Maria Rosello
  4. ^ a b "The pioneers"
  5. ^ a b c d e f by Kirwin R. ShafferAnarchism and countercultural politics in early twentieth-century CubaIntroduction to
  7. ^ 'Animal Liberation and Social Revolution'
  8. ^ "While almost all forms of modern anarchism consider themselves to have an ecological dimension, the specifically eco-anarchist thread within anarchism has two main focal points, Social Ecology and "primitivist"."An Anarchist FAQ by Various authors
  9. ^ a b "Su obra más representativa es Walden, aparecida en 1854, aunque redactada entre 1845 y 1847, cuando Thoreau decide instalarse en el aislamiento de una cabaña en el bosque, y vivir en íntimo contacto con la naturaleza, en una vida de soledad y sobriedad. De esta experiencia, su filosofía trata de transmitirnos la idea que resulta necesario un retorno respetuoso a la naturaleza, y que la felicidad es sobre todo fruto de la riqueza interior y de la armonía de los individuos con el entorno natural. Muchos han visto en Thoreau a uno de los precursores del ecologismo y del anarquismo primitivista representado en la actualidad por
  10. ^
  11. ^ 'Against civilization: Readings and reflections' by John Zerzan] (editor)].
  12. ^ Sale, Kirkpatrick (2010-07-01) Are Anarchists Revolting?, The American Conservative
  13. ^ "quoted by George Woodcock, "Introduction", Marie Fleming, The Geography of Freedom, p. 15"An Anarchist FAQ by Various authors
  14. ^
  15. ^
  16. ^ L'Homme et la terreÉlisée Reclus, (1905), e-text, Internet Archive
  17. ^ "Anarchism and the different Naturist views have always been related.". Winter 2003ADN"Anarchism - Nudism, Naturism" by Carlos Ortega at Asociacion para el Desarrollo Naturista de la Comunidad de Madrid. Published on Revista
  18. ^ a b . Winter 2003ADN"Anarchism - Nudism, Naturism" by Carlos Ortega at Asociacion para el Desarrollo Naturista de la Comunidad de Madrid. Published on Revista
  19. ^ "In many of the alternative communities established in Britain in the early 1900s nudism, anarchism, vegetarianism and free love were accepted as part of a politically radical way of life. In the 1920s the inhabitants of the anarchist community at Whiteway, near Stroud in Gloucestershire, shocked the conservative residents of the area with their shameless nudity.""Nudism the radical tradition" by Terry Phillips
  20. ^ a b "Les anarchistes individualistes du début du siècle l'avaient bien compris, et intégraient le naturisme dans leurs préoccupations. Il est vraiment dommage que ce discours se soit peu à peu effacé, d'antan plus que nous assistons, en ce moment, à un retour en force du puritanisme (conservateur par essence).""Anarchisme et naturisme, aujourd'hui." by Cathy Ytak
  21. ^ Recension des articles de l'En-Dehors consacrés au naturisme et au nudisme
  22. ^ ["Anarchisme et naturisme au Portugal, dans les années 1920" in Les anarchistes du Portugal by João Freire]
  23. ^ The historian Kirwin R. Schaffer in his study of cuban anarchism reports anarcho-naturism as "A third strand within the island's anarchist movement" alongside anarcho-communism and anarcho-syndicalism by Kirwin R. ShafferAnarchism and countercultural politics in early twentieth-century CubaIntroduction to
  24. ^ a b "EL NATURISMO LIBERTARIO EN LA PENÍNSULA IBÉRICA (1890–1939)" by Josep Maria Rosell
  25. ^ The daily bleed
  26. ^
  27. ^ Henri Zisly page; from the Daily Bleed's Anarchist Encyclopedia
  28. ^ "Henri Zisly, self-labeled individualist anarchist, is considered one of the forerunners and principal organizers of the naturist movement in France and one of its most able and outspoken defenders worldwide.""Zisly, Henri (1872–1945)" by Stefano Boni
  29. ^ "Zisly, Henri (1872–1945)" by Stefano Boni
  30. ^ a b c . Winter 2003ADN"Anarchism - Nudism, Naturism" by Carlos Ortega at Asociacion para el Desarrollo Naturista de la Comunidad de Madrid. Published on Revista
  31. ^ "Zisly, Henri (1872–1945)" by Stefano Boni
  32. ^ "Los origenes del naturismo libertario" por Agustín Morán
  33. ^ Anarchism: From theory to practice by Daniel Guérin
  34. ^ a b c El Comunismo Libertario y otras proclamas insurreccionales y naturistas.Isaac Puente.
  35. ^ Asociación Isaac Puente.Anarquismo y naturismo: El caso de Isaac Puente.Miguel Iñiguez.
  36. ^ pg. 4El Comunismo Libertario y otras proclamas insurreccionales y naturistas.Isaac Puente.
  37. ^ "De hecho, el documento de Isaac Puente se convirtió en dictamen oficial aprobado en el Congreso Extraordinario Confederal de Zaragoza de 1936 que servía de base para fijar la línea política de la CNT respecto a la organización social y política futura. Existe una versión resumida en Íñiguez (1996), pp. 31-35. La versión completa se puede encontrar en las actas oficiales del congreso, publicadas en CNT: El Congreso Confederal de Zaragoza, Zeta, Madrid, 1978, pp. 226-242.". Virus editorial. 2007El anarquismo individualista en España (1923–1938)Xavier Diez.
  38. ^ "Y complementarlos puesto que se ocupan de aspectos distintos, –el uno redime al ser vivo, el otro al ser social"El Comunismo Libertario y otras proclamas insurreccionales y naturistas.Isaac Puente.
  39. ^ "Nudism the radical tradition" by Terry Phillips
  40. ^ "Los anarco-individualistas, G.I.A...Una escisión de la FAI producida en el IX Congreso (Carrara, 1965) se pr odujo cuando un sector de anarquistas de tendencia humanista rechazan la interpretación que ellos juzgan disciplinaria del pacto asociativo" clásico, y crean los GIA (Gruppi di Iniziativa Anarchica) . Esta pequeña federación de grupos, hoy nutrida sobre todo de veteranos anarco-individualistas de orientación pacifista, naturista, etcétera defiende la autonomía personal y rechaza a rajatabla toda forma de intervención en los procesos del sistema, como sería por ejemplo el sindicalismo. Su portavoz es L'Internazionale con sede en Ancona. La escisión de los GIA prefiguraba, en sentido contrario, el gran debate que pronto había de comenzar en el seno del movimiento"Year 1 No. Noviembre, 1 1977"El movimiento libertario en Italia" by Bicicleta. REVISTA DE COMUNICACIONES LIBERTARIAS
  41. ^ Anarchism vs. PrimitivismBrian Oliver Sheppard.
  42. ^ Schopenhauer, Parerga and Paralipomena, Vol. II, §170
  43. ^ Peter Kropotkin: from prince to rebel. G Woodcock, I Avakumović.1990.
  44. ^
  45. ^
  46. ^
  47. ^
  48. ^ Christian socialists and comprised 932 acres (3.77 km2).
  49. ^
  50. ^ In Russia censorship meant that many of Tolstoy’s non-fiction works in the 1880s and 1890s were published abroad first, either in Russian or in translation, delaying the author's influence in his country of birth. However, with Vladimir Chertkov (1854–1936) as a key promoter of Tolstoy's ideas, a movement started over the 1890s. The movement continued to grow after the writer’s death and was at its strongest in the years immediately following the revolutions of 1917 with agricultural communities established in the provinces of Smolensk, Tver, Samara, Kursk, Perm and Kiev. The Tolstoyan communities that proliferated between 1917 and 1921 were eventually wiped out or stripped of their independence as collectivisation and ideological purges got under way in the late 1920s. Colonies, such as the Life and Labor Commune, relocated to Siberia to avoid being liquidated. Several Tolstoyan leaders, including Yakov Dragunovsky (1886-1937), were put on trial and then sent to the Gulags.Charles Chatfield, Ruzanna Iliukhina Peace/Mir: An Anthology of Historic Alternatives to War Syracuse University Press, 1994. ISBN 0815626010, (p.245, 249-250).
  51. ^ In England John Coleman Kenworthy of the Brotherhood Church established a colony at Purleigh, Essex in 1896. This community closed a few years later but its residents spawned the Whiteway Colony in Gloucestershire and Stapleton Colony in Yorkshire, both of which are still going today. Although given Whiteway soon abandoned Tolstoy's principles, it has been regarded by many, including Gandhi who visited in 1909, as a failed Tolstoyan experiment.
  52. ^ Johannes Van der Veer was the key figure in the Dutch Tolstoyan movement. In the Netherlands two colonies were started, a short-lived one at Bussum in North Holland and a more successful one nearby at Blaricum. The reasons attributed to the failure of Tolstoyan communities across Europe have included the personal incompatibility of the participants and a general lack of practical agricultural experience.
  53. ^ a b c Breakdown of Nations.Kirkpatrick Sale, foreword to E.P. Dutton 1978 edition of Leopold Kohr's
  54. ^ a b Robert Graham, Anarchism Volume Two: The Anarchist Current (1939–2006). Black Rose Books, 2009 ISBN 1551643103, (p.72-5, p. 272).
  55. ^ a b
  56. ^ Dr. Leopold Kohr, 84; Backed Smaller States, New York Times obituary, 28 February 1994.
  57. ^ Small, Mike. "Murray Bookchin", The Guardian August 8, 2006
  58. ^
  59. ^
  60. ^
  61. ^
  62. ^
  63. ^ a b
  64. ^
  65. ^ Taylor, Paul A. and Jan Ll. Harris. Digital Matters: The Theory and Culture of the Matrix. (London: Routledge, 2005), 23.
  66. ^ Ellul, Jacques. The Technological Society, trans. John Wilkinson (New York: Random House, 1964), 79.
  67. ^ Brooks, Michael E. Death of Secular Saint Steve Jobs in a Theologically Devoid Culture The Christian Post Sept. 2, 2012
  68. ^ Ellul, Jacques. The Technological Society, trans. John Wilkinson (New York: Random House, 1964), Note to the Reader.
  69. ^
  70. ^
  71. ^
  72. ^
  73. ^
  74. ^
  75. ^
  76. ^ Wild Times Ahead by Bill O'Driscoll, Pittsburgh City Paper, 7/13/2006
  77. ^ Link label
  78. ^
  79. ^ Alberwite, Jonny. Why Veganism if for the Common Good of All Life, Animal Liberation Front Supporters Group Newsleter April 2009, p7-8.
  80. ^ Veganarchy: Issue 1, July 2009.
  81. ^ Dominick, Brian. Animal Liberation and Social Revolution: A vegan perspective on anarchism or an anarchist perspective on veganism, third edition, Firestarter Press, 1997, page 6.
  82. ^ a b Dominick, Brian. Animal Liberation and Social Revolution: A vegan perspective on anarchism or an anarchist perspective on veganism, third edition, Firestarter Press, 1997, page 5.
  83. ^ Dominick, Brian. Animal Liberation and Social Revolution: A vegan perspective on anarchism or an anarchist perspective on veganism, third edition, Firestarter Press, 1997, inside page.
  84. ^ Dominick, Brian. Animal Liberation and Social Revolution: A vegan perspective on anarchism or an anarchist perspective on veganism, third edition, Firestarter Press, 1997, page 7.
  85. ^ Dominick, Brian. Animal Liberation and Social Revolution: A vegan perspective on anarchism or an anarchist perspective on veganism, third edition, Firestarter Press, 1997, page 9.
  86. ^ Dominick, Brian. Animal Liberation and Social Revolution: A vegan perspective on anarchism or an anarchist perspective on veganism, third edition, Firestarter Press, 1997, page 8.
  87. ^ Dominick, Brian. Animal Liberation and Social Revolution: A vegan perspective on anarchism or an anarchist perspective on veganism, third edition, Firestarter Press, 1997, page 12.
  88. ^ Endgame, Volume 1: The Problem of Civilization, Seven Stories Press (ISBN 1-58322-730-X), p. 17.
  89. ^
  90. ^
  91. ^
  92. ^ Walking on Water, p. 1.
  93. ^ Endgame V.1, p. 1.
  94. ^
  95. ^
  96. ^
  97. ^
  98. ^
  99. ^
  100. ^
  101. ^
  102. ^
  103. ^
  104. ^
  105. ^
  106. ^ [1]"Anarchists attack science, "Nature", May 28, 2012
  107. ^ Anarchist Eco-Terrorist Tre Arrow To Be Deported, Toronoto Sun, May 6, 2006.
  108. ^ Tre Arrow says he’s not guilty of burning trucks, Portland Tribune, May 4, 2008.
  109. ^ years in prison6 12Tre Arrow sentenced to , Oregon Live, August 12, 2008.
  110. ^
  111. ^ Hunting America's Most Wanted Eco-Terrorist : Rolling Stone
  112. ^ Eco-arsonist Sentenced to 78 Months Prison, Most Wanted Hoes, August 13, 2008.
  113. ^
  114. ^ About Eric McDavid's Sentencing, Animal Liberation Front Website, May 11, 2008.
  115. ^ Update, Support Eric, February 16, 2006.
  116. ^ a b Eco-Terror Suspect Guilty in Bomb Plot, News 10, September 27, 2007.
  117. ^ Updates, Support Eric.
  118. ^
  119. ^ [
  120. ^
  121. ^ McDavid Sentenced to 20 Years in Prison as a “Terrorist”, Green Is The New Red, May 9, 2008.
  122. ^ 'Eco-terrorist' gets 20 years for plotting bombing campaign 'Eco-terrorist' gets 20 years for plotting bombing campaign, Turkish Press, May 9, 2008.
  123. ^ Statement from Joshua Harper - SHAC 7, Infoshop, July 17, 2008.
  124. ^ Eco-Terrorism: Extremism in the Animal Rights and Environmental Movements, Anti-Defamation League, 2005.
  125. ^ Conflict Industry, Fur Commission USA, August 12, 2001.
  126. ^ Six Animal Rights Advocates Are Convicted Of Terrorism, New York Times, March 3, 2006
  127. ^ Newsletter 150, The Nuclear Resister.
  128. ^ Prisoner Addresses, Earth Liberation Prisoner Support Network.
  129. ^ Support Nicole
  130. ^ Support Nicole Vosper - Green Anarchist / SHAC Prisoner, Indymedia UK, March 19, 2009.
  131. ^ Support Marie Mason - Green Anarchist / Green Scare[2].


  • Biehl, Janet. Finding our Way. Rethinking Ecofeminist Politics (1991) ISBN 0-921689-78-0
  • Biehl, Janet. Ecofascism: Lessons from the German Experience (1996) ISBN 1-873176-73-2
  • Biehl, Janet. The Politics of Social Ecology: Libertarian Municipalism (1997) ISBN 1-55164-100-3
  • Biehl, Janet. The Murray Bookchin Reader (1997) ISBN 0-304-33874-5
  • Biehl, Janet. Mumford Gutkind Bookchin: The Emergence of Eco-Decentralism (2011) ISBN 978-82-93064-10-7
  • Biehl, Janet and Staudenmaier, Peter). Ecofascism: Lessons from the German Experience (1995)
  • Bookchin, Murray. Our Synthetic Environment (1962) published under the pseudonym of Lewis Herber
  • Bookchin, Murray. Post-Scarcity Anarchism (1971 and 2004) ISBN 1-904859-06-2.
  • Bookchin, Murray. The Limits of the City (1973) ISBN 0-06-091013-5.
  • Bookchin, Murray. Toward an Ecological Society (1980) ISBN 0-919618-98-7.
  • Bookchin, Murray. The Rise of Urbanization and the Decline of Citizenship (1987 and 1992) ISBN 978-0-87156-706-2
  • Bookchin, Murray. The Philosophy of Social Ecology: Essays on Dialectical Naturalism (1990 and 1996) Montreal: Black Rose Books ISBN 978-1-55164-019-8
  • Bookchin, Murray. Re-Enchanting Humanity (1995) ISBN 0-304-32843-X.
  • Bookchin, Murray. Social Ecology and Communalism, with Eirik Eiglad, AK Press, 2007
  • CrimethInc. Days of War, Nights of Love – Crimethink For Beginners (2001)
  • CrimethInc. Recipes for Disaster – An Anarchist Cookbook (2004)
  • CrimethInc. Expect Resistance – A crimethink field manual (2007)
  • CrimethInc. Work – An economic and ethical analysis of capitalism (2011)
  • Ellul, Jacques. La technique ou l'enjeu du siècle. Paris: Armand Colin, 1954. Paris: Économica, 1990 & 2008
  • Ellul, Jacques. The Technological Society. Trans. John Wilkinson. New York: Knopf, 1964. London: Jonathan Cape, 1965. Rev. ed.: New York: Knopf/Vintage, 1967. with introduction by Robert K. Merton (professor of sociology, Columbia University).
  • Ellul, Jacques. The Technological System. Trans. Joachim Neugroschel. New York: Continuum, 1980.
  • Sierra Club Books, ISBN 0-87156-417-3 Republished 2004 by Chelsea Green Publishing Company, ISBN 978-1-931498-56-2
  • Jensen, Derrick. 1995, Railroads and Clearcuts: Legacy of Congress's 1864 Northern Pacific Railroad Land Grant (with George Draffan and John Osborn), Keokee Company Publishing, ISBN 1-879628-08-2
  • Jensen, Derrick. 2000, A Language Older Than Words, Context Books, ISBN 1-893956-03-2 Republished 2004 by Chelsea Green Publishing Company, ISBN 978-1-931498-55-5
  • Jensen, Derrick. 2002 The Culture of Make Believe, New York: Context Books, ISBN 1-893956-28-8 Republished 2004 by Chelsea Green Publishing Company, ISBN 978-1-931498-57-9
  • Jensen, Derrick. 2003, Strangely Like War: The Global Assault on Forests (with George Draffan), Chelsea Green, ISBN 978-1-931498-45-6
  • Jensen, Derrick. 2004, Welcome to the Machine: Science, Surveillance, and the Culture of Control (with George Draffan), Chelsea Green Publishing Company, ISBN 1-931498-52-0
  • Jensen, Derrick. 2005, Walking on Water: Reading, Writing, and Revolution, Chelsea Green, ISBN 978-1-931498-78-4
  • Jensen, Derrick. 2006, Endgame, Volume 1: The Problem of Civilization, Seven Stories Press, ISBN 1-58322-730-X
  • Jensen, Derrick. 2006, Endgame, Volume 2: Resistance, Seven Stories Press, ISBN 1-58322-724-5
  • Jensen, Derrick. 2007, Thought to Exist in the Wild: Awakening from the Nightmare of Zoos (with Karen Tweedy-Holmes), No Voice Unheard, ISBN 978-0-9728387-1-9
  • Jensen, Derrick. 2007, As the World Burns: 50 Simple Things You Can Do to Stay in Denial (with Stephanie McMillan), Seven Stories Press, ISBN 1-58322-777-6
  • Jensen, Derrick. 2008, How Shall I Live My Life?: On Liberating the Earth from Civilization, PM Press, ISBN 978-1-60486-003-0
  • Jensen, Derrick. 2010, Lives Less Valuable, PM Press, ISBN 978-1-60486-045-0
  • Jensen, Derrick. 2010, Resistance Against Empire, PM Press, ISBN 978-1-60486-046-7
  • Jensen, Derrick. 2010, Mischief in the Forest: A Yarn Yarn (with Stephanie McMillan), PM Press, ISBN 978-1-60486-081-8
  • Jensen, Derrick. 2011, Deep Green Resistance (with Lierre Keith and Aric McBay), Seven Stories Press, ISBN 978-1-58322-929-3
  • Jensen, Derrick. 2011, Truths Among Us: Conversations on Building a New Culture, PM Press, ISBN 978-1-60486-299-7
  • Jensen, Derrick. 2012, The Derrick Jensen Reader: Writings on Environmental Revolution (edited by Lierre Keith), Seven Stories Press, ISBN 978-1-60980-404-6 (pbk.)
  • Jensen, Derrick. 2012, Earth at Risk: Building a Resistance Movement to Save the Planet (edited by D.J. and Lierre Keith), PM Press, ISBN 978-1-60486-674-2
  • Kohr, Leopold. The Breakdown of Nations, Routledge & K. Paul, 1957 (1986 Routledge version at; Chelsea Green Publishing Company edition, 2001.
  • Kohr, Leopold. The Overdeveloped Nations: The Diseconomies Of Scale, Schocken, 1978.
  • Kohr, Leopold. *"Disunion Now: A Plea for a Society based upon Small Autonomous Units", originally published in The Commonweal (26 September 1941) under the pseudonym Hans Kohr.Telos 91 (Spring 1992). New York: Telos Press. 1941
  • Mannin, Ethel. Small is Beautiful: Selected Writings from the complete works. Posthumous collection, Vienna, 1995.
  • Mannin, Ethel. Bread and Roses: A Utopian Survey and Blue-Print. 1944
  • Perlman, Fredy. Against His-Story, Against Leviathan [3]
  • Puente, Isaac. El Comunismo Libertario y otras proclamas insurreccionales y naturistas. 1933
  • Thoreau, Henry David. Walden; or, Life in the Woods. 1854
  • Zerzan, John. Future Primitive Revisited. Feral House, May 2012.
  • Zerzan, John. Origins of the 1%: The Bronze Age pamphlet. Left Bank Books, 2012.
  • Zerzan, John. Origins: A John Zerzan Reader. Joint publication of FC Press and Black and Green Press, 2010.
  • Zerzan, John. Twilight of the Machines. Feral House, 2008.
  • Zerzan, John. Running On Emptiness. Feral House, 2002.
  • Zerzan, John. Against Civilization (editor). Uncivilized Books, 1999; Expanded edition, Feral House, 2005.
  • Zerzan, John. Future Primitive. Autonomedia, 1994.
  • Zerzan, John. Questioning Technology (co-edited with Alice Carnes). Freedom Press, 1988; 2d edition, New Society, 1991, ISBN 978-0-900384-44-8
  • Zerzan, John. Elements of Refusal. Left Bank Books, 1988; 2d edition, C.A.L. Press, 1999.

External links

  • The Institute for Social Ecology
  • Articles tagged with "green" and "ecology" at The Anarchist Library
  • Green Anarchy
  • Primitivism
  • Tiamat Publications
  • The News from Nowhere Practical Green Anarchist ideas and theory
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.