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Horns of Hattin

Illustration of the Battle of the Horns of Hattin in a medieval manuscript

Horns of Hattin (Hebrew: קרני חיטין‎, Karnei Hittin; Arabic: قرون حطين‎, Kurûn Hattîn) is an extinct volcano with twin peaks overlooking the plains of Hattin in the Lower Galilee, Israel.


Karnei Hittin is believed to be the site of the Battle of Hattin, Saladin's victory over the Crusaders in 1187. The Battle of Hattin was fought in summer when the grass was tinder-dry. Saladin's troops set fire to the grass, cutting off the Crusaders' access to water in the Sea of Galilee.[1] Saladin built a "victory dome," Qubbat al-Nasr, on the hill. Thietmar, a German pilgrim who visited the site in 1217, wrote that the "temple Saladin had erected to his gods after the victory is now desolate." In the early 17th century, ruins were found on the summit that appeared to be those of a church. Prior to 1948, an Arab village, Hittin, lay at the foot of the hill.[2] Excavations were carried out on the hill in 1976 and 1981.[3]

Some scholars have identified the hill with the Mount of Beatitudes, where Jesus delivered his Sermon on the Mount.[4][5] Writing in 1864, Fergus Ferguson describes it as the "supposed" site, because although "its position corresponds with the particulars of the narrative", no one can declare with any certainty that He gave a sermon at that exact spot."[2]

Panoramic view of Karnei Hittin


  1. ^ Region lived through centuries of warfare
  2. ^ a b Ferguson, 1864, p. 297
  3. ^ The Battle of Hattin Revisited, Benjamin Kedar
  4. ^ Livingston, p. 340.
  5. ^ Tischendorf and Shuckard, 1847, p. 240.


  • Ferguson, Fergus (1864), Sacred Scenes, Or, Notes of Travel in Egypt and the Holy Land: Or, Notes of Travel in Egypt and the Holy Land, Thomas Adamson; Jackson, Walford, and Hodder; W.P. Nimmo 
  • Wilson, Edward Livingston, In Scripture Lands: New Views of Sacred Places, Adamant Media Corporation,  
  • Tischendorf, Lobegott Friedrich Constantin; Shuckard, W.E. (1847), Travels in the East, tr. from [Reise in den Orient], Oxford University 

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