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Hispanic culture

Hispanic (Spanish: hispano, hispánico; Portuguese: hispânico, hispano, Galician: hispánico, Basque: hispaniar, Catalan: hispà, hispànic)[1][2] is an ethnonym that denotes a relationship to Spain or, in some definitions, to ancient Hispania, which comprised the Iberian Peninsula including the modern states of Andorra, Portugal, and Spain and the Crown Colony or British Overseas Territories of Gibraltar.[3][4][5] Today, organizations in the United States use the term as a broad catchall to refer to persons with a historical and cultural relationship either with Spain and Portugal or only with Spain, regardless of race.[6][7] However, in the eyes of the US Census Bureau, Hispanics or Latinos can be of any race, any ancestry, any ethnicity, or any country of origin.[8]

Due to the technical distinctions involved in defining "race" vs. "ethnicity," there is confusion among the general population about the designation of Hispanic identity. Currently, the United States Census Bureau defines five race categories:[9]

  • White
  • Black or African American
  • Native American or Alaska Native
  • Asian
  • Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander

Because Hispanic roots are considered to be aligned with a European ancestry (Spain/Portugal), the Hispanic/Latino ancestry is defined solely as an ethnic designation (similar to being Norse or Germanic). Therefore, a person of Hispanic descent is typically defined using both race and ethnicity as an identifier—i.e. Black-Hispanic, White-Hispanic, Asian-Hispanic, Amerindian-Hispanic or "other race" Hispanic.

The term "Hispanic" is broadly used to refer to the culture, peoples, or nations with a historical link to Spain. The term is commonly applied to those countries which were once colonized by Spain, particularly the countries of Latin America which were colonized by Spain. It could be argued that the term cannot be applied to all Spanish-speaking cultures/countries as the historical roots of the word specifically pertain to the Iberian region. It is also difficult to label a culture with one term, such as Hispanic, as the customs, traditions, beliefs and art forms (music, literature, dress, architecture, cuisine or others) vary widely depending on country and even within the regions of said country. The Spanish and Portuguese cultures are the main cultural element shared by Hispanic peoples.[6][7]

Terminology

The term Hispanic is derived from Hispanicus (which derived from Hispania), Hispania may in turn derive from Latin Hispanicus, or from Greek Ισπανία Hispania and Ισπανός Hispanos, probably from Celtiberian[10] or from Basque Ezpanna.[11] In English the word is attested from the 16th century (and in late 19th century in American English).[12]

The words Spain, Spanish, and Spaniard are of the same etymology as Hispanus, ultimately.[10]

Hispanus was the Latin name given to a person from Hispania during Roman rule. In English, the term Hispano-Roman is sometimes used.[14] The Hispano-Romans were composed of people from many different tribes.[15] Some famous Hispani (plural of Hispanus) were Marcus Annaeus Lucanus, Martial, Prudentius, Theodosius I, and Magnus Maximus and Maximus of Hispania.

Here follows a comparison of several terms related to Hispanic:

  • Hispania was the name of the Iberian Peninsula/Iberia from the 3rd century BC to the 8th AD, both as a Roman Empire province and immediately thereafter as a Visigothic kingdom, 5th–8th century.
  • Hispano-roman is used to refer to the culture and people of Hispania.[16][17][18]
  • Hispanic is used to refer to modern Spain, to the Spanish language, and to the Spanish-speaking nations of the world and particularly the Americas.[18][19]
  • Spanish is used to refer to the people, nationality, culture, language and other things of Spain.
  • Spaniard is used to refer to the people of Spain.

Hispania was the Roman name for the whole territory of the Iberian Peninsula. Initially, Hispania was divided into two provinces: Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior. In 27 b.C, Hispania Ulterior was divided into two new provinces, Hispania Baetica and Hispania Lusitania, while Hispania Citerior was renamed Hispania Tarraconensis. This division of Hispania explains the usage of the singular and plural forms (Spain, and The Spains) used to refer to the peninsula and its kingdoms in the Middle Ages.[20]

Prior to the marriage of Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon in 1469, the four Christian kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula, namely the Kingdom of Portugal, the Crown of Aragon, the Crown of Castile, and the Kingdom of Navarre, were collectively referred to as The Spains. This revival of the old Roman name in the Middle Ages appears to have originated in Provençal, and appears to be first documented at the end of the 11th century. In the Council of Constance, the four kingdoms shared one vote.

The word "Lusitanian", chiefly poetic, relates to Lusitania or Portugal, also in reference to the Lusitanians, one of the first Indo-European tribes to settle in Europe. From this tribe's name had derived the name of the Roman province of Lusitania, and Lusitania remains Portugal's name in Latin.

The terms "Spain" and " the Spains" were not interchangeable.[21] Spain was a geographic territory home to several kingdoms (Christian and Muslim), with separate governments, laws, languages, religions, and costumes and was also the historical remnant of the Hispano-Gothic unity.[22] Spain was not a political entity until much later, and when referring to the Middle Ages one should not be confounded with the nation-state of today.[23] The term "The Spains" referred specifically to a collective of juridico-political units, that is, it first referred only to the Christian kingdoms, then to the different kingdoms ruled by the same king.

With the Decretos de Nueva Planta, Philip V started to organize the fusion of his kingdoms that until then were ruled as distinct and independent, but this unification process lacked a formal and juridic proclamation.[24][25]

Although colloquially and literarilly the expression "King of Spain" or "King of the Spains" was already widespread,[26] it did not refer to a unified nation-state. It was only in the constitution of 1812 that was adopted the name "Españas" (Spains) for the Spanish nation and the use of the title of "king of the Spains".[27] The constitution of 1876 adopts for the first time the name "Spain" for the Spanish nation and from then on the kings would use the title of "king of Spain".[28]

The expansion of the Spanish Empire between 1492 and 1898 brought thousands of Spanish migrants to the conquered lands, who established settlements, mainly in the Americas but also in other distant parts of the world, like in the Philippines being the lone Spanish territory in Asia, producing a number of multiracial populations. Today the term Hispanic is typically applied to the varied populations of these places, including those with insignificant or no Spanish ancestry.

Definitions in ancient Rome

The Latin gentile adjectives that belong to Hispania are Hispanus, Hispanicus and Hispanienses. Hispanus is some one who is a native of Hispania with no foreign parents, while children born in Hispania of roman parents were Hispaniensis. Hispaniensis means connected in some way to Hispania as in "Exercitus Hispaniensis" or "mercatore Hispanienses", that means those who are located in Hispania. While Hispanicus means "of" or "belonging to" Hispania or the Hispanus or of their fashion as in "glaudius Hispanicus".[29] The gentile adjectives were not ethnolinguistic but derived primarily on a geographic basis, from the toponym Hispania as the people of Hispania spoke different languages, although Livy said they could all understand each other, not making clear if they spoke dialects of the same language or were polyglots. [30] The first recorded use of an anthroponym derived from the toponym Hispania is attested in one of the five fragments, of Quinto Ennius in 236 B.C. who wrote "Hispane, non Romane memoretis loqui me" (remember I speak hispane not roman) as having been said by a native of Hispania.[31][32]

Definitions in Portugal and Spain

Persons from Portugal or of Portuguese extraction are also known as Lusitanians or "Lusófonos." In Portugal, Hispanic always refers to something related to Hispania, Spain or the Spanish language and culture.[33] Portugal and Spain have the same definition for the term Hispanic (pt: hispânico, es: hispánico). The Royal Spanish Academy (Spanish: Real Academia Española, RAE), the official royal institution responsible for regulating the Spanish language defines the term Hispanic in Spanish as:[34]

  • 1. Belonging or pertaining to Spain.
  • 2. Pertaining to the ancient Hispania or the peoples which were part of it and those born at a later date.
  • 3. Pertaining to the Spanish language and culture.

The term signifies the cultural resonance, among other elements and characteristics, of the descendants of the people who inhabited ancient Hispania. It has been used throughout history for purposes such as, but not limited to, drawing a contrast to the moors and differentiating explorers and settlers.

In Spanish, another term, "hispano" as in "hispanoamericano", refers to the people of Spanish origin who live in the Americas; it also refers to a relationship to Hispania or to the Spanish language.

Definitions in the United States

The U.S. Office of Management and Budget currently defines "Hispanic or Latino" as "a person of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race".[35] The 2010 Census asked if the person was "Spanish/Hispanic/Latino". The United States Census uses the ethnonym Hispanic or Latino to refer to "a person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin regardless of race."[36] The Census Bureau also explains that "[o]rigin can be viewed as the heritage, nationality group, lineage, or country of birth of the person or the person's ancestors before their arrival in the United States. People who identify their origin as Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish may be of any race."[37]

The U.S. Department of Transportation defines Hispanic as, "persons of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Dominican, Central or South American, or other Spanish or Portuguese culture or origin, regardless of race."[6] This definition has been adopted by the Small Business Administration as well as by many federal, state, and municipal agencies for the purposes of awarding government contracts to minority owned businesses.[7] The Congressional Hispanic Caucus and the Congressional Hispanic Conference include representatives of Spanish and Portuguese descent. The Hispanic Society of America is dedicated to the study of the arts and cultures of Spain, Portugal, and Latin America.[38] The Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities, proclaimed champions of Hispanic success in higher education, is committed to Hispanic educational success in the U.S., Puerto Rico, Latin America, Spain, and Portugal.

The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission encourages any individual who believes that he or she is Hispanic to self-identify as Hispanic.[39] The United States Department of Labor - Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs encourages the same self-identification.[40] As a result, any individual who traces his or her origins to part of the Spanish Empire or Portuguese Empire may self-identify as Hispanic, because an employer may not override an individual's self-identification.[41]

The 1970 Census was the first time that a "Hispanic" identifier was used and data collected with the question. The definition of "Hispanic" has been modified in each successive census.[42]

In a recent study, most Spanish-speakers of Spanish or Latin American descent do not prefer the term "Hispanic" or "Latino" when it comes to describing their identity. Instead, they prefer to be identified by their country of origin. When asked if they have a preference for either being identified as "Hispanic" or "Latino," the Pew study finds that "half (51%) say they have no preference for either term." [43] Most don’t care—but among those who do, “Hispanic” is preferred. [44]

Hispanicization

Hispanicization is the process by which a place or a person absorbs characteristics of Hispanic society and culture.[45][46][47] Modern hispanization of a place, namely in the United States, might be illustrated by Spanish-language media and businesses. Hispanization of a person might be illustrated by speaking Spanish, making and eating Latin American food, listening to Spanish language music or participating in Hispanic festivals and holidays - Hispanization of those outside the Hispanic community as opposed to assimilation of Hispanics into theirs.

One reason that some people believe the assimilation of Hispanics in the U.S. is not comparable to that of other cultural groups is that Hispanic and Latino Americans have been living in parts of North America for centuries, in many cases well before the English-speaking culture became dominant. For example, California, Texas, Colorado, New Mexico (1598), Arizona, Nevada, Florida and Puerto Rico have been home to Spanish-speaking peoples since the 16th century, long before the U.S. existed. These and other Spanish-speaking territories were part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, and later Mexico (with the exception of Florida and Puerto Rico), before these regions joined or were taken over by the United States in 1848. Some cities in the U.S. were founded by Spanish settlers as early as the 16th century, prior to the creation of the Thirteen Colonies. For example, San Miguel de Galdape, Pensacola and St. Augustine, Florida were founded in 1526, 1559 and 1565 respectively. Santa Fe, New Mexico was founded in 1604, and Albuquerque was established in 1660. El Paso was founded in 1659, San Antonio in 1691, Laredo, Texas in 1755, San Diego in 1769, San Francisco in 1776, San Jose, California in 1777, and Los Angeles in 1781. Therefore, in many parts of the U.S., the Hispanic cultural legacy predates English/British influence. For this reason, many generations have largely maintained their cultural traditions and Spanish language well before the United States was created. However, Spanish-speaking persons in many Hispanic areas in the U.S. amounted to only a few thousand people when they became part of the United States; a large majority of current Hispanic residents are descended from Hispanics who entered the United States in the mid-to-late 20th and early 21st centuries.

Language retention is a common index to assimilation; according to the 2000 census, about 75 percent of all Hispanics spoke Spanish in the home. Spanish language retention rates vary geographically; parts of Texas and New Mexico have language retention rates over 90 percent, whereas in parts of Colorado and California, retention rates are lower than 30 percent. The degree of retention of Spanish as the native language is based on recent arrival from countries where Spanish is spoken. As is true of other immigrants, those who were born in other countries still speak their native language. Later generations are increasingly less likely to speak the language spoken in the country of their ancestors, as is true of other immigrant groups.

Language and ethnicities in Portuguese-speaking areas around the world

Main article: Lusitanic

The mandatory offering of Portuguese in school curricula is observed in Uruguay. Other countries where Portuguese is taught at schools or is being introduced now include Venezuela, Zambia, Congo, Senegal, Namibia, Swaziland, Côte d'Ivoire, and South Africa.

The closest language to Portuguese is Galician, spoken in the autonomous community of Galicia (northwestern Spain). The two were at one time a single language, known today as Galician-Portuguese, but since the political separation of Portugal from Galicia they have diverged, especially in pronunciation and vocabulary. Nevertheless, the core vocabulary and grammar of Galician are still noticeably closer to Portuguese than to those of Spanish (which is phonetically closer to Italian). In particular, like Portuguese, it uses the future subjunctive, the personal infinitive, and the synthetic pluperfect. Mutual intelligibility (estimated at 85% by R. A. Hall, Jr., 1989) is very good between Galicians and northern Portuguese, but poorer between Galicians and speakers from central Portugal. Nevertheless, many renowned linguists still consider Galician to be a dialect of the Portuguese language.

Portuguese has provided loanwords to many languages, such as Indonesian, Manado Malay, Sri Lankan Tamil and Sinhalese, Malay, Bengali, English, Hindi, Swahili, Afrikaans, Konkani, Marathi, Tetum, Xitsonga, Papiamentu, Japanese, Lanc-Patuá (spoken in northern Brazil), Esan and Sranan Tongo (spoken in Suriname). It left a strong influence on the língua brasílica, a Tupi–Guaraní language, which was the most widely spoken in Brazil until the 18th century, and on the language spoken around Sikka in Flores Island, Indonesia. In nearby Larantuka, Portuguese is used for prayers in Holy Week rituals. The Japanese–Portuguese dictionary Nippo Jisho (1603) was the first dictionary of Japanese in a European language, a product of Jesuit missionary activity in Japan. Building on the work of earlier Portuguese missionaries, the Dictionarium Anamiticum, Lusitanum et Latinum (Annamite–Portuguese–Latin dictionary) of Alexandre de Rhodes (1651) introduced the modern orthography of Vietnamese, which is based on the orthography of 17th-century Portuguese. The Romanization of Chinese was also influenced by the Portuguese language (among others), particularly regarding Chinese surnames; one example is Mei. During 1583–88 Italian Jesuits Michele Ruggieri and Matteo Ricci created a Portuguese–Chinese dictionary—the first ever European–Chinese dictionary.

Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP)

The CPLP was formed in 1996 with seven countries: Portugal, Brazil, Angola, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, and São Tomé and Príncipe. East Timor joined the community in 2002 after gaining independence.

The CPLP is a bloc in the process of construction and the societies of the eight member nations have little knowledge of each other. One of the features of the CPLP is that its members are linked by a common language and shared cultural features, which form a bridge among countries separated by great distances and on different continents.

In 2005, during a meeting in Luanda, the ministers of culture of the eight countries declared the 5 May as the Lusophone Culture Day (Dia da Cultura Lusófona in Portuguese).

In July 2006, during the Bissau summit, Equatorial Guinea and Mauritius were admitted as Associate Observers along with 17 International associations and organizations considered as Consultative Observers.

When the CPLP was formed, Equatorial Guinea asked for observer status. Equatorial Guinea (Portuguese: Guiné Equatorial) was a Portuguese colony from the 15th to 18th centuries and has some territories where Portuguese-based creole languages are spoken and cultural connections with São Tomé and Príncipe and Portugal are felt. Also, the country has recently cooperated with Portuguese-speaking African countries and Brazil at an educational level. At the CPLP summit of July 2004, in São Tomé and Príncipe, the member states agreed to change the statutes of the community to accept states as associate observers. Equatorial Guinea is in discussion for full membership.[3] In June 2010, Equatorial Guinea asked to be admitted as full member. At its 8th summit in Luanda in July 2010, the CPLP decided to open formal negotiations with Equatorial Guinea about full membership in the CPLP.

Mauritius, which was unknown to Europeans until the Portuguese sailed there and has strong connections with Mozambique, also obtained associate observer status in 2006. In 2008, Senegal, with historical connections to Portuguese colonisation in Casamance, was admitted as Associate Observer

Importance:

The Portuguese-speaking countries are home to more than 240 million people located across the globe but having cultural similarities and a shared history. The CPLP nations have a combined area of about 10,742,000 square kilometres (4,148,000 sq mi), which is larger than Canada. Since its formation, the CPLP has helped to solve problems in São Tomé and Príncipe and in Guinea-Bissau, because of coups d'état in those countries. These two problems were solved, and in fact, have helped these two countries to take economic reforms (in the case of São Tomé) and democratic ones (in the case of Guinea-Bissau). The leaders of the CPLP believe that peace in Angola and Mozambique as well as East Timor's independence favors the further development of the CPLP and a strengthening of multilateral cooperation. Since many children in rural areas of Lusophone Africa and East Timor are out-of-school youth, the education officials in these regions seek help from Portugal and Brazil to increase the education to spread Portuguese fluency (like establishing Instituto Camões language center branches in main cities and rural towns), as Portuguese is becoming one of the main languages in Southern Africa, where it is also taught in Namibia and South Africa. In many developing Portuguese-speaking nations, Portuguese is the language of government and commerce which means that Portuguese speaking people from African nations can work and communicate with others in different parts of the world, especially in Portugal and Brazil, where the economies are stronger. Many leaders of Portuguese-speaking nations in Africa are fearful that language standards do not meet the fluency required and are therefore making it compulsory in schools so that a higher degree of fluency is achieved and young Africans will be able to speak a world language that will help them later in life. Angola and Mozambique have not yet signed the most recent accord on the orthography of the Portuguese language, and have asked other PALOP countries to support them in discussions on various points of that accord with Portugal.

Spanish-speaking countries and regions

Spanish-speaking countries
  Spanish identified as an official or de facto official language

Today, Spanish is among the most commonly spoken first languages of the world. During the period of the Spanish Empire from 1492 and 1898, many people migrated from Spain to the conquered lands. The Spaniards brought with them the Castillian language and culture, and in this process that lasted several centuries, created a global empire with a diverse population.

Miscegenation between peoples in the colonies led to the creation of the new mixed peoples, chiefly half-caste and mulattos, in many countries.

Culturally, Spaniards are typically European, but they also have small traces of many peoples from the rest of Europe, the Near East and the Mediterranean areas of northern Africa.[48][49]

The Hispanic countries, including Spain, are also inhabited by peoples of non-Spanish ancestry, to widely varying extents.

Language and ethnicities in Spanish-speaking areas around the world

Continent/Region Country/Territory Languages Spoken [50] Ethnic Groups [51] Picture References
Europe Spain Spanish (official) 89%, Catalan 9%, Galician 5%, Basque 1%, are official regionally. (Spanish is spoken by 100% of the population, over 100% indicates bilingual population).[52] 88.0% Spanish, 12.0% others (Romanian, British, Moroccan, Latin American, German) (2009)
(See: Spanish people)
[53][54]
Andorra Catalan (official) 38.1%, Spanish 39.7%, Portuguese 14.5%, French 8.5% [55]
North America Mexico Spanish 92.7%, Spanish and indigenous languages 5.7%, indigenous only 0.8%, unspecified 0.8%; (Indigenous languages include Mayan languages, Mixtec, Nahuatl, Purépecha, Zapotec, and other) (2005) Mestizo (European-Amerindian) 60-70%,[56] Amerindian (or predominantly Amerindian) 12-18%, White (or predominantly White) 9-17%,[57] other (including Black minority) 1%[56]
(See: Mexican people)
[58]
United States English 79.4%, Spanish 12.8%, other Indo-European 3.7%, Asian and Pacific Islander languages 3.0%, other 0.9% (2010 census) (Hawaiian is an official language in the state of Hawaii).

(Note: The U.S. is a predominantly English-speaking country. As is true of many immigrant families, the immigrants often speak Spanish and some English, while their children are fluent English speakers because they were born and educated in the U.S. Some retain their Spanish language as is true of other immigrant families. The recent influx of large numbers of immigrants from Spanish speaking countries into the U.S. has meant that the number of Spanish speaking U.S. residents has increased, but the children speaking English as is true of the historic U.S. immigrant experience, continues. Migration from Hispanic countries has increased the Spanish speaking population in the United States. Of those who speak Spanish in the United States, three quarters speak English well or very well.

White 79.96%, Black 12.85%, Asian 4.43%, Amerindian and Alaska Native 0.97%, Native Hawaiian and other Pacific islanders 0.18%, two or more races 1.61% (July 2007 estimate)

(Note: a separate listing for Hispanics is not included because the U.S. Census Bureau considers Hispanic to mean a person of Latin American descent (including persons of Cuban, Mexican, or Puerto Rican origin) and of Spanish descent living in the U.S. who may be of any race or ethnic group (white, black, Asian, etc.); about 15-16% of the total U.S. population is Hispanic, not including estimates about alien residents).

[59][60]
Central America Belize Spanish 43%, Belizean Creole 37%, Mayan dialects 7.8%, English 5.6% (official), German 3.2%, Garifuna 2%, other 1.5% Mestizo 34%, Kriol 25%, Spanish 15%, Maya peoples 10.6%, Garifuna 6.1%, other 11% (2000 census)
(See:Belizean people)
[61]
Costa Rica Spanish (official) (White including Mestizo) 94%, Black 3%, Amerindian 1%, Chinese 1% Other 1% [62]
El Salvador Castilian (official) Mestizo 86%, White 12%, Amerindian 1% 120x120px [63]
Guatemala Spanish 59.4%, Amerindian languages 40.5% (23 officially recognized Amerindian languages, including K'iche, Kakchiquel, Kekchi, Mam, Garifuna, and Xinca). Mestizo (in local Spanish called Ladino) and White 59.4%, K'iche 9.1%, Kaqchikel 8.4%, Mam 7.9%, Q'eqchi 6.3%, other Maya peoples 8.6%, indigenous non-Mayan 0.2%, other 0.1% (2001 census) [64]
Honduras Spanish, various Amerindian languages Mestizo (mixed Amerindian and European) 90%, Amerindian 7%, Black 2%, White 1% [65]
Nicaragua Spanish 97.5% (official), Miskito 1.7%, others 0.8% (1995 census) (English and indigenous languages on Atlantic coast). Mestizo (mixed Amerindian and European) 69%, White 17%, Black 9%, Amerindian 5% 120x120px [66]
Panama Spanish (official), English 14% (bilingual: requires verification) Mestizo (mixed Amerindian and European) 70%, Black 14%, White 10%, Amerindian 6% [67]
South America Argentina Spanish (official), other European and Amerindian languages European Argentine 86% (mostly from Spanish and Italian ancestries), Mestizo, Amerindian and other non-European or non-White groups (including Arab, East Asian, and Black minorities) 14%
(See: Argentinian people)
[68]
Bolivia Spanish 60.7% (official), Quechua 21.2% (official), Aymara 14.6% (official), foreign languages 2.4%, other 1.2% (2001 census) Quechua 30%, Mestizo (mixed White and Amerindian ancestry) 30%, Aymara 25%, White 15%, Black minority. [69]
Chile Spanish (official), Mapudungun, other European languages White 52,7%, Mestizo 44,1%, Amerindian 3,2%
(See: Chilean people)
[70]
Colombia Spanish (official), 68 ethnic languages and dialects. English also official in the San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina Islands. Mestizo 49%, White 37%, Black 10,6 % (includes Mulatto and Zambo), Amerindian 3,4%, Roma 0,01 %, among other ethnic groups.
(See: Colombian people)
.[71][72]
Ecuador Spanish (official), Amerindian languages (especially Quechua) Mestizo (mixed Amerindian and White) 65%, Amerindian 25%, White 7%, Black 3% [73]
Paraguay Spanish (official), Guaraní (official) Mestizo (mixed European and Amerindian) 74,5%, White 20%, Mulato 3,5%, Indigenous 1,5% [74]
Peru Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara, and a large number of minor Amazonian languages Amerindian 45%, Mestizo (mixed Amerindian and White) 37%, White 15%, Black, East Asian and others 3% [75]
Uruguay Spanish (official) White (mostly from Spanish and Italian ancestries) 88%, Mestizo 8%, Black 4%, Amerindian (less than 0.5%) [76]
Venezuela Spanish (official), numerous indigenous dialects Mestizos (mixed Amerindian, White and African) 49,9%, White 42,2%, Black 3,5% and Amerindians 2,7%
(See: Venezuelan people)
[77]
Caribbean Islands Cuba Spanish (official) White 65.1% (mostly Spanish), Mulattoes 24.8%, Black 10.1% (2002 census)
(See: Cubans)
[78]
Dominican Republic Spanish (official) Mixed 73%, White 16%, Black 11% [79]
Puerto Rico
(Territory of the U.S. with Commonwealth status)
Spanish, English White (mostly of Spanish ancestry) 76.2%, Black 6.9%, Asian 0.3%, Amerindian 0.2%, mixed 4.4%, other 12% (2007) [80]
Africa Equatorial Guinea Spanish 67.6% (official), other 32.4% (includes the other 2 official languages - French and Portuguese, Fang, Bube, Annobonese, Igbo, Krio, Pichinglis, and English) (1994 census)
Note: Equatorial Guinea was the only Spanish colony in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Fang 85.7%, Bubi 6.5%, Mdowe 3.6%, Annobon 1.6%, Bujeba 1.1%, other 1.4% (1994 census) [81]
Polynesia Easter Island
Territory of Chile
Spanish (official), Rapanui Rapanui [82]
The CIA World Factbook is in the public domain. Accordingly, it may be copied freely without permission of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).[83]

Areas with Hispanic cultural influence

Continent/Region Country/Territory Languages Spoken [50] Ethnic Groups [51] Picture References
Africa Western Sahara Arabic is the official language of Western Sahara, while Spanish is still widely spoken. The major ethnic group of the Western Sahara are the Sahrawis, a nomadic or Bedouin group speaking Arabic.
Asia Philippines Chavacano, a Spanish-based creole language is spoken in the Philippines by 600,000 people.[84] Filipino Spanish is natively spoken by 5,000 people but second- and third-language speakers range from 500,000 to 2,500,000.[85][86] Hispanic influences have impacted several native languages, such as Tagalog, Cebuano and Ilocano. Many aspects of Filipino culture including cuisine, traditional dances, music, festivals, religion, architecture, traditional costumes and crafts exhibit Hispanic origin and influences.[84] Filipino people [84]
Micronesia Guam Former Spanish territories in Asia-Pacific no longer recognize Spanish as an official language. The predominant languages used in Guam are English, Chamorro and Filipino. Also, in Guam -a U.S. territory- and the Northern Mariana Islands, a commonwealth in political union with the U.S., a Malayo-Polynesian language called Chamorro is spoken, with numerous loanwords with Spanish etymological origins. However it is not a Spanish creole language.[87] Asians, Chamorro, and others [87]
FSM Micronesia Micronesia's official language is English, although native languages, such as Chuukese, Kosraean, Pohnpeian, Yapese, Ulithian, Woleaian, Nukuoro and Kapingamarangi are also prominent.[88] Asians, Micronesians, and others [88]
Northern Mariana Islands In the Northern Mariana Islands, a commonwealth in political union with the U.S., a Malayo-Polynesian language called Chamorro is spoken, with numerous loanwords with Spanish etymological origins. However it is not a Spanish creole language. The top four languages used in the Northern Mariana Islands are Filipino, Chinese, Chamorro and English.[89] Asians, Chamorro, and others [89]
Palau In Palau, Spanish is no longer used; instead, the people use their native languages, such as Palauan, Angaur, Sonsorolese and Tobian.[90] Asians, Palauan, and others [90]
The CIA World Factbook is in the public domain. Accordingly, it may be copied freely without permission of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).[83]

Music

Folk and popular dance and music also varies greatly among Hispanics. For instance, the music from Spain is a lot different from the Hispanic American, although there is a high grade of exchange between both continents. In addition, due to the high national development of the diverse nationalities and regions of Spain, there is a lot of music in the different languages of the Peninsula (Catalan, Galician and Basque, mainly). See, for instance, Music of Catalonia or Rock català, Music of Galicia, Cantabria and Asturias, and Basque music. Flamenco is also a very popular music style in Spain, especially in Andalusia. Spanish ballads "romances" can be traced in Mexico as "corridos" or in Argentina as "milongas", same structure but different scenarios.

On the other side of the ocean, Latin America is also home to a wide variety of music, even though "Latin" music is often erroneously thought of, as a single genre. Hispanic Caribbean music tends to favor complex polyrhythms of African origin. Mexican music shows combined influences of mostly Spanish and Native American origin, while traditional Northern Mexican music — norteño and banda — is more influenced by country-and-western music and the polka, brought by Central European settlers to Mexico. The music of Hispanic Americans — such as tejano music — has influences in rock, jazz, R&B, pop, and country music as well as traditional Mexican music such as Mariachi. Meanwhile, native Andean sounds and melodies are the backbone of Peruvian and Bolivian music, but also play a significant role in the popular music of most South American countries and are heavily incorporated into the folk music of Ecuador and Chile and the tunes of Colombia, and again in Chile where they play a fundamental role in the form of the greatly followed nueva canción. In U.S. communities of immigrants from these countries it is common to hear these styles. Latin pop, Rock en Español, Latin hip-hop, Salsa, Merengue, colombian cumbia and Reggaeton styles tend to appeal to the broader Hispanic population, and varieties of Cuban music are popular with many Hispanics of all backgrounds.

Literature

Main article: Hispanic literature


Spanish Language literature and folklore is very rich and is influenced by a variety of countries. There are thousands of writers from many places, and dating from the Middle Ages to the present. Some of the most recognized writers are Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (Spain), Lope de Vega (Spain), Calderón de la Barca (Spain), Carlos Fuentes (Mexico), Octavio Paz (Mexico), Miguel Ángel Asturias (Guatemala), George Santayana (US), José Martí (Cuba), Sabine Ulibarri (US), Federico García Lorca (Spain), Miguel de Unamuno (Spain), Gabriel García Márquez (Colombia), Rafael Pombo (Colombia), Horacio Quiroga (Uruguay), Rómulo Gallegos (Venezuela), Rubén Darío (Nicaragua), Mario Vargas Llosa (Peru), Giannina Braschi (Puerto Rico), Cristina Peri Rossi (Uruguay), Luisa Valenzuela (Argentina), Roberto Quesada (Honduras), Julio Cortázar (Argentina), Pablo Neruda (Chile), Gabriela Mistral (Chile), Jorge Luis Borges (Argentina), Pedro Henríquez Ureña (Dominican Republic), Ernesto Sabato (Argentina), Juan Tomás Ávila Laurel (Equatorial Guinea), Ciro Alegría (Peru), Joaquin Garcia Monge (Costa Rica), and José Rizal (Philippines).

Religion

With regard to religious affiliation among Spanish-speakers or Portuguese-speakers, Christianity — specifically Roman Catholicism — is usually the first religious tradition that comes to mind. The Spaniards and the Portuguese took the Roman Catholic faith to Latin America and the Philippines, and Roman Catholicism continues to be the predominant religion amongst most Hispanics. A small but growing number of Hispanics belong to a Protestant denomination.

There are also Spanish-speaking Jews, most of whom are the descendants of Ashkenazi Jews who migrated from Europe (German Jews, Russian Jews, Polish Jews, etc.) to Latin America, particularly Argentina, Uruguay, Peru and Cuba (Argentina is host to the third largest Jewish population in the Western Hemisphere, after the United States and Canada)[91][92] in the 19th century and following World War II. Many Spanish-speaking Jews also originate from the small communities of reconverted descendants of anusim — those whose Spanish and Portuguese Sephardi Jewish ancestors long ago hid their Jewish ancestry and beliefs in fear of persecution by the Spanish Inquisition and Portuguese Inquisition in the Iberian Peninsula and Latin America. The Spanish Inquisition led to a large number of forced conversions of Spanish Jews. Genetic studies on the (male) Y-chromosome conducted by the University of Leeds in 2008 appear to support the idea that the number of forced conversions have been previously underestimated significantly. They found that twenty percent of Spanish males have Y-chromosomes associated with Sephardic Jewish ancestry.[93] This may imply that there were more forced conversions than was previously thought. There are also thought to be many Catholic-professing descendants of marranos and Spanish-speaking crypto-Jews in the Southwestern United States and scattered through Latin America. Additionally, there are Sephardic Jews who are descendants of those Jews who fled Spain to Turkey, Syria, and North Africa, some of whom have now migrated to Latin America, holding on to some Spanish/Sephardic customs, such as the Ladino language which mixes Spanish, Hebrew, Arabic and others, though written with Hebrew and Latin characters.[94] Though, it should be noted, that Ladinos were also African slaves captive in Spain held prior to the colonial period in the Americas. (See also History of the Jews in Latin America and List of Latin American Jews.)

Among the Spanish-speaking Catholics, most communities celebrate their homeland's patron saint, dedicating a day for this purpose with festivals and religious services. Some Spanish-speakers syncretize Roman Catholicism and African or Native American rituals and beliefs. Such is the case of Santería, popular with Afro-Cubans, which combines old African beliefs in the form of Roman Catholic saints and rituals. Other syncretistic beliefs include Spiritism and Curanderismo.

While a tiny minority, there are some Muslims in Latin America, in the US, and in the Philippines, living predominantly in Mindanao, the home of Islam in the Philippines.

In the United States, some 70% of Hispanics and Latinos report themselves Catholic and 23% Protestant, with 6% having no affiliation.[95] A minority among the Roman Catholics, about one in five, are charismatics. Among the Protestant, 85% are "Born-again Christians" and belong to Evangelical or Pentecostal churches. Among the smallest groups, less than 4%, are Jewish.

See also

Notes

References

  • (1996)
  • What is a Hispanic? Legal Definition vs. Racist Definition.Montalban-Anderssen. (1996)
  • What is a Hispanic? Legal Definition vs. Racist Definition. Romero Anton Montalban-Anderssen. Large file with footnotes (1996)
  • Price, M., Cooper, C., Competing Visions, Shifting Boundaries: The Construction of Latin America as a World Region

External links

  • What is a Hispanic? Racist vs. Legal Definition. Romero Anton Montalban-Anderssen
  • DMOZar:الأسبان

es:Hispano tr:Hispanik zh:西班牙裔

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