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Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa

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Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa

Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa
حمد بن عيسى آل خليفة
King of Bahrain
Reign 6 March 1999 – present
Coronation 14 February 2002
Predecessor Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa
Heir apparent Salman bin Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa
Prime Minister Khalifa bin Salman Al Khalifa
Born (1950-01-28) 28 January 1950
Riffa, Bahrain
Spouse Sabika bint Ibrahim (1968–present)
Sheia bint Hassan Al-Khrayyesh Al-Ajmi
2 others
Issue
Detail
Salman bin Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa
Abdullah bin Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa
Khalifa bin Hamad Al Khalifa
Najla bint Hamad Al Khalifa
Nasser bin Hamad Al Khalifa
Khalid bin Hamad Al Khalifa
Faisal bin Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa
Sultan bin Hamad Al Khalifa
Hessa bint Hamad Al Khalifa
Nura bint Hamad Al Khalifa
Munira bint Hamad Al Khalifa
Reema bint Hamad Al Khalifa
House House of Khalifa
Father Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa
Mother Hessa bint Salman Al Khalifa
Religion Sunni Islam

Hamad bin Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa (Arabic: حمد بن عيسى بن سلمان آل خليفةḤamad bin ʿĪsā bin Salmān ʾĀl Ḫalīfah; born January 28, 1950) is the 1st King of Bahrain (since 14 February 2002), having previously been its 2nd Emir (from March 6, 1999).[1] He is the son of Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa, the previous and 1st Emir. The country has been ruled by the Al Khalifa dynasty since 1783.

Contents

  • Early life and education 1
  • Crown prince 2
  • Reign 3
    • Political turmoil 3.1
    • Bahraini uprising 3.2
  • Relations with the British court 4
  • Personal life 5
  • Titles and styles 6
  • Honours and awards 7
  • Ancestry 8
  • See also 9
  • References 10
  • External links 11

Early life and education

The Leys School, Cambridge

Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa was born on 28 January 1950 in Riffa, Bahrain.[2] His parents were Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa, then Crown Prince, and Hessa bint Salman Al Khalifa.[3]

After attending Manama secondary school in Bahrain, Hamad was sent to England to attend Applegarth College in Godalming, Surrey before taking a place at The Leys School in Cambridge. Hamad then underwent military training, first with the British Army at Mons Officer Cadet School at Aldershot in Hampshire, graduating in September 1968.[2] Four years later, in June 1972, Hamad attended the United States Army Command and General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth in Kansas, graduating the following June with a degree in leadership.[4][5]

Crown prince

Hamad was designated as heir apparent by his father on 27 June 1964. In 1968, he was appointed as the chairman of the irrigation council and Manama municipal council. He was commissioned into the Bahrain National Guard on 16 February 1968 and appointed as its commander the same year, remaining in that post until 1969 when he was appointed as the commander-in-chief of the Bahrain Defence Force. In 1970, Hamad became the head of the Bahraini department of defence and the vice-chairman of the administrative council, remaining in both offices until 1971. From 1971 to 1988 he was the minister of state for defence.[5]

In October 1977, Hamad started learning to fly helicopters, successfully completing the training in January 1978. He then worked to establish the Bahrain Amiri Air Force,[4] which came into being in 1987 when the defence force air wing was reconstituted as an air force.

Reign

King Hamad with Donald H. Rumsfeld

On the death of his father Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa, Hamad became Emir of Bahrain on 6 March 1999.[1] As Emir, Hamad brought several political reforms to Bahrain. These included the release of all political prisoners, the dissolution of the State Security Court and the abolition of the 1974 Decree on State Security Measures. Additionally, many Bahraini citizens were permitted to return after several years in exile overseas.[6] In 2002, he declared himself king. He enjoys wide executive authorities which include appointing the prime minister and his ministers, commanding the army, chairing the Higher Judicial Council, appointing the parliament's upper half and dissolving its elected lower half.[7](p. 15)

Political turmoil

President Oval Office on 29 November 2004

After Hamad took power in 1999, he focused on attaining stability in a nation riddled with profound tensions after the 1990s uprising. The King succeeded in improving the living standards and in making Bahrain a financial hub. During the period 2003–2010 the majority Shi'ite community accused his government of corruption, discrimination in housing and jobs, recruiting foreigners to the military services and bringing Sunni tribes from Asia to change the demographic composition of the nation.

Although King Hamad's reign has seen the admittance of Shi'ites into positions in the government, there have still been calls for a more equitable distribution of positions and jobs. The Al Khalifa family lead a large number of ministerial and governmental posts including the Ministry of the Interior,[8] Ministry of Justice,[9] the Ministry of Finance,[10] the Ministry of Culture,[11] the Ministry of Foreign Affairs,[12] the Bahrain Economic Development Board[13] and the Supreme Council for Women.[14] Also, the vast majority of significant positions in the Bahrain Defence Force are filled with Sunnis,[15] who account for around a third of the population. King Hamad claims that he is giving an equal chance to all Bahrainis regardless of their sect.

In October 2010, Hamad's government accused 24 Shi'ite Bahraini citizens of forming a terrorist cell linked to Iran and trained in Syria intending to overthrow the regime, and for planning terrorist attacks. Opposition parties denounced the accusations and described it as propaganda. After a few weeks, tension rose again after the controversial Bahraini parliamentary election, 2010 when the main opposition bloc Al Wefaq National Islamic Society with secularist National Democratic Action Society (Waad) complained that the election system was unfair and that there were aims to reduce the number of opposition chairs in the parliament, although the first party won nearly 40% of the available seats.

Bahraini uprising

On 14 February 2011, the tenth anniversary of a referendum in favour of the National Action Charter, and ninth anniversary of the writing of the Constitution of 2002, Bahrain was rocked by protests inspired by the Arab Spring and co-ordinated by a Facebook page named "Day of Rage in Bahrain", a page that was liked by tens of thousands just one week after its creation. The Bahrain government responded with what has been described as a "brutal" crackdown[16][17][18] on the protests, including violations of human rights that caused anger. Later on, demonstrators demanded that Hamad step down.[19] As a result of this "massive" crackdown, Foreign Policy Magazine classified him as ranking 3rd out of 8 of "America's Unsavory Allies" calling him "one of the bad guys the U.S. still supports".[20]

On 11 February, King Hamad ordered that 1,000 Bahraini Dinars (approximately US$2,667) be given to "each family" to celebrate the tenth anniversary of the National Action Charter referendum. Agence France-Presse linked the BD1,000 payments to the 14 February demonstration plans.[21]

On 15 February 2011, Hamad apologized for the deaths of two demonstrators in a rare TV speech and urged an investigation into the incident.[7] Two days later, four protesters were killed and hundreds wounded when protesters were attacked in Pearl Roundabout at 3:00 am local time. The Pearl Roundabout was evacuated and encircled by the Bahraini army. Two days later, Prince Salman, Hamad's son, ordered the withdrawal of army troops from there after the death of another protester caused by live ammunition next to Pearl roundabout. Later on, Hamad showed restraint while demonstrations against him continued for several weeks.[22]

King Hamad with Russian President Vladimir Putin and British business magnate Bernie Ecclestone, Russian Grand Prix. 12 October 2014

During the peak of the Bahraini uprising in mid March 2011, Hamad declared a State of National Safety for three months just after Salman summoned Peninsula Shield Force troops to enter Bahrain. Saudi Arabia deployed about 1,000 troops with armored support, and the United Arab Emirates deployed about 500 police officers. Opposition parties reacted strongly, calling it an "occupation". Hamad, however, claimed that he deployed the troops to "protect infrastructure and to secure key installations". After this step, the country's economy suffered losses estimated at billions. The security situation deteriorated in areas where people were demonstrating against him. While dozens of deaths were announced, including five who died in custody as a result of torture.

On 1 June 2011, protests erupted across Shia-dominated areas of Bahrain to demand Hamad's resignation and to end martial law, as he announced that the state of emergency was officially lifted.

In June 2011 Hamad commissioned the Bahrain Independent Commission of Inquiry, headed by respected human rights lawyer M. Cherif Bassiouni, to look into the events surrounding the unrest. The establishment of the BICI was praised by Barack Obama and the international community[23][24] as a step towards establishing responsibility and accountability for the events of the 2011–2012 Bahraini uprising. The BICI reported its findings in November 2011 and US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton "commend[ed] King Hamad bin Isa al-Khalifa's initiative in commissioning it".[25] In August 2012, Amnesty International stated that "the government's response has only scratched the surface of these issues. Reforms have been piecemeal, perhaps aiming to appease Bahrain's international partners, and have failed to provide real accountability and justice for the victims."[26]

Relations with the British court

King Hamad has good contacts with the British royal family. The king was invited by the British court to the wedding of Prince William, but declined amidst protests by human rights activists, who had pledged to disrupt his stay in Britain because of his violent response to demonstrators.[27] Earlier, in 2005, he was the only sitting foreign head of state to attend the second wedding of Prince Charles.

His attendance at the May 2012 Sovereign Monarchs' lunch, to celebrate the Diamond Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II, caused some controversy, given the criticisms of his regime's human rights record.[28]

Personal life

Hamad has four wives and has had in total twelve children: seven sons and five daughters:[5]

  • His third wife, a daughter of Shaikh Faisal bin Muhammad bin Shuraim Al Marri, with whom he has one son and two daughters:
    • Faisal bin Hamad Al Khalifa (February 12, 1991 – January 12, 2006), died in a car accident
    • Noura bint Hamad Al Khalifa (born November 6, 1993)
    • Munira bint Hamad Al Khalifa (born July 15, 1995)
  • His fourth wife, a daughter of Jabor Al Naimi, with whom he has one son and two daughters:
    • Sultan bin Hamad Al Khalifa
    • Hessa bint Hamad Al Khalifa
    • Rima bint Hamad Al Khalifa

Titles and styles

Styles of
The King of Bahrain
Reference style His Majesty
Spoken style Your Majesty
Alternative style Sire
  • January 28, 1950 – December 16, 1961: Sheikh Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa
  • December 16, 1961 – June 27, 1964: His Excellency Sheikh Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa
  • June 27, 1964 – March 6, 1999: His Highness Sheikh Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa, Crown Prince of Bahrain
  • March 6, 1999 – February 14, 2002: His Highness Sheikh Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa, Emir of Bahrain
  • February 14, 2002 – present: His Majesty King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa, King of Bahrain[1]

Honours and awards

King Hamad has received numerous honours, for example:

Ancestry

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c "Country Profiles Bahrain" The Arab Center for the Development of the Rule of Law and Integrity Retrieved 1 December 2010
  2. ^ a b
  3. ^
  4. ^ a b
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t
  6. ^
  7. ^ a b
  8. ^
  9. ^
  10. ^
  11. ^
  12. ^
  13. ^
  14. ^
  15. ^
  16. ^ Law, Bill (6 April 2011). "Police Brutality Turns Bahrain Into 'Island of Fear'. Crossing Continents (via BBC News). Retrieved 15 April 2011.
  17. ^ Press release (30 March 2011). "USA Emphatic Support to Saudi Arabia". Zayd Alisa (via Scoop). Retrieved 15 April 2011.
  18. ^ Cockburn, Patrick (18 March 2011). "The Footage That Reveals the Brutal Truth About Bahrain's Crackdown – Seven Protest Leaders Arrested as Video Clip Highlights Regime's Ruthless Grip on Power". The Independent. Retrieved 15 April 2011.
  19. ^
  20. ^
  21. ^
  22. ^
  23. ^
  24. ^
  25. ^
  26. ^ "Urgent action: Bahraini activist sentenced to three years". Amnesty International. 21 August 2012. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
  27. ^
  28. ^
  29. ^ Boletín Oficial del Estado

External links

  • The Monarchy – official website of the Bahrain Embassy
  • The New Amir of Bahrain: Marching Sideways, Abdulhadi Khalaf, Civil Society, Volume 9, Issue 100, April 2000
  • The King’s Dilemma: Obstacles to Political Reforms In Bahrain PDF (227 KB), Abdulhadi Khalaf, Fourth Mediterranean Social and Political Research Meeting, European University Institute, March 2003
  • Generational change and elite-driven reforms in the Kingdom of Bahrain. (Sir William Luce Fellowship Paper No. 7) Dr. Steven Wright (2006) Institute for Middle East and Islamic Studies, University of Durham, (PDF Format)
  • Bahrian: The Royals rule, Le Monde Diplomatique, March 2005
  • An Arab exception: Reform in Bahrain The Economist, 29 July 2004 (requires subscription)
  • Genealogy of the Al-Khalifa Dynasty, Page 10 – The Royal Ark
Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa
Born: 28 January 1950
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa
King of Bahrain
1999–present
Incumbent
Heir apparent:
Salman bin Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa
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