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Henry Bakis

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Henry Bakis

Henry Bakis is professor of geography at the University of Montpellier. His research has mainly focused on industry, firms and ICT geography (information and communications technologies).[1]


  • Biography 1
  • Scope of work 2
    • Spatial heterogeneity 2.1
    • Geocybergeography 2.2
  • Main publications 3
    • Books 3.1
    • Translations from French 3.2
    • Journals, papers and book chapters 3.3
    • Video 3.4
    • Other 3.5
  • References 4
  • External links 5
  • Notes 6


Bakis plays an active role in the International Geographical Union commission dedicated to ICT: executive secretary, chairman or vice-chair of the commissions dedicated to ICT (since 1985),[2] He founded the Communication Newsletter Geography (1985) [3] and the journal Netcom (1987) on communication and territories.[4]

He was researcher at the French CNET [5] from 1978 to 1995) He was associated research director at University of Paris IV-Sorbonne from 1991 to 1996.

Scope of work

Since the end of the 1970s Bakis calls for the study of telecommunications and ICT systems from the geographical point of view.[6] He "did pioneering work through important scientific production".[7]

Spatial heterogeneity

The work of Bakis demonstrates that ICT does not lead to the "death of distance", or "the end of geography " in spite of the assertions of some futurologists as Richard O'Brien,[8] Frances Cairncross,[9] Kenichi Ohmae.[10] ICT would minimize the importance of geographical locations, the development of networks but simultaneously leads to greater spatial heterogeneity with enhanced polarization and metropolisation. The development of infrastructure networks is closely related to demographic, social and economic pre-existing environment. Bakis dismissed the unfounded hopes of positive spatial effects.

Bakis wrote that despite the development of infrastructure and communications services "space continues to be differentiated and this is one of the reasons why networks are heterogeneous" [11]


Bakis is considered as the "inventor of the concept of geocybergeography".[12] He considers that human beings still live in a geographical classical space but this space is modified by the use of ICT. Today, it includes new attributes making it more complex. The cyberspace of electronic communication does not substitute nor overlap classical space; instead, it comes to mingle closely with the later at all scales. Bakis termed geocyberspace this contemporary form of geographic space in which are modified: the distance (apparent reduction), time (ubiquitous for some services) and costs.[13]

Main publications


  • BAKIS H. (1977),IBM Une multinationale régionale’’, Presses Universitaires de Grenoble, Grenoble
  • BAKIS H. (1978), La photographie aérienne et spatiale et la télédétection, PUF, Que sais-je?
  • BAKIS H. et GUGLIELMO Raymond (1979), La pétrochimie dans le monde’’, PUF, Que sais-je?
  • BAKIS H. (1984), Géographie des télécommunications’’, PUF, Que sais-je?
  • BAKIS H. (1987), Géopolitique de l’information, PUF, Que sais-je?
  • BAKIS H. (1988), Entreprise, espace, télécommunication. Nouvelles technologies de l’information et organisation de l’espace économique, Paradigme, Caen, 253 p.
  • BAKIS H. (Ed., 1988), Information et organisation spatiale, Paradigme, Caen, 236 p.
  • BAKIS H. (Ed., 1990), Communications et territoires’’, La Documentation française, 404 p.
  • BAKIS H. (1993), Les réseaux et leurs enjeux sociaux’’, PUF, Que sais-je?
  • BAKIS H., ABLER Ronald & ROCHE Edward M. (Editors, 1993), Corporates networks, international telecommunications and interdependence. Perspectives from geography and information systems’’, Belhaven Press (Pinter), London, 232 p.
  • VLEUGEL Jaap M. (author), NIJKAMP Peter (author, editor), BAKIS Henry (contributor) (1994), Missing transport networks in Europe, Akdershot, Brookfield, Avebury, xi, 203 p : ill ; 23 cm ; Bibliogr.: p. 188-203 ; ISBN 1-85628-674-6
  • BAKIS H. et DUPUY Gabriel (Editors 1995), ‘Réseaux de communication’, Annales de géographie, n° 585-586, pp. 451-621
  • BAKIS H. (Editor, 1995), ‘Communication and Political Geography in a Changing World’, Revue Internationale de Science Politique, vol. 16, n° 3, pp. 219–311, Elsevier S. Ltd, Oxford
  • BAKIS H., HOTTES Kalheinz & WEBER Hans-Ulrich (Editors, 1995), 'Telecommunications and emerging spatial and economic organisation', Materialen zur Raumordnung, 47, Bochum, 131 p.
  • BAKIS H. (1995), ‘Télécommunications et quartiers défavorisés’, NETCOM’’, vol. 9, n° H. S., 627 p.
  • ROCHE Edward M. & BAKIS H. (Editors, 1997), ‘’Developments in telecommunications. Between global and local’’, Avebury, 350 p.
  • BAKIS H. et BONIN Muriel (2000), La photographie aérienne et spatiale’’. PUF, Que sais-je ?
  • BAKIS H. & HUH Woo-kung (Editors, 2001), ‘Geocyberspace : Building Territories on the Geographical Space of the 21st Century’, NETCOM, Vol. 15, n° 1-2, pp. 3–153 et vol. 16 (2002), n° 1-2, pp. 3–83
  • BAKIS Henry (Ed. 2001), ‘Réseaux de Télécommunications. Réseaux sociaux’, Bulletin de l’Association de Géographes français, Géographies, 78ème année, n°1, pp. 1–47
  • BAKIS Henry (Ed. 2005), 'Information technologies: from physical networks to digital communities', NETCOM’’, Vol. 19, No 1-2
  • BAKIS Henry, PARADISO Maria, VIDAL Philippe (Editors 2007), ‘Geocyberspace : uses and perspective’, NETCOM’’, Vol. 21, No 3-4, pp. 281-430
  • BAKIS Henry (Ed. 2011), 'New digital uses and territories', NETCOM’’, Vol. 25, No 1-2
  • BAKIS Henry (Ed. 2013), ‘Digital Territories: Case Studies’, NETCOM’’, Vol. 26, No 3-4

Translations from French

  • BAKIS H. (1982), ‘Elements for a geography of telecommunication’, ‘’Geographical Research Forum’’, n° 4, pp. 31-45,
  • BAKIS H. (1982), ‘IBM, una multinazionale régionale’, 198 p. Intr. Pasquale Coppola. Franco Angeli, Collana Geogrfia umana, Milano
  • BAKIS H. (1986), ‘Telecommunication and localisation of activities within firms’, Chap. 2 in HOTTES Karleinz, WEVER Egbert, WEBER Hans-Ulrich (Editors), ‘Technology and Industrial Change in Europe‘, ‘’Materialen, zur Raumordnung’’, Bochum, pp. 10-17
  • BAKIS H. (1987), ‘Geografia delle telecomunicazioni’ pp. 8–69, in ‘’Telecomunicazioni e territorio : contributi per un analisi geografica ed economica delle reti e dei servizi di telecomunicazione’’, Cooperativa di cultura Lorenzo Milani
  • BAKIS H. (1989), ‘’Geografia del potere : l’informazione nelle strategie internazionali’’, Ulisse Edizioni (Turin) et Nuova Ulisse (Bologne), 128 pp., collezione Test , ISBN – 88-414-5012-6
  • BAKIS H. (1991), "Telecomunicaciones espacio y tiempo", in GOMEZ MONT Carmen (Ed.), ‘’Nuevas tecnologias de comunicacion’’, Editorial Trillas, Mexico, pp. 49-60
  • BAKIS H. & LU Zi (2000), ‘ The Change from the Geographical Space to Geocyberspace. Review on the Western Scholars on Regional Effects by Telecommunications’, ‘’ACTA Geographica Sinica’’, Vol.55, No.1, pp 104-111 (chinese)

Journals, papers and book chapters

  • BAKIS H. (1987), ‘Telecommunications and the Global Firm’, in HAMILTON F.E.I. (ed), Industrial change in advanced economies , Croom Helm, London, 1987, pp.130–160
  • BAKIS H. (1988), ‘Technopole et téléport: concepts et réalités’, Problèmes économiques , n° 2082, 6 juillet 1988, pp.12–19
  • BAKIS H. (1993), ‘Economic and Social Geography- Toward the integration of communication networks studies’, pp.1–16 in BAKIS H., ABLER Ronald & ROCHE Edward M. (editors, 1993), Corporates networks, international telecommunications and interdependence. Perspectives from geography and information systems , Belhaven, London, 232 p.
  • BAKIS H. (1996), ‘L’évolution du métier de géographe et les télécommunications. Défis et opportunités pour l’Union Géographique Internationale’, International Geographical Union bulletin, 46, pp. 58–62
  • BAKIS H., ROCHE Edward M. (1997), ‘Cyberspace- The Emerging Nervous System of Global Society and its Spatial Functions’, pp. 1– 12, in ROCHE E. M. & BAKIS H. (Editors, 1997), Developments in telecommunications. Between global and local, Avebury (Aldershot UK, Brookfield USA, Hong Kong, Singapore, Sydney), 350 p.
  • BAKIS H. et ROCHE Edward M. (1998), ‘Cyberspace – The Emerging Nervous System of Global Society and its Spatial Functions’, CYBERGEO , No. 59, mai,
  • BAKIS H. et ROCHE Edward M. (2000), ‘Geography, Technology and Organization’, Chap. 4, in ROCHE Edward Mozley, BLAINE Michael James (Editors), Information technology in Multinational Enterprises , Coll. New Horizons in International Business, Edward Elgard Publishing Ltd., Cheltenham UK, Northampton MA USA, pp.125– 152. Bibliogr: 299-333.
  • BAKIS H. (2001), ‘Understanding the geocyberspace : a major task for geographers and planners in the next decade’, Netcom , vol. 15, n° 1-2, pp. 9–16
  • BAKIS H. (2007),'The geocyberespace revisited : uses and perspectives', NETCOM Vol. 21, N° 3-4, pp. 285–296,
  • BAKIS H., VIDAL Philippe (2010), ‘Geography of the Information Society’, Ch. 5, pp. 71–87, in REBER Bernard & BROSSAUD Claire (eds.), 'Digital Cognitive Technologies. Epistemology and Knowledge Society, ISTE /Wiley


  • BAKIS H. (2010), ‘TIC et Développement numérique des territoires’. Conférence d’ouverture des Journées ‘’DigiPolis. Territoires numériques intelligents’’, Montbéliard, 26 mai. (vidéo 30 minutes)


  • "Liste de publications de H. Bakis (1972-2013)", Université Paul-Valéry Montpellier 3,


  • Autrement (1990), ‘Info-révolution’, n° spécial de la revue, Paris, p. 215 Symbol used for writing an article
  • Boulanger Philippe (2013), "Pour une géopolitique des médias", La revue européenne des medias, N°26-27 21 mars.
  • Cassé Marie-Claude (1995), « Réseaux de télécommunications et production de territoire », in Sciences de la société, n° 35, pp. 61–81 (see pp. 64, 73, 79)
  • Cassé Marie-Claude (1995), ‘Réseaux de télécommunications et construction territoriale’, in R. Ferras & D. Pumain (dir. 1995), Encyclopédie de la géographie, Economica, pp. 1021–1039 (see pp. 1031, 1033, 1037)
  • Chéneau-Loquay Annie (2010), ‘Quelle géographie des TIC dans les espaces en développement ?’, in Christian Bouquet (Ed.), Les géographes et le développement, discours et actions , pp. 213–233, MSHA Bordeaux.[14] (see p. 1).
  • Claval Paul (1995), « Les problématiques géographiques de la communication », Sciences de la société, n° 35, mai, pp. 31–46 (see pp. 41–42)
  • Dupuy Gabriel (2000), Bakis H. et Segui Pons J.M. (Ed.), Géospace et cyberspace , compte rendu, Annales de Géographie, vol. 109, n° 612, p. 218.
  • Eveno Emmanuel (2004), ‘La géographie de la société de l'information: entre abîmes et sommets’, Netcom, vol. 18, n°1-2, pp. 11–87. Symbol used for writing an article
  • Eveno Emmanuel (2004), ‘Le paradigme territorial de la société de l’information’, "Netcom", vol. 18, n°1-2, pp. 89–134.
  • George Pierre (1978), ‘Compte rendu de : H. Bakis, La photographie aérienne et spatiale’, Annales de Géographie, volume 87, n° 484, p. 710
  • Hottes Karlheinz & Peter Graef (1998): 'Research group 17: Geography of communication and telecommunication – Development, activities and ambitions 1984-1998', Aachen,
  • Hottes Karlheinz (1987), ’ The impact of Telematics… ’ in ‘Les espaces de la communication’, Bulletin de l'Idate, Montpellier, n° 26, 1r tr. 1987, pp. 171–187 (p. 182)
  • IdRef, ‘’Le référenciel des autorités sudoc’’. « Henry Bakis »,
  • Méndez Ricardo (1997), Geografia economica, La logica espacial des capitalismo global, Ariel Geografia, Barcelona, 385 p. (see pp. 202 ; 265, 364).
  • Offner Jean-Marc (1994), Compte rendu de Les réseaux et leurs enjeux sociaux, Flux, n° 17, pp. 57–58.
  • Paré Suzanne (1978), "Compte rendu de ‘’ I.B.M., une multinationale régionale", Annales de Géographie, vol. 87, n° 483, pp. 576–577.
  • Robic M.-C., Briend A.-M., Rössler M. (dir. 1996), Géographes face au monde. L'Union géographique internationale et les congrès internationaux de géographie. Paris, L'Harmattan, 1996, 464 p. (pp. 352–353)
  • Santos Milton (1997), La nature de l'espace: technique et temps, raison et émotion, L’Harmattan, Paris, pp. 189–190
  • University Paul-Valéry Montpellier 3 - Thesis directed by H. Bakis :

External links

  • Géographie des télécommunications on French WorldHeritage
  • Netcom website
  • Netcom on French WorldHeritage
  • WorldCat Identities,[15]


  1. ^ Suzanne Paré (1978) ; Paul Claval (1995) ; Cassé Marie-Claude (1995); Gabriel Dupuy (2000).
  2. ^ IGU (2014), C12.14 Geography of the Global Information Society Activities 2012-13, Aharon Kelerman & Mark Wilson (2008),
  3. ^ Newsletter Geography Communication, Centre National d'Etudes Telecommunications, Issy-les-Moulineaux, ISSN: 0988-6222 - .
  4. ^ Networks and Communication Studies, ISSN 0987-6014,
  5. ^ Centre national d'étude des télécommunications - presently France Telecom Research & Development).
  6. ^ Tokyo lectures at Pre-Congress IGU Meetings, published in ‘‘Annales des Géographie’’ (1980) and ‘’Geographical Research Forum’‘ (1982)
  7. ^ A. Cheneau Loquay (2010) p . 213, note 3). Other assessments: "The geography disregarded - effectively before Bakis - the telecommunication" (Karlheinz Hottes 1987, p. 182) ; "The role of Henry Bakis was essential in the short history of this geography ... [he] seeks to convince the geography of the urgently importance to study the informatio-communicative dimensions of space" (Emmanuel Eveno, 2004, p. 98).
  8. ^ Global Financial Integration: The End of Geography, 1992. See: Richard O'Brien (economist)
  9. ^ The death of distance, 2001. "Wireless (...) is killing rent, putting the world in our pockets" (p. 2 ), "The communications revolution is democratic and profoundly liberating, leveling the imbalance between wide and small, rich and poor. The death of distance, overall, shoulds be welcomed and enjoyed." ( p. 6)
  10. ^ The Borderless World Power and Strategy in an Interlinked Economy 1999
  11. ^ Quoted by Milton Santos (1997),La nature de l'espace. Technique et temps, raison et émotion, p. 189
  12. ^ " ... which tends to reconsider the geographical space and to integrate new social activities in virtual spaces interconnected and raised by technologies of networks and flows", Philippe Boulanger (2013), The European Journal Media , N°. 26-27, / 2013/03/21/pour-une-geopolitique-des-medias/
  13. ^ H. Bakis (1997) , p. 17-53 , in E. Roche M. & H. Bakis (eds.) ; H. Bakis (2007), NETCOM, Vol. 21 , N° 3-4 , p. H.Bakis (2013) , 'First approach to the notion of geocyberspace'
  14. ^ [1]
  15. ^ "79 travaux en 126 publications, en 6 langues, détenus par 1296 bibliothèques"
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