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Guangdong Province
Name transcription(s)
 • Chinese 广东省 (Guǎngdōng Shěng)
 • Abbreviation simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: (pinyin: Yuè, Jyutping: Jyut6, Yale: Yuht)
 • Cantonese Jyutping Gwong2 Dung1 Saang2
 • Cantonese Yale Gwóngdūng Sáang
 • Hakka Pinyim Gong3 Dung1 Sen3
 • Teochew Peng'im Guang2 Dong1 Sên2
Map showing the location of Guangdong Province
Map showing the location of Guangdong Province
Named for 广 guǎng – "Wide"
dōng – "East"
Lit. "The Eastern Expanse"
(and largest city)
Divisions 21 prefectures, 121 counties, 1642 townships
 • Secretary Hu Chunhua
 • Governor Zhu Xiaodan
 • Total 179,800 km2 (69,400 sq mi)
Area rank 15th
Population (2012)[2]
 • Total 105,940,000
 • Rank 1st
 • Density 590/km2 (1,500/sq mi)
 • Density rank 7th
 • Ethnic composition Han – 99%
Zhuang – 0.7%
Yao – 0.2%
 • Languages and dialects Yue, Hakka, Teochew, Leizhou Min, Tuhua, Mandarin, Zhuang
ISO 3166 code CN-44
GDP (2013) CNY 6.22 trillion
US$ 1.015 trillion[3] (1st)
 - per capita CNY 58,712
US$ 9,578 (8th)
HDI (2010) 0.730[4] (high) (7th)
(Simplified Chinese characters)
Simplified Chinese 广东
Traditional Chinese 廣東
Cantonese Jyutping gwong2 dung1
Cantonese Yale Gwóngdūng
Hanyu Pinyin Guǎngdōng
Postal Map Kwangtung

Guangdong (simplified Chinese: 广东; traditional Chinese: 廣東; pinyin: Guǎngdōng; Jyutping: gwong2 dung1) is a province on the South China Sea coast of the People's Republic of China. Formerly known as Canton or Kwangtung in English, Guangdong surpassed Henan and Sichuan to become the most populous province in China in January 2005, registering 79.1 million permanent residents and 31 million migrants who lived in the province for at least six months of the year;[5][6] the total population was 104,303,132 at the 2010 census, accounting for 7.79 percent of Mainland China's population.[7] The provincial capital Guangzhou and economic hub Shenzhen are among the most populous and important cities in China. The population increase since the census has been modest, the province at 2013 end had 106,440,000 people.[8]

Since 1989 Guangdong has topped the total GDP rankings among all provincial-level divisions, with Jiangsu and Shandong second and third in rank. According to state statistics, Guangdong's GDP in 2011 reached CNY 5,267 billion, or USD 815.53 billion, making its economy roughly the same size as Netherlands. Furthermore, its 2011 nominal GDP is well over half of India's using 2012 exchange rates. Guangdong has the fourth highest GDP per capita among all provinces of mainland China, after Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Liaoning. The province contributes approximately 12 percent of the PRC's national economic output, and is home to the production facilities and offices of a wide-ranging set of multinational and Chinese corporations. Guangdong also hosts the largest Import and Export fair in China called the Canton Fair in Guangdong's capital city Guangzhou.


  • Name 1
  • History 2
  • Geography 3
  • Economy 4
    • Economic and technological development zones 4.1
  • Demographics 5
    • Religion 5.1
  • Politics 6
    • Relations with Hong Kong and Macau 6.1
  • Media 7
  • Culture 8
  • Education 9
    • Colleges and universities 9.1
      • National 9.1.1
      • Provincial 9.1.2
  • Sports 10
  • Tourism 11
  • Administrative divisions 12
    • Metropolitan areas 12.1
  • See also 13
  • References 14
  • External links 15


"Guang" itself means "expanse" or "vast", and has been associated with the region since the creation of Guang Prefecture in AD 226.[9] "Guangdong" and neighbouring Guangxi literally mean "expanse east" and "expanse west". Together, Guangdong and Guangxi are called Liangguang (Liangkwang; Chinese: 兩廣; literally: "Two Expanses"). During the Song dynasty, the Two Guangs were formally separated as Guangnan Donglu (廣南東路,“vast south east region") and Guangnan Xilu (廣南西路, "vast south west region"), which became abbreviated as Guangdong lu (廣東路) and Guangxi lu (廣西路). The modern abbreviation Yue (/) is a shortened form of Baiyue (百越), a collective name for various peoples that lived in southern China in ancient times.

One should note that "Canton", though etymologically derived from Cantão (the Portuguese transliteration of "Guangdong"), refers only to the provincial capital instead of the whole province, as documented by authoritative English dictionaries. The local people of the city of Guangzhou (Canton) and their language are still commonly referred to as Cantonese in English. Because of the prestige of Canton and its accent, Cantonese sensu lato can also be used for the phylogenetically related residents and Chinese dialects outside the provincial capital.


In prehistoric times, Guangdong was inhabited by the peoples known as the Baiyue. These groups were not ethnically Chinese.

Chinese administration and reliable historical records in the region began with the Qin Dynasty. After establishing the first unified Chinese empire, the Qin expanded southwards and set up Nanhai Commandery at Panyu, near what is now part of Guangzhou. The region was independent as Nanyue between the fall of Qin and the reign of Emperor Wu of Han. The Han Dynasty administered Guangdong, Guangxi, and northern Vietnam as Jiaozhi Province. Under the Wu Kingdom of the Three Kingdoms period, Guangdong was made its own province, the Guang Province, in 226.

As time passed, the demographics of what is now Guangdong slowly shifted to (Han) Chinese dominance, especially during several periods of massive migration from the north during periods of political turmoil and/or nomadic incursions from the fall of the Han Dynasty onwards. For example, internal strife in northern China following the rebellion of An Lushan resulted in a 75 percent increase in the population of Guangzhou prefecture between 740s–750s and 800s–810s.[10] As more migrants arrived, the local population was gradually assimilated to Han Chinese culture,[11] or displaced. From the tenth to twelfth century, Persian women were to be found in Guangzhou (Canton), some of them in the tenth century like Mei Zhu in the harem of the Emperor Liu Chang, and in the twelfth century large numbers of Persian women lived there, noted for wearing multiple earrings and "quarrelsome dispositions".[12][13] Multiple women originating from the Persian Gulf lived in Guangzhou's foreign quarter, they were all called "Persian women" (Chinese: 波斯婦; pinyin: Bosifu; Jyutping: Po-ssu-fu).[14]

Together with Guangxi, Guangdong was made part of Lingnan Circuit (political division Circuit), or Mountain-South Circuit, in 627 during the Tang Dynasty. The Guangdong part of Lingnan Circuit was renamed Guangnan East Circuit guǎng nán dōng lù in 971 during the Song Dynasty (960–1279). "Guangnan East" is the source of "Guangdong".

As Mongols from the north engaged in their conquest of China in the 13th century, the Southern Song Dynasty retreated southwards, eventually ending up in today's Guangdong. The Battle of Yamen 1279 in Guangdong marked the end of the Southern Song Dynasty (960–1279).

During the Mongol Yuan Dynasty, large parts of current Guangdong belonged to Jiangxi Province.[15] Its present name, "Guangdong Province" was given in early Ming Dynasty.

Since the 16th century, Guangdong has had extensive trade links with the rest of the world. European merchants coming northwards via the Straits of Malacca and the South China Sea, particularly the Portuguese and British, traded extensively through Guangzhou. Macau, on the southern coast of Guangdong, was the first European settlement in 1557.

In the 19th century, the opium traded through Guangzhou triggered the First Opium War, opening an era of foreign incursion and intervention in China. In addition to Macau, which was then a Portuguese colony, Hong Kong was ceded to the British, and Kwang-Chou-Wan to the French.

Guangdong was also the major port of exit for labourers to Southeast Asia and the West in the 19th century, such as to the United States and Canada. As a result, many overseas Chinese communities have their origins in Guangdong. The Cantonese language therefore has proportionately more speakers among overseas Chinese people than mainland Chinese. Consequently, many Mandarin Chinese words originally of foreign origin come from the original foreign language by way of Cantonese. For example, the Mandarin word ningmeng (檸檬), meaning "Lemon", came from Cantonese, in which the characters are pronounced as lìng mung.[16][17] In the United States, there is a large number of Chinese who are descendants of immigrants from the city of Taishan (Toisan in Cantonese), who speak a distinctive dialect related to Cantonese called Taishanese (or Toishanese).

During the 1850s, the Taiping Rebellion, whose leader Hong Xiuquan was born in Guangdong and received a pamphlet from a Protestant Christian missionary in Guangdong, became a widespread civil war in southern China. Because of direct contact with the West, Guangdong was the center of anti-Manchu and anti-imperialist activity. The generally acknowledged founder of modern China, Sun Yat-sen, was also from Guangdong.

During the early 1920s of the Republic of China, Guangdong was the staging area for Kuomintang (KMT) to prepare for the Northern Expedition, an effort to bring the various warlords of China back under the central government. Whampoa Military Academy was built near Guangzhou to train military commanders.

In recent years, the province has seen extremely rapid economic growth, aided in part by its close trading links with Hong Kong, which borders it. It is now the province with the highest gross domestic product in China.

In 1952, a small section of Guangdong's coastline was given to Guangxi, giving it access to the sea. This was reversed in 1955, and then restored in 1965. Hainan Island was originally part of Guangdong but it was separated as its own province in 1988.


Guangdong faces the South China Sea to the south and has a total of 4,300 km (2,700 mi) of coastline. Leizhou Peninsula is on the southwestern end of the province. There are a few inactive volcanoes on Leizhou Peninsula. The Pearl River Delta is the convergent point of three upstream rivers: the East River, North River, and West River. The river delta is filled with hundreds of small islands. The province is geographically separated from the north by a few mountain ranges collectively called the Nan Mountains (Nan Ling). The highest peak in the province is Shikengkong 1,902 meters above sea level.

Guangdong borders Fujian province to the northeast, Jiangxi and Hunan provinces to the north, Guangxi autonomous region to the west, and Hong Kong and Macau Special Administrative Regions to the south. Hainan province is offshore across from the Leizhou Peninsula. Certain of the Pratas Islands which have traditionally been regarded as part of Guangdong Province are administered by the Government of the Republic of China on Taiwan.[18]

Cities around the Pearl River Delta include Dongguan, Foshan, Guangzhou, Huizhou, Jiangmen, Shenzhen, Shunde, Taishan, Zhongshan and Zhuhai. Other cities in the province include Chaozhou, Chenghai, Kaiping, Nanhai, Shantou, Shaoguan, Xinhui, Zhanjiang, Zhaoqing, Yangjiang and Yunfu.

Guangdong has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa inland, Cwa along the coast), though nearing a tropical climate in the far south. Winters are short, mild, and relatively dry, while summers are long, hot, and very wet. Average daily highs in Guangzhou in January and July are 18 °C (64 °F) and 33 °C (91 °F) respectively, although the humidity makes it feel much hotter in summer. Frost is rare on the coast but may happen a few days each winter well inland.


The economy of Guangdong is large enough to be comparable to that of many countries. in 2012, the gross domestic product (GDP) is about $904.05 billion, Guangdong has been the largest province by GDP since 1989 in Mainland China. Guangdong is responsible for 10.99 percent of the China' $8.23 trillion GDP. Guangdong's GDP is larger than that of Indonesia ranking 16th in terms of US dollar or Purchasing Power Parity. Comparable to that of country subdivisions in dollar terms, Guangdong's GDP is larger than that of all but 6 country subdivisions: England, California, Texas, New York and Tokyo. It is comparable to the GDP of the Los Angeles metropolitan area.

Shops in one of the streets of Guangzhou specialize in selling various electronic components, supplying the needs of local consumer electronics manufacturers. The shop in front is in the LED business.
This is a trend of official estimates of the gross domestic product of the Province of Guangdong with figures in millions of Chinese Yuan:
Year Gross domestic product
1980 24,521
1985 55,305
1990 140,184
1995 538,132
2000 966,223
2008 3,570,000
2009 3,908,159
2010 4,596,300

After the communist revolution and until the start of the Deng Xiaoping reforms in 1978, Guangdong was an economic backwater, although a large underground, service-based economy has always existed. Economic development policies encouraged industrial development in the interior provinces which were weakly joined to Guangdong via transportation links. The government policy of economic autarky made Guangdong's access to the ocean irrelevant.

Deng Xiaoping's open door policy radically changed the economy of the province as it was able to take advantage of its access to the ocean, proximity to Hong Kong, and historical links to overseas Chinese. In addition, until the 1990s when the Chinese taxation system was reformed, the province benefited from the relatively low rate of taxation placed on it by the central government due to its post-Liberation status of being economically backward.

Guangdong's economic boom began with the early 1990s and has since spread to neighboring provinces, and also pulled their populations inward. The economic growth of Guangdong province owes much to the low-value added manufacturing which characterized (and in many ways still defines) the province's economy following Deng Xiaoping's reforms. Guangdong is not only China's largest exporter of goods, it is the country's largest importer as well.[19]

The province is now one of the richest in the nation, with the most billionaires in mainland China,[20] the highest GDP among all the provinces, although wage growth has only recently begun to rise due to a large influx of migrant workers from neighboring provinces. In 2011, Guangdong's aggregate nominal GDP reached 5.30 trillion RMB (US$838.60 billion) with a per capita GDP of 47,689 RMB.[21] By 2015, the local government of Guangdong hopes that the service industry will account for more than 50 percent of the provinces GDP and high-tech manufacturing another 20 percent.[19]

In 2009, Guangdong's primary, secondary, and tertiary industries were worth 201 billion yuan, 1.93 trillion yuan, and 1.78 trillion yuan respectively.[22] Its per capita GDP reached 40,748 yuan (about US$5,965).[23] Guangdong contributes approximately 12% of the total national economic output.[24] Now, it has three of the six Special Economic Zones: Shenzhen, Shantou and Zhuhai. The affluence of Guangdong, however, remains very concentrated near the Pearl River Delta.

In 2008 its foreign trade also grew 7.8% from the previous year and is also by far the largest of all of China. By numbers, Guangdong's foreign trade accounts for more than a quarter of China's US$2.56 trillion foreign trade or roughly US$683 billion.[25]

Economic and technological development zones

  • Foshan National New & Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone[26]
  • Guangzhou Development District
  • Guangzhou Export Processing Zone
  • Guangzhou Free Trade Zone
  • Guangzhou Nansha Economic and Technical Development Zone
  • Guangzhou Nanhu Lake Tourist Holiday Resort (Chinese Version)
  • Guangzhou New & Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone
  • Huizhou Dayawan Economic and Technological Development Zone
  • Huizhou Export Processing Zone
  • Huizhou Zhongkai Hi-Tech Development Zone
  • Shantou Free Trade Zone
  • Shatoujiao Free Trade Zone
  • Shenzhen Export Processing Zone
  • Shenzhen Futian Free Trade Zone[27]
  • Shenzhen Hi-Tech Industrial Park
  • Yantian Port Free Trade Zone
  • Zhanjiang Economic and Technological Development Zone (Chinese Version)
  • Zhuhai National Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone
  • Zhuhai Free Trade Zone
  • Zhongshan Torch High-tech Industrial Development Zone


Guangdong officially became the most populous province in January 2005.[5][6] Official statistics had traditionally placed Guangdong as the 4th most populous province of China with about 80 million people (also, Sichuan, traditionally the most populous province, was divided into Sichuan and Chongqing in 1997) but recently released information suggests that there are an additional 30 million migrants who reside in Guangdong for at least six months every year, making it the most populous province with a population of more than 110 million.[28] The massive influx of migrants from other provinces, dubbed the "floating population", is due to Guangdong's booming economy and high demand for labor. If Guangdong were an independent nation, it would rank among the twenty largest countries of the world by population, more populous than France, Germany, or the United Kingdom, and more populous than the largest three US states (California, Texas, and New York) combined.

Guangdong is also the ancestral home of large numbers of overseas Chinese. Most of the railroad laborers in Canada, Western United States and Panama in the 19th century came from Guangdong. Many people from the region also travelled to the US / California during the gold rush of 1849, and also to Australia during its gold rush a decade or so later. Emigration in recent years has slowed with economic prosperity, but this province is still a major source of immigrants to North America and elsewhere in the world.

The majority of the province's population is Han Chinese. Within the Han Chinese, the largest subgroup in Guangdong are the Cantonese people. Two other major groups are the Teochew people in Chaoshan and the Hakka people in Huizhou, Meizhou, Heyuan, Shaoguan and Zhanjiang. There is a small Yao population in the north. Other smaller minority groups include She, Miao, Li, and Zhuang.

Guangdong has a highly unbalanced gender ratio that is among the highest of all provinces in China. According to a 2009 study published in the British Medical Journal, in the 1–4 age group, there are over 130 boys for every 100 girls.[29]


Religion in Guangdong (2012)[30]

  Non religious and traditional faiths (92.7%)
  Buddhism (6.2%)
  Protestantism (0.8%)
  Catholicism (0.2%)
The richly decorated altar of a Chinese folk religion temple in Shantou.

According to a 2012 survey[30] only around 7% of the population of Guangdong belongs to organised religions, the largest groups being Buddhists with 6.2%, followed by Protestants with 0.8% and Catholics with 0.2%. Around 93% of the population is non religious or partakes in traditional folk religions, Taoist rites, worship of gods, and veneration of ancestors.


Guangdong is governed by a dual-party system like the rest of China. The Governor is in charge of provincial affairs; however, the Communist Party Secretary, often from outside of Guangdong, keeps the Governor in check.

Relations with Hong Kong and Macau

Hong Kong and Macau, while historically parts of Guangdong before becoming colonies of the United Kingdom and Portugal respectively, are special administrative regions (SARs). Furthermore, the Basic Laws of both SARs explicitly forbid provincial governments from intervening in local politics. As a result, many issues with Hong Kong and Macau, such as border policy and water rights, have been settled by negotiations between the SARs' governments and the Guangdong provincial government.


Guangdong and the greater Guangzhou area are served by several Radio Guangdong stations, Guangdong Television, Southern Television Guangdong, Shenzhen Television, and Guangzhou Television. There is an English programme produced by Radio Guangdong which broadcasts information about this region to the entire world through the WRN Broadcast.


The central region, which is also the political and economic center, is populated predominantly by Cantonese speakers, though the influx in the last three decades of millions of Mandarin-speaking immigrants has diminished Cantonese linguistic dominance. This region is associated with Cantonese cuisine. Cantonese opera is a form of Chinese opera popular in Cantonese speaking areas. Related Yue dialects are spoken in most of the western half of the province.

The area comprising the cities of Chaozhou, Shantou and Jieyang in coastal east Guangdong, known as Chaoshan, forms its own cultural sphere. The Teochew people here, alongside with Hailufeng people in Shanwei, speak Teochew, which is a Min dialect closely related to Min-nan and their cuisine is Teochew cuisine. Teochew opera is also well-known and has a unique form.

The Hakka people live in large areas of Guangdong, including Huizhou, Meizhou, Shenzhen, Heyuan, Shaoguan and other areas. Much of the Eastern part of Guangdong is populated by the Hakka people except for the Chaozhou and Hailufeng area. Hakka culture include Hakka cuisine, Han opera (simplified Chinese: 汉剧; traditional Chinese: 漢劇), Hakka Hanyue and sixian (traditional instrumental music) and Hakka folk songs (客家山歌).

Zhanjiang in southern Guangdong is populated by Hai'nan dialect (or Leizhou dialect as referred locally) speakers, Cantonese and Hakka are also spoken there.

Mandarin is the language used in education and government and in areas where there are migrants from other provinces, above all in Shenzhen. Cantonese maintains a strong position in common usage and media, even in eastern areas of the province where the local dialects are non-Yue ones.


Colleges and universities




List of current professional sports clubs based in Guangdong:
Sport League Tier Club City Stadium
Football Chinese Super League 1st Guangzhou Evergrande F.C. Guangzhou Tianhe Stadium
Football Chinese Super League 1st Guangzhou R&F F.C. Guangzhou Yuexiushan Stadium
Football China League One 2nd Shenzhen Ruby Shenzhen Bao'an Stadium
Football China League One 2nd Guangdong Sunray Cave Guangzhou Provincial Stadium
Football China Women's Super League 1st Guangdong Highsun Foshan Century Lotus Stadium
Futsal China Futsal League 1st Guangzhou Sports Act Guangzhou Sports Univ Stadium
Basketball Chinese Basketball Association 1st Guangdong Winnerway Dongguan Dongguan Stadium
Basketball Chinese Basketball Association 1st Dongguan New Century Dongguan Dalang Stadium
Basketball National Basketball League 1st Guangzhou Free Man Guangzhou Mega Center Stadium
Basketball National Basketball League 1st Guangzhou Huangpu Guangzhou Huangpu Stadium
Basketball National Basketball League 1st Guangdong Changan Dongguan Dongguan Stadium
Basketball Women's Basketball Association 1st Guangdong Asia Aluminum Zhaoqing Zhaoqing Stadium
Volleyball Men's Volleyball League Div A 1st Guangdong Jianlong Taishan Taishan Stadium
Volleyball Women's Volleyball League Div A 1st Guangdong Evergrande Guangzhou Guangzhou Sport University
Volleyball Women's Volleyball League Div B 2nd Guangdong Jianlong Taishan Taishan Stadium
Baseball China Baseball League 1st Guangdong Leopards Guangzhou Huangcun Stadium


Notable attractions include Danxia Mountain, Yuexiu Hill in Guangzhou, Star Lake and the Seven Star Crags, Dinghu Mountain, and the Zhongshan Sun Wen Memorial Park for Sun Yat-sen in Zhongshan.

Administrative divisions

Guangdong is divided into twenty-one prefecture-level divisions: all prefecture-level cities (including two sub-provincial cities):
Map # Name Administrative Seat Chinese
Hanyu Pinyin
Population (2010)
Sub-provincial city
9 Guangzhou
(Provincial seat)
Yuexiu District 广州市
Guǎngzhōu Shì
21 Shenzhen Futian District 深圳市
Shēnzhèn Shì
Prefecture-level city
1 Qingyuan Qingcheng District 清远市
Qīngyuǎn Shì
2 Shaoguan Zhenjiang District 韶关市
Sháoguān Shì
3 Heyuan Yuancheng District 河源市
Héyuán Shì
4 Meizhou Meijiang District 梅州市
Méizhōu Shì
5 Chaozhou Fengxi District 潮州市
Cháozhōu Shì
6 Zhaoqing Duanzhou District 肇庆市
Zhàoqìng Shì
7 Yunfu Yuncheng District 云浮市
Yúnfú Shì
8 Foshan Chancheng District 佛山市
Fóshān Shì
10 Dongguan Dongguan
(Nancheng District)
Dōngguǎn Shì
11 Huizhou Huicheng District 惠州市
Hùizhōu Shì
12 Shanwei Chengqu District 汕尾市
Shànwěi Shì
13 Jieyang Rongcheng District 揭阳市
Jiēyáng Shì
14 Shantou Jinping District 汕头市
Shàntóu Shì
15 Zhanjiang Chikan District 湛江市
Zhànjiāng Shì
16 Maoming Maonan District 茂名市
Màomíng Shì
17 Yangjiang Jiangcheng District 阳江市
Yángjiāng Shì
18 Jiangmen Pengjiang District 江门市
Jiāngmén Shì
19 Zhongshan Zhongshan
Zhōngshān Shì
20 Zhuhai Xiangzhou District 珠海市
Zhūhǎi Shì

The above division govern, in total, 49 districts, 30 county-level cities, 42 counties, and three autonomous counties. For county-level divisions, see the list of administrative divisions of Guangdong.

Metropolitan areas

  1. Pearl River Delta
  2. Chaoshan
  3. Zhanjiang
  4. Maoming
  5. Meizhou
  6. Qingyuan
  7. Heyuan
  8. Shanwei
  9. Shaoguan
  10. Yangjiang
  11. Yunfu

See also


  1. ^ "Doing Business in China – Survey". Ministry Of Commerce – People's Republic Of China. Retrieved 5 August 2013. 
  2. ^ "Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People's Republic of China on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census [1] (No. 2)". National Bureau of Statistics of China. 29 April 2011. Retrieved 4 August 2013. 
  3. ^ "China’s Provincial GDP Figures in 2011 | China Briefing News". 27 January 2012. Retrieved 25 April 2012. 
  4. ^ 《2013中国人类发展报告》 (PDF) (in 中文).  
  5. ^ a b English
  6. ^ a b "". Retrieved 25 April 2012. 
  7. ^ China NBS: 6th National Population Census – DATA'
  8. ^
  9. ^ Rongxing Gao (2013). Regional China: A Business and Economic Handbook. Palgrave Macmillian. p. 77.  
  10. ^ "". Retrieved 25 April 2012. 
  11. ^ "". Retrieved 25 April 2012. 
  12. ^ Walter Joseph Fischel (1951). Semitic and Oriental studies: a volume presented to William Popper, professor of Semitic languages, emeritus, on the occasion of his seventy-fifth birthday, October 29, 1949. University of California Press. p. 407. Retrieved 29 June 2010. 
  13. ^ University of California (1868–1952), University of California (System), University of California, Berkeley (1951). University of California publications in Semitic philology, Volumes 11–12. University of California Press. p. 407. Retrieved 29 June 2010. 
  14. ^ Tōyō Bunko (Japan). Kenkyūbu (1928). Memoirs of the Research Department of the Toyo Bunko (the Oriental Library), Issue 2. the University of Michigan: The Toyo Bunko. p. 34. Retrieved 9 February 2011. 
  15. ^ Zhang Tingyu, et al. (1739). "History of Ming". Vol. 45, Records XXI, Geography VI: 廣東《禹貢》揚州之域及揚州徼外。元置廣東道宣慰使司,治廣州路。屬江西行中書省。
  16. ^ Lydia He Liu (1995). Translingual practice: literature, national culture, and translated modernity—China, 1900–1937 (illustrated, annotated ed.). Stanford University Press. p. 364.  ()
  17. ^
  18. ^ "Sovereignty over the Spratly Islands – The China Post 22 June 2009". 22 June 2009. Retrieved 25 April 2012. 
  19. ^ a b "Guangdong Province: Economic News and Statistics for Guangdong's Economy". Retrieved 25 April 2012. 
  20. ^ (GMT+8) (10 November 2010). "Guangdong Has Most Billionaires in China|Economy|Topics|". Retrieved 25 April 2012. 
  21. ^ "Three provinces lower GDP targets". 14 February 2011. Retrieved 25 April 2012. 
  22. ^ "GDP of 31 provinces in China released". 26 February 2010. Retrieved 25 April 2012. 
  23. ^ "经统计局核定2009年广东省人均GDP接近6000美元". Retrieved 25 April 2012. 
  24. ^ "02-04-2006". 4 February 2006. Retrieved 25 April 2012. 
  25. ^ "Guangdong reports 20% foreign trade growth". 13 January 2008. Retrieved 25 April 2012. 
  26. ^ "Foshan Hi-Tech Development Zone". Retrieved 25 April 2012. 
  27. ^ "Shenzhen Futian Free Trade Zone". Retrieved 25 April 2012. 
  28. ^ "media163". media163. Retrieved 25 April 2012. 
  29. ^ "China’s excess males, sex selective abortion, and one child policy: analysis of data from 2005 national intercensus survey – Zhu et al. 338". Retrieved 25 April 2012. 
  30. ^ a b 当代中国宗教状况报告——基于CFPS(2012)调查数据. p. 013
Economic data
  • Economic profile for Guangdong at HKTDC

External links

  • Guangdong travel guide from Wikivoyage
  • (Chinese) Guangdong provincial government official website
  • (English) (Chinese) Complete Map of the Seven Coastal Provinces from 1821-1850
  • Pictures and comments about life in Guangdong
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