World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Ho Feng-Shan


Ho Feng-Shan

Ho Feng-Shan

Ho Feng-Shan (Yad Vashem in 2000 decided to award him the title "Righteous among the Nations".[3]


  • Early life 1
  • Activities during World War II 2
  • After the war 3
  • Death 4
  • Awards 5
  • See also 6
  • References 7
  • External links 8

Early life

Ho Feng-Shan's father died when Ho was 7 years old. A diligent and hard-working student, he managed to enter the Yali School in the provincial capital of Changsha and later Yale-in-China University. He went to Munich University in 1926 and received his doctorate in political economics in 1932.

Activities during World War II

In 1935, Ho started his diplomatic career within the Foreign Ministry of the Republic of China. His first posting was in Turkey. He was appointed First Secretary at the Chinese legation in Vienna in 1937. When Austria was annexed by Nazi Germany in 1938, and the legation was turned into a consulate, Ho was assigned the post of Consul-General.

After the Kristallnacht in 1938, the situation became rapidly more difficult for the almost 200,000 Austrian Jews. The only way for Jews to escape from Nazism was to leave Europe. In order to leave, they had to provide proof of emigration, usually a visa from a foreign nation, or a valid boat ticket. This was difficult, however, because at the 1938 Évian Conference 31 countries (out of a total of 32, which included Canada, Australia, and New Zealand) refused to accept Jewish immigrants. The only country willing to accept Jews was the Dominican Republic, which offered to accept up to 100,000 refugees.[4] Acting against the orders of his superior Chen Jie (陳介), the Chinese ambassador to Berlin, Ho started to issue visas to Shanghai, part of which during this time was still under the control of the Republic of China, for humanitarian reasons. 1,200 visas were issued by Ho in the first three months of holding office as Consul-General.[5]

At the time it was not necessary to have a visa to enter Shanghai, but the visas allowed the Jews to leave Austria. Many Jewish families left for Shanghai, whence most of them would later leave for Hong Kong and Australia. Ho continued to issue these visas until he was ordered to return to China in May 1940. The exact number of visas given by Ho to Jewish refugees is unknown. It is known that Ho issued the 200th visa in June 1938, and signed 1906th on October 27, 1938. How many Jews were saved through his actions is unknown, but given that Ho issued nearly 2,000 visas only during his first half year at his post, the number may be in the thousands.[6]

After the war

After the Communist victory in 1949, Ho followed the Nationalist government to Taiwan. He later served as the Republic of China (Taiwan) ambassador to other countries, including Egypt, Mexico, Bolivia, and Colombia. After his retirement in 1973, Ho settled in San Francisco, United States, where he wrote his memoirs, My Forty Years as a Diplomat (外交生涯四十年) published in 1990 (English translation 2010).

After his retirement in 1973, the ROC (Taiwan) government on Taiwan denied Ho a pension on the grounds that he had "not properly accounted for" the equivalent of USD 300 in embassy expenses. These charges are now widely believed to have been politically motivated. Despite repeated appeals, the ROC (Taiwan) has never exonerated him. In the 1980s, he returned several times to his native China and visited his alma mater in Changsha for its 80th anniversary in 1986. A shadow was cast over his later years by impeachment by Taipei's Committee on the Discipline of Public Functionaries for having allegedly misappropriated £200 when ambassador to Colombia in 1970, charges which he claimed were concocted by a subordinate he had refused to recommend for promotion.[7]


Ho Feng-Shan died in San Francisco, California at the age of 96. He was helped by his son, Ho Man-To (何曼德), a Taiwanese-American expert in microbiology, virology, and infectious diseases; and by his daughter, Ho Man-Li.


Memorial plaque dedicated to Ho Feng Shan at the Jewish Refugees Museum in Shanghai. This was the final destination for the thousands of Jews whose lives Ho saved.

Ho's actions in Vienna went unnoticed during his lifetime, save for a black mark in his personnel file for disobeying orders. They were finally recognized, posthumously, when he was awarded the title Yad Vashem at a ceremony in 2001 and honored by Boys Town Jerusalem in 2004. The People's Republic of China (PRC) press gave coverage to Ho's story. The People's Republic of China (PRC) ambassador attended the ceremonies.

See also


  1. ^ Online, "Former Jewish refugees revisit Shanghai Ark"People's Daily
  2. ^ Dempsey, Amy (April 18, 2012). "Unsung hero gave Toronto family ticket out of Nazi-occupied Austria". The Toronto Star (Toronto, Ontario, Canada). Retrieved April 18, 2012. 
  3. ^ "Chinese Visas in Vienna: Feng-Shan Ho". Yad Vashem. Retrieved 29 April 2012. 
  4. ^ Crassweller RD. Trujillo. The Life and Times of a Caribbean Dictator. The MacMillan Co., New York (1966). pp. 199–200. 
  5. ^ Baruch Tenembaum "Feng-Shan Ho, Chinese Savior", International Raoul Wallenberg Foundation.
  6. ^ Brief profile of Ho Feng-shan during World War II
  7. ^ Damien McElroy, "Family fights to clear stigma that haunted China's 'Schindler'", The Sunday Telegraph, 4 June 2000.

External links

  • Ho Feng Shan at the Yad Vashem website.
  • Joan Deman's Dissenting View, Holocaust Survivors and Remembrance Project.
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.