World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article


Hokule'a arrival in Honolulu from Tahiti in 1976
Stern of portside hull and center steering oar
Hōkūle‘a, under tow, in Ōshima channel, Yamaguchi-prefecture, Japan

Hōkūleʻa[1] is a performance-accurate full-scale replica of a waʻa kaulua,[2][3] a Polynesian double-hulled voyaging canoe.[4][5] Launched on 8 March 1975[6] by the Polynesian Voyaging Society, she is best known for her 1976 Hawaiʻi to Tahiti voyage performed with Polynesian navigation techniques,[7] without modern navigational instruments.[8] The primary goal of the voyage was to further support the anthropological theory of the Asiatic origin of native Oceanic people (Oceania maps:detail, region), of Polynesians and Hawaiians in particular, as the result of purposeful trips through the Pacific, as opposed to passive drifting on currents, or sailing from the Americas.[9][10] (Scientific results of 2008, from DNA analysis, illuminate this theory of Polynesian settlement.[11]) A secondary goal of the project was to have the canoe and voyage "serve as vehicles for the cultural revitalization of Hawaiians and other Polynesians." , p. 71)Voyage of Rediscovery(Finney, [12]

Since the 1976 voyage to Tahiti and back, Hōkūle‘a has completed nine voyages to Micronesia, Polynesia, Japan, Canada, and the United States, all using ancient wayfinding techniques of celestial navigation. Her last completed voyage began 19 January 2007, when Hōkūle‘a left Hawaiʻi with the voyaging canoe Alingano Maisu on a voyage through Micronesia (map) and ports in southern Japan.[a] The voyage was expected to take five months. On 9 June 2007,[13] Hōkūle‘a completed the "One Ocean, One People" voyage to Yokohama, Japan. On April 5, 2009,[14] Hōkūle‘a returned to Honolulu following a roundtrip training sail to Palmyra Atoll,[15][16] undertaken to develop skills of potential crewmembers for Hōkūle‘a's eventual circumnavigation of the earth.[17]

On May 18, 2014, Hōkūle‘a and her sister vessel, Hikianalia embarked from Oahu for "Malama Honua", a three-year circumnavigation of the earth. The journey will cover 47,000 nautical miles with stops at 85 ports in 26 different countries.[18]

When not on a voyage, Hōkūle‘a is moored at the Marine Education Training Center (METC) of Honolulu Community College in Honolulu Harbor.


  • Construction 1
  • Pius "Mau" Piailug 2
  • List of voyages 3
    • 1976 Inaugural Voyage 3.1
      • Legs 3.1.1
        • 1976 Crew to Tahiti
        • 1976 Crew to Hawaiʻi
    • 1977 Kealaikahiki Project 3.2
      • Legs 3.2.1
        • Crew
    • 1978 Tahiti Voyage 3.3
      • Legs 3.3.1
        • Crew
    • 1980 Tahiti Voyage 3.4
      • Legs 3.4.1
        • Crew
        • Crew
    • 1985 - 1987 Voyage of Rediscovery 3.5
      • Legs 3.5.1
        • Crew
        • Crew
        • Crew
        • Crew
        • Crew
        • Crew
        • Crew
        • Crew
        • Crew
        • Crew
        • Crew
    • 1992 No Nā Mamo 3.6
      • Legs 3.6.1
        • Crew
        • Crew
        • Crew
        • Crew
    • 1995 Nā ʻOhana Holo Moana 3.7
      • Spring voyage segment 3.7.1
      • Legs 3.7.2
        • Crew
        • Crew
        • Crew
        • Crew
      • Summer voyage segment 3.7.3
      • Legs 3.7.4
        • Crew
    • 1999 - 2000 Closing the Triangle 3.8
      • Legs 3.8.1
        • Crew
        • Crew
        • Crew
        • Crew
        • Crew
    • 2003 - 2004 Navigating Change project 3.9
      • 2003 3.9.1
        • Crew
        • Crew
      • Legs 3.9.2
        • Crew
        • Crew
        • Crew
        • Crew
    • 2007 One Ocean, One People 3.10
      • Kū Holo Mau 3.10.1
      • Legs 3.10.2
        • Crew
        • Crew
        • Crew
        • Crew
        • Crew
        • Crew
        • Crew
        • Crew
        • Crew
      • Kū Holo Lā Komohana 3.10.3
      • Legs 3.10.4
        • Crew
        • Crew
        • Crew
        • Crew
    • 2014 Malama Honua 3.11
      • Legs 3.11.1
  • Images 4
  • See also 5
  • References and notes 6
    • References 6.1
    • Notes 6.2
    • Footnotes 6.3
  • External links 7


Voyaging canoes were made from wood, whereas Hōkūle‘a incorporates plywood, fiberglass and resin.[6] Hōkūle‘a measures 61 feet 5 inches (18.7 m) LOA, 15 feet 6 inches (4.72 m) at beam, displaces 16,000 pounds (7,260 kg) when empty and can carry another 11,000 pounds (4,990 kg) of gear, supplies and 12 to 16 crew. Fully laden, with her 540-square-foot (50.2 m2) sail area,[19] she is capable of speeds of 4 to 6 knots (5 to 7 mph; 7 to 10 km/h)[6] while reaching in 15-to-25-knot (17 to 29 mph; 28 to 46 km/h) trade winds.[20] Her twin masts are rigged either crab claw or Marconi style and a small jib. She is steered with a long paddle. She has no auxiliary motor so she is towed into harbor by her escort vessel when required. Her name means "star of gladness" in Hawaiian, which refers to Arcturus, a guiding zenith star for Hawaiian navigators.[6] Arcturus passes directly overhead at Hawaiʻi's latitude helping sailors find the islands.

Pius "Mau" Piailug

Description of Hōkūle‘a, the boat, is only part of her story, since she navigates without instruments. In 1975, no Hawaiian living knew these ancient techniques for blue water voyaging.[21] To enable the voyage, the Polynesian Voyaging Society recruited the Satawalese Master Navigator Mau Piailug [of the Weriyeng school in the Caroline Islands (map) of the Federated States of Micronesia (map) ] to share his knowledge of non-instrument navigation. While as many as six Micronesian navigators had mastered these traditional methods as of the mid-1970s,[22] only Mau was willing to share his knowledge with the Polynesians.

Mau, who "barely spoke English," decided that by reaching beyond his own culture, sharing what had been closely guarded knowledge, he could possibly save it from extinction. Through his collaboration with the Polynesian Voyaging Society, Mau's mentorship helped "spark pride in the Hawaiian and Polynesian culture", leading to "a renaissance of voyaging, canoe building, and non-instrument navigation that has continued to grow, spreading across Polynesia (map) and reaching to its far corners of Aotearoa [New Zealand] and Rapanui [Easter Island]." (Thompson, Reflections on Mau Piailug, 1996)

List of voyages

* Shown at first mention of the crew person's name, denotes this person has died according to Polynesian Voyaging Society website, or other source as noted.[23]

1976 Inaugural Voyage

Led by Captain Elia David Kuʻualoha "Kawika" Kapahulehua* and Navigator Pius "Mau" Piailug*,[24] Hōkūle‘a departed Honolua Bay, Maui, Hawaiʻi for Papeʻete, Tahiti, (voyage map) as part of the celebration of the United States Bicentennial. Mau navigated the leg to Tahiti without instruments while the return leg employed European-developed tools (compass, nautical charts, sextant, chronometer, dividers, parallel rulers, pencil, nautical almanac).[25]


1976 Crew to Tahiti

Navigator: Mau Piailug; Captain: "Kawika" Kapahulehua; Crew: Clifford Ah Mow*, Milton "Shorty" Bertelmann, Ben R. Finney, Charles Tommy Holmes*, Sam Kalalau*, Boogie Kalama, Buffalo Keaulana, John Kruse, Douglas "Dukie" Kuahulu*, David Henry Lewis*, David B. K. "Dave" Lyman III*,[26] William "Billy" Richards, Rodo Tuku Williams.*

1976 Crew to Hawaiʻi

Navigator: James "Kimo" Lyman;[20] Captain: "Kawika" Kapahulehua; Crew: Abraham "Snake" Ah Hee, Andy Espirto*, Mel Kinney, Francis Kainoa Lee, Gordon Piʻianaiʻa, Leonard Puputauiki, Penny Rawlins, Keani Reiner*, Charles Nainoa "Nainoa" Thompson, Maka'ala Yates, Ben Young.

1977 Kealaikahiki Project

In English, the Hawaiian "Ke ala i kahiki" means "the path to Tahiti." The "Kealaikahiki Project" recreated the traditional Kealaikahiki Point departure of ancient voyages to Tahiti.[29] Gordon Piʻianaiʻa's idea to recreate traditional departures took Hōkūle‘a southeast, across Kealaikahiki Channel between Lānaʻi and Kahoʻolawe Islands, past Kealaikahiki Point, into the ʻAlenuihāhā Channel and the northeast trade winds. The object was to determine whether Hōkūle‘a, departing from west of the 1976 departure point, would bisect the more easterly 1976 voyage track, and so likely reach Tahiti were she to continue. After heading south for two days, Hōkūle‘a did not bisect the 1976 voyage track, but likely would have further south than anticipated. She came about and returned to Hawaiʻi. The traditional departure point would be used for subsequent sailings to Tahiti.[30][31]



Navigator: Nainoa Thompson; Captain: Dave Lyman; Crew: Teené Froiseth, Sam Kaʻai, Sam Kalalau, John Kruse, "Kimo" Lyman, Jerome "Jerry" Muller, Gordon Piʻianaiʻa, Norman Piʻianaiʻa, Michael A. Tongg*, Makaʻala Yates[32]

1978 Tahiti Voyage

A second voyage to Tahiti was aborted when Hōkūle‘a capsized[33] and swamped in high wind and seas southwest of the Island of Molokaʻi, five hours after departing Honolulu's Ala Wai Harbor. The crew hung on to the swamped canoe through the night. Flares launched were unseen by passing aircraft; the emergency radio reached no help. By mid-morning, with no sign of imminent rescue and the swamped canoe drifting farther from land, Eddie Aikau, a North Shore, Oʻahu, lifeguard of the year, 1977 Duke Kahanamoku champion and big-wave surfer, valiantly attempted to paddle a surfboard 12–15 miles (19–24 km) to Lānaʻi for help. About nine hours later, flares launched by the crew were spotted by a Hawaiian Airlines flight which circled Hōkūle‘a and radioed the United States Coast Guard ("USCG"). Half an hour later, a USCG search and rescue helicopter was hovering overhead; Hōkūle‘a crew was rescued. The following morning, the USCGC Cape Corwin towed the vessel, from 22 miles southwest of Lāʻau Point, Molokaʻi, back to Honolulu.[34] Despite intensive land, air and sea search, Eddie Aikau was never seen again. Hōkūle‘a carries a plaque in his memory. Future voyages were accompanied by an escort vessel.[35][36]


  • Ala Wai Harbor, Honolulu, Hawaiʻi,  United States bound for Papeʻete, Tahiti,  French Polynesia: 16 March 1978 to 18 March 1978 (recovery followed by USCG investigation)[34]

Navigator: Nainoa Thompson; Captain: Dave Lyman; First Mate: Leon Paoa Sterling*; "Snake" Ah Hee, Edward Ryan Makua Hanai "Eddie" Aikau*, Charman Akina, M.D., Wedemeyer Au, Bruce Blankenfeld, Kilila Hugho, Sam Kaʻai, John Kruse, Marion Lyman,[37] Buddy McGuire, Norman Piʻianaiʻa, Curt Sumida, Teikiheʻepo "Tava" Taupu.[38]

1980 Tahiti Voyage

Nainoa Thompson recreated the 1976 voyage to Tahiti to become the first Native Hawaiian in modern times to navigate a canoe thousands of miles without instruments. His mentor, Mau Piailug, sailed as observer. After 29 days at sea, before sighting Mataiva on the way to Tahiti, Mau offered Nainoa only one correction; this was of Nainoa's interpretation of sighting a land-based seabird in mid-morning flight. Such birds generally fly seaward for food at morning and return to land in the evening. While it can usually be assumed that land lies opposite the birds' morning flight direction, this bird spotted mid-morning (during nesting season), carried a fish in its beak.[39] This detail suggested to Mau that the bird's morning flight was not away from land but toward it. The bird was not flying seaward to find more fish, but rather, was returning to land, to feed its young.[40] Leading up to the voyage, an extensive, formal crew training program helped to ensure that the voyage would be as safe as possible.[41] Escort boat Ishka followed for safety.[35][42][43]



Navigator: Nainoa Thompson; Captain: Gordon Piʻianaiʻa; Chad Kalepa Baybayan, "Shorty" Bertelmann, Harry Ho, Sam Kaʻai, Michael "Buddy" McGuire, Marion Lyman-Mersereau, Mau Piailug, Steve Somsen, Joanne Kahanamoku Sterling*, Leon Paoa Sterling, "Tava" Taupu; Patrick Koon Hung Piʻimauna Charles "Pat" Aiu, MD* [44]


Navigator: Nainoa Thompson; Captain: Gordon Piʻianaiʻa; Wedemeyer Au, Chad Baybayan, Bruce Blankenfeld, "Snake" Ah Hee, John Kruse, Kainoa Lee, James "Kimo" Lyman, Mau Piailug, Steven Somsen, Leon Paoa Sterling, Michael Tongg, Nathan Wong

1985 - 1987 Voyage of Rediscovery

For voyages across the International Date Line, dates shown below are standardized on Hawai‘i time.

In the "Voyage of Rediscovery," Hōkūle‘a traveled a total distance of 12,000 miles (19,000 km) to destinations throughout Polynesia.[46][47] Inviting fellow Polynesians to join the crew on legs of the voyage extended Hōkūle‘a's success in revitalizing interest in Polynesian culture. For instance, professional Tongan sea captain Sione Taupeamuhu was aboard during a night passage from Tongatapu to Nomuka in the northerly Haʻapai Islands group of Tonga (map). He was skeptical that Hōkūle‘a navigator Nainoa Thompson could find Nomuka without instruments. When Nomuka appeared on the horizon at dawn as anticipated, Taupeamuhu remarked, "Now I can believe the stories of my ancestors."[48] Dorcas and Maalea served as escort vessels.



Navigator: Nainoa Thompson; Captain: "Shorty" Bertelmann; Crew: Clay Bertelmann*, Dennis Chun, Richard Tai Crouch, Harry Ho, Dr. Larry Magnussen, "Buddy" McGuire, Mau Piailug, Thomas Reity (Satawal), James Shizuru, "Tava" Taupu


Navigator: Nainoa Thompson; Captain: Gordon Piʻianaiʻa; Crew: "Snake" Ah Hee, Dr. Pat Aiu, Chad Baybayan, Karim Cowan (Tahiti), Bob Krauss, John Kruse, Vic Lipman, Mel Paoa, Mau Piailug, Abraham Piʻianaiʻa, Chad Piʻianaiʻa, Michael Tongg, Andrew Tutai (Cook Islands), Peter Sepelalur (Satawal), Leon Paoa Sterllng, Puaniho Tauotaha (Tahiti), Cliff Watson. (Bob Krauss, journalist; Karim Cowan, and Puaniho Tauotaha were crew members only from Tahiti to Raʻiatea)


Navigator: Nainoa Thompson;[51] Captain and 1st Watch Captain: "Shorty" Bertelmann; 2nd Watch Captain: Leon Paoa Sterling; 3rd Watch Captain: "Tava" Taupu (Marquesas); Crew: Dr. Pat Aiu, Chad Baybayan, Bruce Blankenfeld, Stanley Conrad (New Zealand), Dr. Ben Finney, Harry Ho, "Buddy" McGuire, "Billy" Richards, James Shizuru, Michael Tongg


Navigator: Nainoa Thompson; Captain: Leon Paoa Sterling; Crew: "Snake" Ah Hee, Dr. Pat Aiu, Carlos Andrade, Chad Baybayan, Philip Ikeda, John Keolanui, "Kimo" Lyman, Mau Piailug, Scott Sullivan, Michael Tongg, Sione Uaine Ula (Tonga)


Navigator: Nainoa Thompson; Captain: Leon Paoa Sterling; Crew: Dr. Pat Aiu, Carlos Andrade, Gilbert Ane, Gail Evenari (California), Chad Baybayan, Hector Busby (New Zealand), Philip Ikeda, Sam Kaʻai, John Keolanui, "Kimo" Lyman, Mau Piailug, Scott Sullivan, Jo Anne Sterling, Sione Taupeamuhu (Tonga), Michael Tongg, Sione Uaine Ula (Tonga)


Navigator: Nainoa Thompson; Captain: "Shorty" Bertelmann; Crew: Clay Bertelmann, Harry Ho, Pauahi Ioane, Bernard Kilonsky, Ben Lindsey, Mel Paoa, Mau Piailug, Tua Pittman (Cook Islands), "Tava" Taupu (Marquesas)

  • Aitutaki – Rarotonga: 10 August 1986 to 11 August 1986

Navigator and Captain: Nainoa Thompson; Crew: Dr. Pat Aiu, Chad Baybayan, Dede Bertelmann, Bruce Blankenfeld, "Wally" Froseith, Pauahi Ioane, "Jerry" Muller, Mau Piailug, Tua Pittman (Rarotonga), Reo Tuiravakai (Aitutaki), Raukete Tuiravakai (Aitutaki)


Navigator and Captain: Nainoa Thompson; Crew: "Snake" Ah Hee, Dr. Pat Aiu, Chad Baybayan, Bruce Blankenfeld, Wallace "Wally" Froiseth, Harry Ho, Glen Oshiro, Mau Piailug, Richard Rhodes, Michael Tongg, Aaron Young

  • Tautira – Papeʻete, Tahiti Nui – Tautira: 27 March 1987 to 29 March 1987

Navigator and Captain: Nainoa Thompson; Crew: U.S. Senator

  • Brief introduction to navigating by the stars
  • Hōkūle‘a - Star of Gladness on, performed by the Hawaiian artist Israel Kamakawiwoʻole
  • Voyage SpecialHōkūle‘aHonolulu Advertiser
  • Hōkūle‘aVoyages of Awakening, 25 years ofSam Low's '
  • Polynesian Voyaging Society website
  • Hawaiian Voyaging Traditions on Kapi‘olani Community College website
  • Hawaiian Voyaging Traditions section on the building, launching of Hōkūle‘a
  • Public Broadcasting Service website for Wayfinders: A Pacific Odyssey, a film about the ancient Polynesian sea voyaging tradition
  • Uncle Charlie's personal website on Hōkūle‘a, by Charles Kauluwehi Maxwell Sr.
  • Hōkūle‘a Worldwide Voyage site

External links

  1. ^ (1994)et al.Finney , p. xiii, offers pronunciation guidance for the boat's name, "The macrons ["kahakō" in Hawaiian] over vowels indicate that they are longer than unmarked vowels and are stressed. The ʻ [character, called "okina",] indicates a consonant called a glottal stop. It is similar to the sound between oh's in the English oh-oh."
  2. ^ Chun, Naomi N.Y.; with illustrations by Robin Y. Burningham (1995) [1988]. "Chapter 10: Types of Canoes". Hawaiian Canoe-Building Traditions (in en-US and portions: haw). E. Nuʻulani Atkins (Revised ed.). Honolulu, HI:   This is available online, or archived by WebCite.
  3. ^ Wa‘a KauluaDefinition of from - online Hawaiian dictionary.
  4. ^ Unattributed. "Hōkūle‘a"Canoe Parts--. Polynesian Voyaging Society Visuals (in haw and   A line drawing with vessel specifications, configuration, and parts named.
  5. ^ Unattributed. "Hōkūle‘a"360 degree tour of .   Requires Flash, a free downloadable viewer from Adobe.
  6. ^ a b c d Unattributed. – 1973-75"Hōkūle‘a"The Building of the . Canoe Building.  
  7. ^ Kawaharada, Dennis. "Wayfinding: Modern Methods and Techniques of Non-Instrument Navigation, Based on Pacific Traditions". Hawaiian Voyaging Traditions. Honolulu, HI, USA:   This section of the Polynesian Voyaging Society web site offers and introduction to techniques; links in the right sidebar provide further information and bibliography.
  8. ^ State of Hawaiʻi, House of Representatives, House Resolution 267Twenty-third Legislature, 2006, . Read the text of the State Resolution honoring Master Navigator Mau Piailug and the inaugural crew for their achievements.
  9. ^   Dr. Finney discusses founding of the Polynesian Voyaging Society and gives background on contrasting theories of Polynesian settlement such as Thor Heyerdahl (settlement from Americas), Andrew Sharp (settlement by chance from drift voyaging), and others proposed.
  10. ^ Evenari, Gail. "Wayfinders: A Pacific Odyssey".   Gail Evenari, crew on the Tonga-Sāmoa leg of the "Voyage of Rediscovery," produced a documentary film on ancient Polynesian voyaging which was broadcast by PBS. The Heyerdahl and Sharp section of the related PBS website summarizes theories of Polynesian settlement which the Hōkūle‘a voyages empirically undercut.
  11. ^ Wilford, John Noble (18 January 2008). "Pacific Islanders' Ancestry Emerges in Genetic Study". Asia Pacific (  DNA analysis confirms Polynesians' relationship to Taiwanese Aborigines and East Asians.
  12. ^ Though Finney's Voyage of Rediscovery is primarily about the nearly two-year voyage of that name, 1985-1987, here Finney speaks about the canoe's original construction and 1976 voyage.
  13. ^ Due to the International Date Line, the voyage was completed on 8 June, Hawaiʻi time.
  14. ^ Shikina, Rob (2009-04-05). "Journey's End". Retrieved 2009-06-25. 
  15. ^ Polynesian Voyaging Society. "Palmyra Training Sail". Hokulea Worldwide Voyage.   About the Palmyra Training Sail
  16. ^ Polynesian Voyaging Society. "Daily Google Maps Position Tracking for Palmyra Sail". Hokulea Worldwide Voyage.  
  17. ^ Polynesian Voyaging Society. "The Journey". Hokulea Worldwide Voyage - Mälama Honua.  
  18. ^ Davis, Chelsea. "Hokule'a and her sister vessel Hikianalia set sail". Hawaii News Now. Retrieved 2014-05-20. 
  19. ^ Unattributed. Plans"Hokule‘a". The Building of the Hokule‘a.  
  20. ^ a b c d Kawaharada, Dennis (1993). "5. In the Northeast Tradewinds". KCCN Hawaiian Radio Cultural Vignette Series: No Nā Mamo.   Kawaharada adds that the vessel can sail at just over 10 knots (10 mph; 20 km/h) knots in stronger winds and following seas.
  21. ^ a b Kubota, Gary (18 March 2007). "Navigators' Journey of Spirit, Skill Ends: Five Polynesians are Recognized as Select Master Wayfinders".   Describes the 2007 induction of Nainoa Thompson, Milton "Shorty" Bertelmann, Bruce Blankenfeld, Chadd Kaʻonohi Paishon, and Chad Kalepa Baybayan into Pwo, 32 years after Hōkūle‘a's launching, in recognition of their mastery of Micronesian non-instrument navigation as taught by Mau Piailug. This reference adds that the Pwo ceremony had not been conducted in fifty years, whereas Pwo suggests this was the first Pwo in fifty-six years
  22. ^ Gordon, Mike (14 November 2006). "New Canoe a Tribute to Piailug".   Mentions the 1969 death of the last recognized Polynesian navigator and existence of only six Micronesian non-instrument navigators due to younger seafarers' adoption of GPS and outboard motors over the rigors of learning ancestral non-instrument means of navigating sailing canoes.
  23. ^ Polynesian Voyaging Society website
  24. ^ (2010-07-12). "Master Navigator Mau Piailug Dies". KITV Honolulu News. Retrieved 2010-07-12. 
  25. ^ a b 1976 Hawai‘i to Tahiti and Back, Polynesian Voyaging Society website, provides the crew information for both legs of the 1976 voyage and mentions Mau not sailing on the inaugural voyage's return from Tahiti.
  26. ^ Adamski, Mary. Sea Captain Promoted Merchant Fleet Careers Star Bulletin, Honolulu, 31 January 2006, retrieved 23 July 2008. Notes Dave Lyman's untimely death in 2006 unrelated to sailing on Hōkūle‘a
  27. ^ Kubota, Gary T. (7 July 2006). "The First Voyage: Commemorating Hokuleas Historic 1976 Journey" (PDF). Honolulu Star-Bulletin (Gannett Company). Retrieved 2009-06-25.  This source (p.2) cites inaugural voyage's ending when Hōkūle‘a returned to Hawaiʻi on 26 July 1976; for return voyage's date of commencement, note the citation immediately following.
  28. ^ Unattributed. 1976"Hōkūle‘a".   Map of voyage mentions Hōkūle‘a 1976 return leg length of 22 days.
  29. ^ a b Piʻianaiʻa, Gordon. "Kealaikahiki: The Tradition" (PDF). Polynesian Seafaring Heritage. The  
  30. ^ a b Kawaharada, Dennis. "1992 Voyage: Sail to Rarotonga". No Nā Mamo: For the Children.   The writer mentions Piʻianaiʻa's 1977 voyage in his article on the 1992 voyage.
  31. ^ Bakutis, Bunky (8 April 1977). Test Voyage Backs Channel Theory"Hōkūle‘a". The Honolulu Advertiser. Persis Corporation. pp. A–6. Retrieved 2012-09-06.  The article appears alongside others on the same topic on a scanned page which aggregates them.
  32. ^ Unattributed. "1977 - Kealaikahiki". Polynesian Voyaging Society Archives - Secondary Source Information - Crew List.   This document includes Bret Berber and Boogie Kalama as crew on the Kealaikahiki Project, whereas Kyselka does not.
  33. ^ Polhemus, David (3 March 1978). capsizes; 2 copters shuttle crew here; 1 missing"Hōkūle‘a". Honolulu Advertiser (Gannett Corporation). Retrieved 2008-08-16.  Retrieved from Kamehameha Schools archives of Polynesian Voyaging Society activities.
  34. ^ a b Franseen, R.A. ", O.N. 571798; Investigation into the Swamping [rest deleted]"Hokule‘a"61' S/Catamaran " (PDF). Report of Investigation, Commander, 14th Coast Guard District. United States Coast Guard. Retrieved 2008-08-16.  Retrieved from Unattributed. "1978 - Voyage to Tahiti - Analysis: Coast Guard Fact Finding". Kamehameha Schools Archives: Polynesian Voyaging Society Archives, Set 2: 1978 - 1984.  
  35. ^ a b Kyselka, Will (October 1987). An Ocean in Mind. Kolowalu Books (1st ed.). University of Hawaii Press.  
  36. ^ a b  (subscription required)
  37. ^ Now Marion Lyman-Mersereau
  38. ^ Unattributed. "Voyage to Tahiti Cancelled After Canoe Swamping - 1978". Voyages: From 1976.  
  39. ^ Nainoa explains in Kawaharada on navigation that Mau had not previously shared this detail in his instruction. The delicacy of Mau's signal reading demonstrates the navigator's intimate connection to his environment.
  40. ^ In Kawaharada on navigation, Dennis Kawaharada quotes Nainoa Thompson sharing knowledge of how to read birds for navigation, learned from Mau.
  41. ^ Unattributed (1979). "Syllabus materials" (PDF). Hokule‘a Training Program. The Kamehameha Schools Archives and the Polynesian Voyaging Society. Retrieved 2008-08-20. 
  42. ^ Unattributed (1980-02-09). "Communications and Electronic Safety Measures Taken for your Voyage to Tahiti and Back". Polynesian Voyaging Society Archives. The Kamehameha Schools Archives and the Polynesian Voyaging Society. Retrieved 2008-08-20.  Documents use of escort boat and some of the safety measures implemented for the 1980 voyage.
  43. ^ a b Hollis, Robert (1980-04-17). "Hokule‘a"Tahitians welcome .  
  44. ^ TenBruggencate, Jan (2002-10-31). a voyager"ʻi's Dr. Patrick Aiu was Hokuleʻ"Kaua.  
  45. ^ Finney, Ben. i to Tahiti and Return: 1980"ʻ"Voyaging into Polynesia's Past; Hawai. 1980 Voyage Homepage.  
  46. ^ (1994)et al.Finney , p. 96.
  47. ^ Finney, Ben (1992). Voyaging into Polynesia's Past. From Sea to Space (The Macmillan Brown Memorial Lectures 1989). Palmerston North, New Zealand: Massey University. pp. 5–65.   Dr. Finney gives a short account of the Voyage of Rediscovery.
  48. ^ (1994)et al.Finney , p. 120.
  49. ^ (1994)et al.Finney , pp. 327–329. This is the authoritative printed crew list for these legs of the voyage.
  50. ^ Unattributed. "Voyage of Rediscovery: 1985-87". Voyage of Rediscovery.   This page lists crew for all legs of the Voyage of Rediscovery and directs readers to further resources. Raukete Tuiravakai and Reo Tuiravakai, both of Aitutaki, are omitted from this web list but shown in (1994)et al.Finney , p. 328.
  51. ^ Thompson, Nainoa. "The Voyage of Rediscovery: 1985-1987". The Voyage of Rediscovery.   Nainoa's moving account of the voyage to Waitangi that reconnected Māori and Hawaiian with their ancestral history.
  52. ^ Griffiths, Rhonda. "1992 Festival of Pacific Arts, Cook Islands". Festivals of Pacific Arts.  
  53. ^ Unattributed. "Overview of the Festival of Pacific Arts".   This festival brings together cultures from across the Pacific every four years.
  54. ^ Unattributed. "Voyage to Ra'iatea and Rarotonga: 1992".  
  55. ^ Wong, Wallace. i, November 16–30, 1992"ʻ"Journal of Wallace Wong: Rarotonga to Hawai. No Nā Mamo: For the Children.  
  56. ^ Kubota, Gary T. (7 July 2006). "Hokule'a 30th Anniversary" (PDF). Honolulu Star-Bulletin; Hokule'a 30th Anniversary Special Section (Oahu Publications, Inc.). Retrieved 2008-08-28.  On p.2, the section on the 1992 voyage notes the Honaunau departure.
  57. ^ Chun, Dennis. "1992 Voyage: Hawai‘i to Tahiti".   Provides narrative about first leg of No Na Mamo and biographical information on key crew members.
  58. ^ Kawaharada, Dennis. "1992 Voyage: Sail to Ra'iatea". No Na Mamo Voyage to Ra'iatea and Rarotonga.   A narrative of the voyage by Communications crew Kawaharada.
  59. ^ Kawaharada, Dennis. "1992: The Voyage Home". No Na Mamo Voyage to Ra‘iatea and Rarotonga.  
  60. ^ Finney, Ben. "Sin at Awarua". 1995 Voyage to Nukuhiva in the Marquesas Islands.  
  61. ^ Unattributed. Ohana Holo Moana Voyage"ʻ"Map of 1995 Na .  
  62. ^ Louvat, Marc. "Meeting at Taputapuatea, 1995". A Fano Ra - Navigation Ancestrale (in fra and portions in   This is 20MB Flash video of the 1995 ceremony at Taputapuatea marae.
  63. ^ Unattributed. i (Feb 3-11)"ʻ"Departure from Hawai. Spring 1995: Nā ʻOhana Holo Moana.  
  64. ^ Unattributed. "Landfall Tahiti (Feb. 27- Mar. 5)". Spring 1995: Na ʻOhana Holo Moana.  
  65. ^ Unattributed. iatea (Mar. 7-29)"ʻ"Ceremonies at Taputapuatea, Ra. Spring 1995: Na ʻOhana Holo Moana.  
  66. ^ Unattributed. "To Nukuhiva, Marquesas Islands (April 15–18)". Spring 1995: Na ʻOhana Holo Moana.   Documents dates of departure from Tautira and arrival at Taiohae Bay.
  67. ^ Unattributed. i (May 3–14)"ʻ"Welcome Back to Hawai. Spring 1995: Na ʻOhana Holo Moana.  
  68. ^ a b Unattributed. i (Apr. 20-May 2)"ʻ"Sailing for Hawai. Spring 1995: Na ʻOhana Holo Moana.  
  69. ^ Unattributed. "Crew List 1995 Nuku Hiva". The Polynesian Voyaging Society Archives. The Kamehameha Schools and the Polynesian Voyaging Society. Retrieved 2008-08-26.  This source shows Kainoa Lee as crew on Hōkūle‘a while the PVS website shows him as a watch captain, not on Hōkūle‘a, but rather, on Hawai‘iloa.
  70. ^ Hawai‘iloa was built of traditional materials, with the sponsorship of the Bishop Museum's Native Hawaiian Culture and Arts Program in response to the Hōkūle‘a voyages' revival of interest in Native Hawaiian culture. But no healthy koa trees large enough for her hulls could be found in Hawaiʻi's forests. This dilemma led to action to help Hawaiʻ's environment including planting koa seedlings for future generations, because traditional Hawaiian culture and Hawaiʻi's environment interdepend. (See Sam Low, Sacred Forests on Polynesian Voyaging Society web site, retrieved 7 August 2008 quoting Nainoa Thompson about "Mālama Hawaiʻi") So, to build Hawai‘iloa without having to wait several centuries for the koa to grow, the Polynesian Voyaging Society accepted a gift of two enormous 400-year-old Sitka spruce logs from the forests of the Tsimshian, Haida, and Tlingit Native Alaskans. Hawai‘iloa's voyage through Southeast Alaska was to thank these people for their kindness and to recognize their contribution to Hawaiian native culture (See Northwest-Alaska 1995 Home on Polynesian Voyaging Society web site, retrieved 7 August  2008)
  71. ^ a b c d e f Unattributed. a Voyaging Canoe"ʻ"Voyaging Schedule for the West Coast Trip of the Hokule. Polynesian Voyaging Society Archives. The Kamehameha Schools and the Polynesian Voyaging Society. Retrieved 2008-08-25. 
  72. ^ a b c Unattributed. "The Northwest-Alaska and West Coast Tours". Summer 1995: Northwest-Alaska and West Coast Tours.  
  73. ^ Unattributed (2006-08-02). "Introduction to the Village". Fort Vancouver National Historic Site. United States   About Kanaka Village.
  74. ^ Brookman, David Y. (2007). "Mata Hoe Vaka Kahu Kahu O Hera Rapa Nui". Easter Island Home Page ( David Y. Brookman. Retrieved 2008-09-08. 
  75. ^ Saurer, Beth (Fall 1995). "Sailing and Practicing Law the Hawaiian Way". California Western Alumni News (in en-US and portions haw) (San Diego: California Western School of Law): 1, 4.  Beth Atuatasi was aboard from San Diego to San Pedro
  76. ^ Atuatasi (née Saurer), Beth; Mario Borja; Dewey Slough (1995). Pacific Islander Festival program booklet (First ed.). San Diego: Hōkūle‘a Steering Committee.  Documents Gil Ane, Chad Baybayan, Moana Doi, Laulima Lyman, Leon Sterling, Matthew Tongg, Michael Tongg
  77. ^ Unattributed. "Vision, Exploration and the Voyage to Rapa Nui (map)". 1999 - 2000 Voyage to Rapa Nui.   A map of the voyage showing projected route.
  78. ^ Unattributed. "Isles of Hiva (The Marquesas)". The Voyage to Nuku Hiva: Leg 2: Nukuhiva to Mangareva.  
  79. ^ Unattributed. "Voyage to the Marquesas: June 15 – July 14". Closing the Triangle: A Quest for Rapa Nui.  
  80. ^ Unattributed (1999-07-23). "Closing the Triangle: A Quest for Rapa Nui". Voyages: From 1976.  
  81. ^ a b c Unattributed. i to Nukuhiva"ʻ"Leg 1: Hawai. The Voyage to Rapa Nui 1999-2000.  
  82. ^ a b c d e Unattributed. "The Voyage to Rapa Nui 1999-2000". Voyages: From 1976.   This page gives arrival and departure dates for all the passages of this voyage.
  83. ^ a b Unattributed. "Leg 2: Nukuhiva to Mangareva". The Voyage to Rapa Nui 1999-2000.  
  84. ^ Unattributed. "Leg 3: Mangareva to Rapa Nui". The Voyage to Rapa Nui 1999-2000.  
  85. ^ Unattributed. "Leg 4: Rapa Nui to Tahiti". The Voyage to Rapa Nui 1999-2000.  
  86. ^ Unattributed. i"ʻ"Leg 5: Tahiti to Hawai. The Voyage to Rapa Nui 1999-2000.  
  87. ^ Unattributed. "Navigating Change: The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands 2003-2004". Voyages: From 1976.  
  88. ^ The White House, Washington, D.C.Establishment of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Marine National Monument On 15 June 2006, conservation of the area was furthered by the President's naming it as a U.S. National Monument
  89. ^ "Secretary Kempthorne Joins Mrs. Laura Bush in Announcing Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument" (Press release).  
  90. ^ Unattributed (2006-06-15). "Navigating Change". Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument. United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on 2010-06-27. Retrieved 2012-09-08. 
  91. ^ Saul, Susan. Voyages Through Hawaiian Islands NWR"Hokule‘a". U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. Archived from the original on 2008-10-04. Retrieved 2012-09-08. 
  92. ^ a b c d TenBruggencate, Jan (2004-06-23). prepares for passage into future"Hokule‘a". Honolulu Advertiser. Gannett Corporation. Retrieved 2008-09-02.  Cites date of return to Kauaʻi; note that the contemplated September 2004 trip to Palmyra Atoll, Christmas Island, and return to Hawaiʻi under navigator Kaʻiulani Murphy and captain Russell Amimoto did not take place.
  93. ^ "Crew List 2003-2004 Northwestern Islands Navigating Change". The Polynesian Voyaging Society Crew List. The Kamehameha Schools and the Polynesian Voyaging Society. Retrieved 2008-08-28. 
  94. ^ TenBruggencate, Jan (2004-05-03). i"ʻ"Recovering the seafaring tradition of Hawai. Honolulu Advertiser. Gannett Corporation. Retrieved 2008-09-02.  Navigation to Nihoa and Mokumanamana (Necker Island) was done using traditional methods. Reefs circling islands further northwest are too low to spot from a safe distance, so positions for the remaining part of the journey are cross-checked against gps for safety.
  95. ^ TenBruggencate, Jan (2004-05-24). voyage finally begins"Hokule‘a"After delays, . Honolulu Advertiser. Gannett Corporation. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  96. ^ TenBruggencate, Jan (2004-06-07). "Northwest islands dotted with wrecks of old vessels". Honolulu Advertiser. Gannett Corporation. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  97. ^ TenBruggencate, Jan (2004). new mission, Mission and Crew"Hokule‘a's"Navigating Change: . The Honolulu Advertiser Special Report: The Other Hawai‘i, A Journey to the Northwest Hawaiian Islands with Hokuleʻa. Gannett Co. Retrieved 2008-09-26. 
  98. ^ TenBruggencate, Jan (2004-06-12). begins trip home"Hokule‘a". Honolulu Advertiser. Gannett Corporation. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  99. ^ TenBruggencate, Jan (2004). "Main page". The Honolulu Advertiser Special Report: The Other Hawai‘i, A Journey to the Northwest Hawaiian Islands with Hokuleʻa. Gannett Co. Retrieved 2008-09-26. 
  100. ^ Coleman, Stuart H. (December 2006). "Stars in His Head: The Last of the Wayfinders". Spirit of Honolulu Publishing Company. Archived from the original on 2008-06-08. Retrieved 2008-08-22.  An overview of the Hokule‘a story.
  101. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Unattributed. "One Ocean, One People".  Gives details of stops, dates.
  102. ^ - The Ultimate Escort VesselKama Hele
  103. ^ "Pwo Ceremony on Satawal, March 15–20, 2007". Kū Holo Mau: 2007 Voyage for Mau.  
  104. ^ "What a Beautiful Departure it Was". 2007 Voyage Weblog.   Narrative about the departure from Kawaihae also mentions sailing plan and gift of Alingano Maisu to Mau Piailug.
  105. ^ Unattributed. "Map of Kū Holo Mau Voyage". 2007 One Ocean, One People.  
  106. ^ Unattributed. i to Majuro: Crew Lists"ʻ"Leg 1: Hawai. 2007 Voyage Weblog.  
  107. ^ Kaʻiulani, Murphy. Reports: 2/18, 2/19, 2/20, and 2/21-on our way to Pohnpei"Hokule‘aiulani's ʻ"Ka. 2007 Voyage Weblog.  
  108. ^ Unattributed (6 March 2007). "3/8 Crew Lists Pohnpei to Chuuk". 2007 Voyage Weblog.  
  109. ^ Murphy, Kaʻiulani (12 March 2007). "3/12 Underway to Satawal". 2007 Voyage Weblog.  
  110. ^ Kubota, Gary T. (20 March 2007). "Voyagers to Pay Homage to Chiefs: The Crews are Sailing to Woleai Atoll, then to Ulithi and Yap". Honolulu Star-Bulletin Mobile Edition (Oahu Publications, Inc.). Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  111. ^ "3/26 Kathy's Report, recapping Chuuk to Yap". 2007 Voyage Weblog.  
  112. ^ Bertelmann, Pomaikalani (2 April 2007). """4/2 "Venus to the Moon, a run for CAPT.. 2007 Voyage Weblog.   Mentions some crew leaving the vessel at Woleai.
  113. ^ Murphy, Kaʻiulani (25 March 2007). iulani Reports, from Ulithi and Yap"ʻ"3/24 & 25: Ka. 2007 Voyage Weblog.   Includes addition of Dr. Hancock to crew.
  114. ^ a b Polynesian Voyaging Society (28 March 2007). "3/28 Crew Lists: Yap-Palau-Yap". 2007 Voyage Weblog.  
  115. ^ depart for Palau"Maisu and Hōkūle‘a"3/29 Kathy reports from Yap: . 2007 Voyage Weblog.   Mentions president of Palau, Tommy Remengesau, sailing from Yap to Palau on Hōkūle‘a.
  116. ^ The Nature Conservancy; photo by Pauline Sato. "Islands of Sustainability: Lessons from Palau's Coral Reefs". The Nature Conservancy in Hawaii. The Nature Conservancy. Archived from the original on 2008-12-02. Retrieved 2012-09-08. 
  117. ^ Shintani, M. Google Tracking Map of Kū Holo Lā Komohana voyage.
  118. ^ Unattributed (17 July 2007). arrives home"Kama Hele". 2007 Voyage Weblog.  
  119. ^ Interview with Nainoa Thompson, (in en-US or jpn), YouTube video on Polynesian Voyaging Society site, about the One Ocean, One People voyage, retrieved 9 August 2008.
  120. ^ Polynesian Voyaging Society. Departs from Yap for Okinawa, Japan"Hōkūle‘a"4/12: . 2007 Voyage Weblog.  
  121. ^ Baybayan, Chad (14 May 2007). "5/14 HST: Crew Lists to Ōshima". 2007 Voyage Weblog.  
  122. ^ Ontiveros, Ramona (27 May 2007). "5/27: On Her Way to Ehime". 2007 Voyage Weblog.  
  123. ^ Unattributed (1 June 2007). "Uwajima to Yokohama Crew List". 2007 Voyage Weblog.  
  124. ^ Fuller, Catherine (1999-08-23). "Journal, Leg 2: Nukuhiva to Mangareva". The Voyage to Rapa Nui 1999-2000.  
  125. ^ Kapu Nā Keiki web page translates the motto into en-US as "Hold Sacred the Children," which refers to the children's outreach program by this name.


a. ^ Derek Ferrar (October–November 2007). "In the Land of the Western Sun".  


  • Goodell, Lela (1989). "Polynesian Voyaging Society: Introduction" (PDF). A Guide to the Archives of the Polynesian Voyaging Society and Voyages of the Hōkūleʻa, (in en-US and portions in haw). The  
  • (Archived by WebCite at  
  • Kyselka, Will; Nainoa Thompson, with map by Ray Lanterman. "Kealaikahiki: A New Look at Old Routes" (PDF). Polynesian Seafaring Heritage; Cecilia Kapua Lindo, Nancy Alpert Mower, editors. The Kamehameha Schools and the Polynesian Voyaging Society. Retrieved 2008-08-20. 


References and notes

See also


  • Malama Hawaiʻi: Statewide Sail
  • Hawaiʻi – Tahiti
  • Tahiti – Samoa
  • Apia & Phoenix Islands
  • Tutuila to Aotearoa
  • Aotearoa I


2014 Malama Honua

Navigator and Captain: Bruce Blankenfeld; Senior Officers: Norman Piʻianaiʻa, "Tava" Taupu; Watch Captain: Naʻalehu Anthony; Crew: Takuji Araki, Chris Baird, Dennis Kawaharada, Attwood Makanani, Dr. Cherie L. Shehata, Patti-Ann Solomon; Watch Captain: Kaʻiulani Murphy; Crew: Pomai Bertelmann, Dean Nikaido, Chadd Kaʻonohi Paishon, Leighton Tseu (representing the Royal Order of Kamehameha), Kanako Uchino, Kiyotsugu Yoshida (Sunset Films)

  • Uwajima – Yokohama[123] 3 June 2007 to 9 June 2007

Navigator and Captain: Nainoa Thompson; Watch Captain: Kaʻiulani Murphy; Crew: Imaikalani P. Aiu, Takuji Araki, Nanea Baird, Stephanie M. Beeby, Anela K. Benson, Pomai Bertelmann, Dennis J. Chun, Monte Costa, Heidi K. Guth, Kaimi C. Hermosura, Kiyoko Ikeda, William Keala Kai, Attwood Makanani, Chadd Kaʻonohi Paishon, Dr. Cherie L. Shehata, Sky Takemoto, Kanako Uchino, Van K. Warren

  • Ōshima – Uwajima[122] 26 May 2007 to 27 May 2007

Captain: Chad Baybayan; Crew: Imaikalani P. Aiu, Takuji Araki, Kalepa "Kala" Baybayan, Stephanie M. Beeby, Anela K. Benson, Dennis J. Chun, Monte Costa, Derek Ferrar, Timmy Gilliom, Heidi K. Guth, Kaimi C. Hermosura, Kiyoko Ikeda, William Keala Kai, Attwood Makanani, Chadd Kaʻonohi Paishon, Makaʻala Rawlins, Dr. Cherie L. Shehata, Van K. Warren

  • Okinawa – Ōshima[121] 28 April 2007 to 19 May 2007

Navigator and Captain: Nainoa Thompson; Crew: Takuji Araki (Japan), Pomai Bertelmann, Timi Gilliom, Kaina Holomalia, Attwood Makanani, Kaʻiulani Murphy, Maile Neff, Chadd Kaʻonohi Paishon, Dr. Pete Roney, Kanaka Uchino (Japan)



From Yap, the Hōkūle‘a sailed to Yokohama, Japan, 11 April 2007 to 8 June 2007. Upon sighting Kyūshū, navigation of coastal and inland seas utilized landmarks and aids to navigation. From departure to landfall at Okinawa, Japan, Hōkūle‘a was guided by Nainoa Thompson. Chad Baybayan then guided the vessel to further stops at Amami, Uto, Nomozaki, Nagasaki, Fukuoka, Shinmoji marina in Moji-ku, Iwaishima, and Suō-Ōshima (Ōshima). Nainoa Thompson resumed as captain for stops at Miyajima and Hiroshima (image). Bruce Blankenfeld then took over for stops at Uwajima, Muroto, Miura, and Kamakura before concluding the voyage in Yokohama.[117] This voyage is known as "Kū Holo Lā Komohana," or Sail On to the Western Sun. While Hōkūle‘a was shipped back to Honolulu, escort vessel Kama Hele sailed back to Oʻahu under German Captain Mike Weindl with six Japanese crewmembers.[118][119]

Kū Holo Lā Komohana

Navigator: Kaʻiulani Murphy; Captain: Naʻalehu Anthony; Watch Captains: Tim Gilliom, Attwood Makanani, Nainoa Thompson; Medical Officer: Dr. Vernon Andsell; Crew: Aaron Akina, Pomai Bertelmann, Dennis Eric Co, Emily Fielding, Keoni Kuoha, Waimea McKeague, Pauline Sato, Patti Ann Solomon[114]


Navigator and Captain: Nainoa Thompson; Watch Captains: Tim Gilliom, Attwood Makanani, Kaʻiulani Murphy; Medical Officer: Dr. Vernon Andsell; Crew: Aaron Akina, Naʻalehu Anthony, Pomai Bertelmann, Dennis Eric Co, Emily Fielding, Keoni Kuoha, Waimea McKeague, Tommy Remengesau (President of Palau), Pauline Sato, Patti Ann Solomon,[114][115] Jennifer Yano[116]


Navigator and Captain: Nainoa Thompson; Watch Captains: Tim Gilliom, Attwood Makanani, Kaʻiulani Murphy; Medical Officer: Dr. Marjorie Mau; Crew: Naʻalehu Anthony, Chad Baybayan, Pomai Bertelmann, Bruce Blankenfeld, Dr. Thane Hancock, "Snake" Ah Hee, John Kruse, Gary Kubota, Keoni Kuoha, Nick Marr, "Billy" Richards, Ana Yarawamai, Max Yarawamai, Pauline Yourupi[113]

  • Ulithi – Yap Island: 21 March 2007 to 23 March 2007[101]

Navigator: Kaʻiulani Murphy; Captain: Nainoa Thompson; Watch Captains: Tim Gilliom, Attwood Makanani; Medical Officer: Dr. Marjorie Mau; Crew: Naʻalehu Anthony, Chad Baybayan, Pomai Bertelmann, Gary Kubota, Keoni Kuoha, Nick Marr, "Billy" Richards, Ana Yarawamai, Max Yarawamai, Pauline Yourupi[111][112]

  • Woleai – Ulithi Atoll: 21 March 2007 to 23 March 2007[101]

Navigator and Captain: Nainoa Thompson; Watch Captains: Tim Gilliom, Attwood Makanani, Kaʻiulani Murphy; Medical Officer: Dr. Marjorie Mau; Crew: Naʻalehu Anthony, Chad Baybayan, "Shorty" Bertelmann, Pomai Bertelmann, Bruce Blankenfeld, "Snake" Ah Hee, John Kruse, Gary Kubota, Keoni Kuoha, Nick Marr, "Billy" Richards, Ana Yarawamai, Max Yarawamai, Pauline Yourupi[110]

  • Satawal – Woleai Atoll: 19 March 2007 to 21 March 2007[101]

Navigator and Captain: Nainoa Thompson; Watch Captains: Tim Gilliom, Attwood Makanani, Kaʻiulani Murphy; Medical Officer: Dr. Marjorie Mau; Crew: Naʻalehu Anthony, Chad Baybayan, "Shorty" Bertelmann, Pomai Bertelmann, Bruce Blankenfeld, "Snake" Ah Hee, John Kruse, Gary Kubota, Keoni Kuoha, Nick Marr, "Billy" Richards, Ana Yarawamai, Max Yarawamai, Pauline Yourupi[109]

  • Chuuk – Satawal, Yap State: 11 March 2007 to 21 March 2007[101]

Navigator and Captain: Nainoa Thompson; Watch Captains: Tim Gilliom, Attwood Makanani, Kaʻiulani Murphy; Medical Officer: Dr. Marjorie Mau; Crew: Naʻalehu Anthony, Pomai Bertelmann, Gary Kubota, Keoni Kuoha, Nick Marr, "Billy" Richards, Ana Yarawamai, Max Yarawamai, Pauline Yourupi[108]

  • Pohnpei – Chuuk: 6 March 2007 to 9 March 2007[101]

Navigator and Captain: Bruce Blankenfeld; Watch Captains: Tim Gilliom, Attwood Makanani, Kaʻiulani Murphy; Medical Officer: Dr. Gerald Akaka; Crew: Russell Amimoto, Terry Hee, Nohea Kaiʻokamalie, Gary Kubota, Kaleo Wong, Palani Wright[107]


Navigator and Captain: Bruce Blankenfeld; Watch Captains: Tim Gilliom, Attwood Makanani, Kaʻiulani Murphy; Medical Officer: Dr. Ben Tamura; Crew: Russell Amimoto, Bob Bee, Terry Hee, Nohea Kaiʻokamalie, Kaleo Wong, Palani Wright[106]



Accompanied by the canoe Alingano Maisu and specialized escort boat Kama Hele, (photo below, in gallery)[102] Hōkūle‘a sailed from Hawaiʻi to the Federated States of Micronesia, 23 January to 7 April 2007.[101] This voyage is known as "Kū Holo Mau," or "Sail On, Sail Always, Sail Forever." While on the island of Satawal, the crew of the Hōkūle‘a presented the Alingano Maisu to Mau Piailug as a gift for his role in helping to revive traditional wayfinding navigation in Hawaiʻi.[101] While at Satawal, some Hōkūle‘a navigators who had proven their mastery of non-instrument sailing and navigation over many ocean passages were inducted into Pwo, pronounced "poh." This was the first Pwo ceremony on Satawal in five decades,[21] and the first time Polynesians were inducted.[103]

Kū Holo Mau

The "One Ocean, One People" theme united two voyages in celebration of Pacific voyaging, Pacific Islands, and cultural ties,[100] in passages to Micronesia and Japan. These voyages were named "Kū Holo Mau" and "Kū Holo Lā Komohana".[101] Kama Hele escorted the voyage.

2007 One Ocean, One People

Captain: Russell Amimoto; Gerald Aikau[92][99]

  • Kauaʻi – Honolulu, Oʻahu, Hawaiʻi: 23 June 2004 to 24 June 2004[92]

Navigator: Bruce Blankenfeld; Captain: Mel Paoa; Terry Hee, Kealoha Hoe, Nohea Kaiaokamalie, Keoni Kuoha, Kaʻiulani Murphy, "Tava" Taupu, Mike Taylor, Gary Yuen[98]

  • Midway Atoll – Kauaʻi: 11 June 2004 to 22 June 2004[92]

Navigator: Kaʻiulani Murphy; Captain: Nainoa Thompson; Sailing Master: Bruce Blankenfeld; Watch Captain: Russell Amimoto; Crew: Naʻalehu Anthony, Ann Bell; Leimomi Kekina Dierks, Randy Kosaki, Keoni Kuoha, Cherie Shehata, MD, "Tava" Taupu, Jan TenBruggencate, Kanako Uchino, Kaleo Wong[97]

  • Hanalei Bay, Kauaʻi – Nihoa Island – Tern Island, French Frigate Shoals – Laysan Island – Lisianski Island – Pearl and Hermes Atoll – Green Island, Kure Atoll – Midway Atoll: 23 May 2004 to 9 June 2004[95][96]

Navigator: Kaʻiulani Murphy; Captain: Russell Amimoto; Crew: Jan TenBruggencate,

  • Honolulu Harbor, Oʻahu, Hawaiʻi – Hanalei Bay, Kauaʻi: 2 May 2004 to 3 May 2004[94]


Captain: Nainoa Thompson; Crew: Russell Amimoto, Naʻalehu Anthony, Bruce Blankenfeld, Nohea Kaiaokamalie, Cindy Macfarlane, Mel Paoa, Jan TenBruggencate, Kana Uchino, Alex Wegman, Aulani Wilhelm

  • Kauaʻi – Nihoa: 9 September 2003 to ?

Captain: Bruce Blankenfeld; Crew: Carey Amimoto, Anela Benson, Leimomi Dierks, Timmy Gilliom, Kiki Hugho, Nohea Kaiaokamalie, Jerry Muller, Dean Nikaido, Mel Paoa, Ronson Sahut, Jan TenBruggencate, Boyd Yap

  • Oʻahu – Kauaʻi: 7 September 2003 to ?[93]


[92] escorted the voyage.Kama Hele. Polynesian Voyaging Society's "Navigating Change: The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands 2003-2004" and in the   sailed to Hōkūle‘a In 2003,

2003 - 2004 Navigating Change project

Navigator: Nainoa Thompson; Navigator: Shantell Ching; Crew: "Snake" Ah Hee, Chad Baybayan, Pomaikalani "Pomai" Bertelmann, Bruce Blankenfeld, Sam Low, Joey Mallot, Kahualaulani Mick, Kaʻiulani Murphy, Kauʻi Pelekane, "Tava" Taupu, Michael Tongg, Dr. Patrice Ming-Lei Tim Sing, Kona Woolsey[86]


Navigator: Bruce Blankenfeld; Captain: "Wally" Froiseth; Crew: Naʻalehu Anthony, Bob Bee, Blane Chong, Dennis Chun, Terry Hee, Nalani Kaneakua, Kawika Crivello, Kealoha Hoe, "Kimo" Lyman, Kawai Warren, Kamaki Worthington[85]


Navigator and Captain: Nainoa Thompson; Navigtors: Bruce Blankenfeld, Chad Baybayan; Medical Officer: Ben Tamura, MD; Photographer and Videographer: Sonny Ahuna; Crew: Shantell Ching, Terry Hee, Mel Paoa, "Tava" Taupu, Michael Tongg, Max Yarawamai, Aaron Young[84]


Navigator and Captain: Chad Baybayan; Apprentice Navigators: Moana Doi, Catherine Fuller; Student Navigator: Aldon Kim; Watch Captains: Terry Hee, Mel Paoa, "Tava" Taupu; Protocol Officer: Kaniela Akaka; Crew: Tim Gilliom, Kealoha Hoe, Aeronwy Polo, Mona Shintani, Gary Suzuki, Nalani Wilson, Gary Yuen[83]


Navigator and Captain: Bruce Blankenfeld; Apprentice Navigator: Piʻikea Miller; Watch Captains: Dennis Chun, Terry Hee, Leon Paoa Sterling; Crew: Russell Amimoto, Desmon Antone, Darcy Attisani, Kekama Helm, Kaʻau McKenney, Atwood Makanani, Hauʻoli Smith, Wallace Wong[81]



Hōkūle‘a sailed from Hawaiʻi to Rapa Nui (Easter Island) and back, via the Marquesas Islands of French Polynesia.[77] While in the Marquesas, short trips were made between principal islands of the group (map).[78] A brief stop was made at Pitcairn Island on the Mangareva – Rapa Nui leg. A technically challenging voyage due to Rapa Nui's isolation and location over 1,000 miles upwind;[79] it is known as "Closing the Triangle" because it takes the canoe to the southeastern Pacific for the first time.[80] Kama Hele escorted the voyage.[81]

1999 - 2000 Closing the Triangle

Captains: Gordon Piʻianaiʻa, "Kimo" Lyman, Michael Tongg, Chad Baybayan; Crew: Gil Ane, Beth Atuatasi (née Saurer),[75] Moana Doi, Laulima Lyman, Leon Sterling, Matthew Tongg[72][76]

  • San Diego – San Pedro: 26 July 1995 to 28 July 1995; from San Pedro, Hōkūle‘a returned to Hawaiʻi by ship, courtesy of Alexander & Baldwin Foundation and Matson.[72]
  1. Embarcadero, San Diego, there was a welcoming ceremony, 22 July 1995,[71]
  2. A Hawaiian and Pacific Islands festival, and an exhibition, called:
  3. Hale Naua, or "Turning Back the Sky," at the San Diego Museum of Man, 23 July 1995 to 25 July 1995
  • Long Beach – San Diego: 20 July 1995, where at:
  1. Gabrieleño/Tongva Tribal Council, Kalifornia Outrigger Association, Hawaiian Civic Clubs, the Rapa Nui Outrigger Club,[74] and the City of Long Beach, on 12 July 1995;
  2. A two-day symposium with scholars, scientists, and master artisans called Century of the Pakipika, 13 July 1995 to 14 July 1995;
  3. A Hawaiian and Pacific Island Festival with teachers' workshops, the annual Long Beach Hoʻolauleʻa Canoe Regatta and a farewell dinner and ceremonies, 13 July 1995 to 19 July 1995
  • Santa Barbara – Long Beach: 11 July 1995 to 12 July 1995, for interchange with:[71]
  1. Santa Barbara Harbor Marina: 10 July 1995 to 11 July 1995, interchange with the Santa Barbara Outrigger Canoe Club, Cousteau Institute, and the Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History
  • San Francisco – Santa Barbara: 3 July 1995 to 9 July 1995 for:[71]
  1. Hyde Street Pier arrival for 1 July 1995 welcoming ceremony and festival at Crissy Field, 2 July 1995 Long Boat Regatta on the bay, Hawaiian music concert and Polynesian festival at Lawrence Hall of Science.
  • Portland, Oregon – San Francisco, California: 21 June 1995 to 29 June 1995, to:[71]
  1. Kalama, Washington where crew shared a dinner with Kalama ʻOhana: 16 June 1995
  2. Fort Vancouver, Washington public dock where Hōkūle‘a was part of a festival and the rededication of Kanaka Village:[73] 17 June 1995 to 20 June 1995
  • Neah Bay – Portland, Oregon: 12 June 1995 to 15 June 1995; then Hōkūle‘a was towed up the Columbia River to:[71]
  1. Pier 57, Seattle, Washington,  United States: 19 May 1995 to 26 May 1995
    Hōkūle‘a crew participated in National Maritime Week festivities and shared a dinner hosted by the Muckleshoot, Puyallup, Suquamish nations and Wayfinders of the Pacific.[72]
  2. Golden Gardens, Shilshole Bay: 27 May 1995 to 28 May 1995
    A potlatch with First Nations was shared with hoʻolauleʻa (celebration); Hōkūle‘a supported the Polynesian Youth Games hosted by Seattle Parks and Recreation
  3. Chinook Landing Marina, Puyallup Nation, Tacoma: 28 May 1995 to 1 June 1995
    As well as sharing educational outreach and cultural exchange, crew shared in a luau.
  4. Suquamish Reservation: 1 June 1995 to 2 June 1995
  5. Lummi Nation, Bellingham: 3 June 1995 to 4 June 1995
  6. Squalicum Harbor, Bellingham: 5 June 1995
  7. Swinomish Reservation, Skagit, Washington,  United States: 6 June 1995
  8. Vancouver Maritime Museum, Vancouver, British Columbia,  Canada: 7 June 1995 to 8 June 1995
    Exchange with the Assembly of First Nations
  9. Makah Nation, Neah Bay, Washington,  United States: 9 June 1995 to 11 June 1995
  • Stops in the Juan de Fuca area:[71]


In the summer: Hōkūle‘a and Hawai‘iloa sailed the West Coast of the United States. Both vessels were shipped from Hawaiʻi to Seattle, Washington, after which they sailed to Vancouver, British Columbia. They visited intermediate ports, often where local American Indian tribes hosted them to a dinner and gift exchange. From Vancouver, Hawai‘iloa sailed as far north as Haines, Alaska.[70] Hōkūle‘a sailed south to San Diego via Portland, Oregon, and the California ports of San Francisco, Santa Barbara, and Long Beach. The voyaging canoes were shipped back to Hawaiʻi: Hōkūle‘a from San Pedro; Hawai‘iloa from Seattle. This summer part of the voyage promoted cultural and educational exchanges with Hawaiians (some of whom had never been to Hawaiʻi), Native Americans, and other people living on the United States West Coast.

Summer voyage segment

Navigator and Captain: Chad Baybayan; Co-assistant navigators: Moana Doi, Piʻikea Miller; Watch Captains: "Snake" Ah Hee, "Tava" Taupu, Michael Tongg; Medical Officer: Mel Paoa; Fisherman and Teacher: Nainoa Thompson; Cook: Gary Yuen; Crew: Clyde Aikau, Sam Pautu, Mau Piailug, Sesario Sewralur, Gary Suzuki[68][69]


Navigator and Captain: Chad Baybayan;

  • Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands – Taiohae Bay, Nuku Hiva, Marquesas Islands: 6 April 1995 to 15 April 1995[66]

This crew may be the same as on the previous leg, but this is speculation.

  • Tautira, Tahiti – Fare, Huahine – Marae Taputapuatea, Raʻiatea – Tahaʻa – Tautira, Tahiti: 16 March 1995 to 24 March 1995[65]

Sailing Master: Nainoa Thompson; Navigators: Kaʻau McKenney, Keahi Omai; Crew: Shantell Ching, Junior Coleman, Catherine Fuller, Harry Ho, Mau Piailug, Sesario Sewralur (son of Mau Piailug), Ben Tamura, MD; "Tava" Taupu, Michael Tongg, Kamaki Worthington. After Hōkūle‘a sighted Tikehau on 2 March 1995, Navigators Kaʻau McKenney and Keahi Omai turned over navigation to their apprentices, Junior Coleman and Sesario Sewralur, who guided the vessel to landfall in Papeʻete, Tahiti.[64]



In the spring, Hōkūle‘a, along with sister ships Hawai‘iloa and Makali‘i, sailed from Hawaiʻi to Tahiti. They participated in a gathering of voyaging canoes from across Oceania at nearby Marae Taputapuatea, Raʻiatea, which led to the lifting of a six-centuries-old tapu on voyaging from Raʻiatea,[60] then all the canoes returned to Tahiti, sailed to Nuku Hiva in the Marquesas, then on to Hawaiʻi.[61] This was only the first part of a voyage spanning spring and summer known as "ʻOhana Holo Moana," or The Voyaging Families of the Vast Ocean.[36][62] Hōkūle‘a was escorted by Gershon II under Steve Kornberg; Rizaldar, under Randy Wichman, also escorted.

Spring voyage segment

1995 Nā ʻOhana Holo Moana

Co-navigators: Bruce Blankenfeld, "Kimo" Lyman;[20] Captain: Michael Tongg; Sailing Master: Nainoa Thompson; Watch Captain and Cook: "Snake" Ah Hee; Watch Captain: Aaron Young; Ship's Doctor: Pat Aiu, M.D; Historian: Carlos Andrade; Fisherman: Terry Hee; Communications: Scott Sullivan; Crew: Archie Kalepa, Suzette Smith, Wallace Wong, Gary Yuen


Crew: Nainoa Thompson, Sailing master; Chad Baybayan, Navigator; Gordon Piʻianaiʻa, Captain; Moana Doi, Photo Documentation; John Eddy, Film Documentation; Ben Finney, Scholar; "Wally" Froseith, Watch Captain; Brickwood Galuteria, Communications; Harry Ho; Kaʻau McKenney; Keahi Omai; Keone Nunes, Oral Historian; "Billy" Richards, Watch Captain; Cliff Watson, Film Documentation Cook Islands Additional Crew: Clive Baxter (Aitutaki); Tura Koronui (Atiu); Dorn Marsters (Aitutaki); Tua Pittman (Rarotonga); Nga Pouʻaʻo (Mitiaro); Maʻara Tearaua (Mangaia); Peʻia Tuaʻati (Mauke)


Crew: Nainoa Thompson, Sailing master; Chad Baybayan, Navigator; Keahi Omai, Navigator; "Billy" Richards, Captain; Gilbert Ane; John Eddy, Film Documentation; Clement "Tiger" Espere*; Brickwood Galuteria, Communications; Harry Ho; Sol Kahoohalahala; Dennis Kawaharada, Communications; Reggie Keaunui; Keone Nunes, Oral Historian; Eric Martinson; Nalani Minton, Traditional Medicine; Esther Mookini, Hawaiian Language; Mel Paoa; Cliff Watson, Film Documentation; Nathan Wong, M.D.

  • Papeʻete – Raʻiatea: 10 September 1992 to 16 September 1992[58]

Crew: Nainoa Thompson, Sailing master; Chad Baybayan, Co-navigator; "Shorty" Bertelmann, Co-navigator; Clay Bertelmann, Captain; Nailima Ahuna, Fisherman; Dennis J. Chun, Historian; Maulili Dixon, Cook; Kainoa Lee; Liloa Long; Jay Paikai; Chadd Kaʻonohi Paishon; Ben Tamura, M.D.; "Tava" Taupu



Hōkūle‘a sailed to Tahiti, Raʻiatea, and on to Rarotonga for the Sixth[52] Festival of Pacific Arts,[53] then, via Tahiti, sailed back to Hawaiʻi. This voyage, known as "No Nā Mamo," or "For the Children," was designed to train a new generation of voyagers to sail Hōkūle‘a, to share values and knowledge of voyaging, and to celebrate the revival of canoe building and non-instrument navigation. The voyage included an educational component where Hawaiian students could track the progress of the canoe through daily radio reports.[54] Kama Hele escorted the voyage.[55]

1992 No Nā Mamo

Navigator: Nainoa Thompson; Captain: "Shorty" Bertelmann; Crew: "Snake" Ah Hee, Dr. Pat Aiu, Chad Baybayan, Bruce Blankenfeld, Stanley Conrad (New Zealand), Eni Hunkin (Samoa), Tua Pittman (Cook Islands), Dixon Stroup, Puaniho Tauotaha (Tahiti), Sione Taupeamuhu (Tonga), "Tava" Taupu (Marquesas), Michael Tongg, Clifford Watson, Elisa Yadao


Navigator and Captain: Nainoa Thompson; Crew; Chad Baybayan, Clay Bertelmann, "Wally" Froiseth, Rey Jonsson, Solomon Kahoʻohalahala, Will Kyselka, Charles Larson, Mel Paoa, Cary Sneider (California), "Tava" Taupu, Michael Tongg, Clifford Watson, Dr. Nathan Wong, Elisa Yadao, Aaron Young

  • Tautira, Tahiti Iti, Society Islands – Rangiroa Atoll, Tuamotus (map): 2 April 1987 to 4 April 1987

ete. ʻ

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.