World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Iboga

Article Id: WHEBN0017969130
Reproduction Date:

Title: Iboga  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Alkaloid, Prohibition of drugs, Psychology of religion, Elysium (musician), Gødland
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Iboga

Iboga
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Gentianales
Family: Apocynaceae
Genus: Tabernanthe
Species: T. iboga
Binomial name
Tabernanthe iboga
(L.) Nutt.

Tabernanthe iboga or simply iboga is a perennial rainforest shrub and psychedelic, native to western Central Africa. Iboga stimulates the central nervous system when taken in small doses and induces visions in larger doses. In parts of Africa where the plant grows the bark of the root is chewed for various pharmacological or ritualistic purposes. Ibogaine, the active alkaloid, is also used to treat substance abuse disorders. A small amount of ibogaine, along with precursors of ibogaine are found in Voacanga africana.

Normally growing to a height of 2 m, T. iboga may eventually grow into a small tree up to 10 m tall, given the right conditions. It has small green leaves. Its flowers are white and pink, while the fruit can be either an elongated oval shape, or a round spherical shape, both having an orange colour. Its yellow-coloured roots contain a number of indole alkaloids, most notably ibogaine, which is found in the highest concentration in the root-bark. The root material, bitter in taste, causes an anaesthetic sensation in the mouth as well as systemic numbness to the skin.

Traditional use

The Iboga tree is the central pillar of the Bwiti spiritual practice in West-Central Africa, mainly Gabon, Cameroon and the Republic of the Congo, which uses the alkaloid-containing roots of the plant in a number of ceremonies. Iboga is taken in massive doses by initiates of this spiritual practice, and on a more regular basis is eaten in smaller doses in connection with rituals and tribal dances, which is usually performed at night time. Bwitists have been subject to persecution by Catholic missionaries, who to this day are thoroughly opposed to the growing spiritual practice of Bwiti. Léon M'ba, before becoming the first President of Gabon in 1960, defended the Bwiti religion and the use of iboga in French colonial courts. On June 6, 2000, the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Gabon declared Tabernanthe iboga to be a national treasure.

In lower doses Iboga has a stimulant effect and is used to maintain alertness while hunting.[1][2]

Addiction treatment

Outside Africa, iboga extracts as well as the purified alkaloid ibogaine are used in treating opiate addiction. The therapy may last several days and upon completion the subject is generally no longer physically dependent.[3] One methadone patient said in the Dutch behind-the-news show NOVA that in just four days he reached a state that normally would have taken him three months, but without the agony. Evidence suggests that ibogaine may also help to interrupt addiction to alcohol and nicotine. The pharmacological effects are rather undisputed with hundreds of peer reviewed papers in support but formal clinical studies have not been completed.

In the United States, these clinics are illegal but exist nonetheless, providing treatment for a wide variety of addictions.[2]

Legal status

Iboga is outlawed or restricted in Belgium, Poland, Denmark, Croatia, France,[4] Sweden, and Switzerland. In the United States Iboga is classified by the Controlled Substances Act on the list of schedule I drugs.[1][2]

Non-profit organization Föreningen för hollistisk missbruksvård (ibogain.se) is trying to convince the Swedish government to start up clinical investigations of its anti-addictive properties, loosen up the prohibition law against ibogaine, and allow the creation of treatment facilities in Sweden.

Exportation of iboga from Gabon is illegal since the passage of a 1994 cultural protection law.[5]


Conservation status

While little data is available on the exploitation and existing habitat of the iboga plant, the destructive effects of harvesting and slow growth could have already severely damaged the wild iboga population.[6]

Patents and applications

Here is a selection of iboga patents and patent applications filed in the last decade[1]

US Patent or Application Number Title Owner/ Inventor Comment
Application 20050288375,published 29 Dec 2005 Method and composition for treating neurodegenerative disorders Myriad Genetics,Salt Lake City, UT US Claims ibogaine (and other compounds) used with an NSAID “for treating and preventing neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease, dementia, mild cognitive impairment.
Application 20050222270 published 6 Oct2005 and patent 5,958,919, issued 28 Sep 1999, and others Prolonged administration of NMDA antagonist drug and safener drug to create improved stable neural homeostasis Washington University, St.Louis, MO US Use of ibogaine to enhance safety in a technique to “ease problems such as addictions to illegal or pain-killing drugs, nicotine, or alcohol, compulsive or criminal behavioral problems, severe depression, obsessive-compulsive disorders,phobias, etc.
Patent 6,416,793,issued 9 Jul 2002 Formulations and use of controlled-release indolealkaloids BioResponse,LLC, Boulder,CO. US Ibogaine (and yohimbe) formulations with enhanced absorption by the body
Patent 6,348,456,issued 19 Feb 2002, and Application 20030153552,published 14 Aug 2003 Method of treating chemical dependency in mammals and a composition therefor Mash; Deborah C. (University of Miami professor)and co-inventors Claims noribogaine, a variant of ibogaine suitable for pharmaceuticals, and its use to treat addiction to “heroin, cocaine, alcohol, nicotine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, opium, methadone, hycodan, morphine and caffeine
Patent 6,211,360,issued 3 April 2001 Ibogamine cogeners Albany Medical College (Albany,NY, US) and the University of Vermont (US). Ibogamine-derived compounds for treating drug addiction
Patent 5,616,575, issued 1 Apr 1997 Bioactive tricyclicibogaine analogs University of Minnesota, US and University of Miami, US Ibogamine-derived compounds for treating drug addiction

Documentary films about iboga

Iboga, les hommes du bois sacré (2002)
In this French-language film, Gilbert Kelner documents modern Bwiti practices and Babongo perspectives on iboga. Odisea broadcast a Spanish-dubbed version titled Los hombres de la madera ("The Men of the Wood").
Ibogaine: Rite of Passage (2004)
Directed by Ben Deloenen.[7] A 34-year-old heroin addict undergoes ibogaine treatment with Dr Martin Polanco at the Ibogaine Association, a clinic in Rosarito Mexico. Deloenen interviews people formerly addicted to heroin, cocaine, and methamphetamine, who share their perspectives about ibogaine treatment. In Gabon, a Babongo woman receives iboga root for her depressive malaise. Deloenen visually contrasts this Western, clinical use of ibogaine with the Bwiti use of iboga root bark, but emphasizes the Western context.
"Babongo" (2005)
In this episode (series 1, episode 4) of the English documentary series Tribe, presenter Bruce Parry ingests iboga during his time with the Babongo. BBC 2 aired the episode on 25 January 2005.[8]

See also

References

External links

  • Iboga Foundation
  • Erowid Tabernanthe iboga Vault
  • Plants of The Gods by Richard Evans Schultes and Albert Hofmann (Healing Arts Press, 1992)
  • Giorgio Samorini. (Originally published in Integration 4: 4-10)
  • , Giorgio Samorini. (Originally published in Integration 5: 105-114)
  • , Robert Goutarel, Otto Gollnholfer and Roger Sillans (Originally published in Psychedelic Monographs and Essays, 6:70-111 (1993).
  • , P. Barabe. (originally published as "La religion d'Eboga ou le Bwiti des Fanges", Med. trop. 12(3):251-257, (May/June) 1982)
  • Tabernanthe iboga Flower
  • West African plants - A Photo Guide.
  • African Spirit Medicine Patrick Haize writes in Vision Magazine about his experience getting treated at Crossroads Ibogaine Treatment Center in Rosarito, Mexico.
  • Trips Beyond Addiction | Living Hero Radio Show and Podcast special. With Dimitri Mobengo Mugianis, Bovenga Na Muduma, Clare S. Wilkins, Brad Burge, Tom Kingsley Brown, Susan Thesenga, Bruce K. Alexander, PhD ~ the voices of ex-addicts, researchers from The Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies and Ibogaine/Iboga/Ayahuasca treatment providers sharing their experiences in breaking addiction with native medicines. Jan 2013
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.