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Imprimerie nationale

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Imprimerie nationale

The Imprimerie nationale (French pronunciation: ​) is the official printing works of the French government, in succession to the Manufacture royale d'imprimerie founded by Cardinal Richelieu. Its Président-directeur général is Didier Trutt (since August 2009).

History

Succeeding the Imprimeurs du roi pour le Grec (royal Greek printers) created by François I in 1538 to publish literature, the Imprimerie royale was founded in 1640, by Cardinal Richelieu. Successive governments named it the Imprimerie de la République, then the Imprimerie impériale, the Imprimerie royale and finally the Imprimerie nationale.

The Imprimerie nationale has long been the exclusive printer for the state, until the law of 1994 which made it a limited company with the state as sole shareholder.

The Imprimerie nationale retains the collection of punches, a printing workshop and a printing historical library. It possesses also numerous resources for the history of European printing, such as original documents of the Didot family.

Chronology

  • 1538 : François I grants Conrad Néobar the title of "imprimeur du Roy" for Greek printing.
  • 1540 : Robert Estienne was named "imprimeur du roi pour le grec". Claude Garamond created the typeface "grecs du roi".
  • 1640 : Louis XIII, advised by Richelieu, created the Manufacture royale d'imprimerie in the Louvre Palace.
  • 1670 : Jean-Baptiste Colbert began the collection « Le Cabinet du Roi ».
  • 1749 : the first volumes of the Histoire naturelle of Buffon were printed.
  • 1790 : the Imprimerie royale became the Imprimerie du Louvre.
  • 1792 : the Imprimerie nationale exécutive left the Louvre, where it had been since 1640.
  • 1795 : the hôtel de Penthièvre housed two official printing establishments named Imprimerie de la République.
  • 1809 : the Imprimerie impériale was installed at the hôtel de Rohan.There were printed the first 23 volumes of the Description de l'Égypte.
  • 1813 : publication of the decree authorising the section of oriental compositors.
  • 1870 : the Imprimerie impériale became once more the Imprimerie nationale, a name which it still bears.
  • 1900 : for Ambroise Vollard the Imprimerie nationale printed the first "artist's book". An edition of Paul Verlaine illustrated by Pierre Bonnard was also printed.
  • 1903 : the foundation stone of the new works on the plain of Javel.
  • 1910 : the Imprimerie nationale was put in the charge of the Minister of Finance.
  • 1921 : the Imprimerie nationale occupied the premises at the rue de la Convention.
  • 1961 : publication of the decree of 4 December on the organization of the Imprimerie nationale.
  • 1974 : the Imprimerie nationale opened its site de Douai.
  • 1992 : inauguration of the works at Bondoufle by Michel Charasse, minister of the Budget.
  • 1994 : the Imprimerie nationale became Imprimerie nationale SA the whole capital of which was held by the state.
  • 1995 : issue of the first CDROM planned by the Imprimerie nationale.
  • 1997 : acquisition of the firms Saqqarah International, Istra, and Mizeret and creation of "groupe Imprimerie nationale"; acquisition of the firm IDC.
  • 1997 : creation of workshops for production of plastic cards.
  • 1998 : installation of a new press, "la presse dix couleurs", on the Paris site.
  • 2000 : the group member IDC, specialising in digital printing, became INumeric.
  • 2001 : the group member Mizeret became J. Print.
  • 2001 : installation of a KBA rotary press, 64 pages of A4 in four colours at Bondoufle.
  • 2003 : dismantling, the buildings on the Convention site were sold to Groupe Carlyle for 85 million euros, they were repurchased in 2007 for 376,5 million euros, for the Ministère des Affaires étrangères. The works were resold to a French printing firm.[1]
  • 2005 : the state resold the sites at Bondoufle and Schiltigheim, closed the Paris site and installed the printing on paper works at Choisy-le-Roi.
  • 2006 : prelude to its dismantling: the paper division at Choisy-le-Roi was put under the management of IN Choisy.
  • 2008 : in September the paper division and the building at Choisy-le-Roi were given up. Only about 15 employees remained in the new private entreprise.

Notes

  1. ^ L'État rachète 4,5 fois plus cher un immeuble qu'il avait vendu (Boursorama), 26

Bibliography

  • Bernard, Auguste-Joseph. – Notice historique sur l’Imprimerie nationale. – Paris, Dumoulin, 1848. In 32, 128 p. Portrait de Gutenberg.
  • Bernard, Auguste-Joseph. – Histoire de l’Imprimerie royale du Louvre, suivie d’un catalogue chronologique des publications (1640 - An III). – Paris, Imprimerie impériale, 1867. In-8°, XII-311 p. (Reprod. en fac-sim. : Amsterdam : P. Schippers, 1966. 23 cm, X-311 p., index.)
  • Christian, Arthur. – Débuts de l’imprimerie en France. L’Imprimerie nationale. L’Hôtel de Rohan. Préface de Jules Clarétie. – Paris, Imprimerie nationale, 1904. In-8°, XXIV-345 p., ill.
  • Duprat, François-Antoine-Brutus. – Précis historique sur l’Imprimerie impériale et ses types, par F.-A. Duprat. – Paris, Librairie orientale de Benjamin Duprat, 1848. In-8°, VIII-158 p.
  • Duprat, François-Antoine-Brutus. – Histoire de l’Imprimerie impériale de France, suivie des spécimens des types étrangers et français de cet établissement. – Paris, Imprimerie impériale, 1861. In-8°, IV-578 p.
  • Grinevald, Paul-Marie, « Publications et collections de l’Imprimerie nationale », Histoire de l’édition française, Paris, Promodis, 1985. Tome 3, p. 208-209.
  • Grinevald, Paul-Marie, « Richelieu et l’Imprimerie nationale », Richelieu et le monde de l’esprit, Paris, Imprimerie nationale, 1985, p. 237-248.
  • Grinevald, Paul-Marie, « L’Imprimerie nationale », Histoire de l’édition française, Paris, Promodis, 1986. Tome 4, p. 170-171.
  • Grinevald, Paul-Marie, « La bibliothèque de l’Imprimerie nationale », Art et métiers du livre, juin 1987, no 145, p. 56-62, ill.
  • Grinevald, Paul-Marie, « Les caractères orientaux et l’orientalisme à l’Imprimerie nationale », Art et métiers du livre, décembre 1990, no 165 (Acte du colloque : Le Romantisme typographique.)
  • Grinevald, Paul-Marie, « L’art du livre à l’Imprimerie nationale », Métiers d’art, 1990, no 43, p. 85-91, ill.
  • Grinevald, Paul-Marie, « L’Imprimerie nationale », Le XVe arrondissement, Paris, Délégation à l’action artistique de la Ville de Paris, 1996, p. 214-217, ill. (Sur la construction de son usine, 1903–1910).
  • Grinevald, Paul-Marie, « Le Cabinet des poinçons de l’Imprimerie nationale », Art et Métiers du Livre, novembre-décembre 1996, no 200, p. 46-49, ill.
  • Grinevald, Paul-Marie, « Les éditions orientalistes de l’Imprimerie nationale au XIXe siècle », Le livre et l’historien, Études offertes en l’honneur du Professeur Henri-Jean Martin, Genève, Droz, 1997, p. 795-804. (Histoire et civilisation du livre 24.)
  • Grinevald, Paul-Marie, « Les Grecs du Roi », Graphê, janvier 2004, no 27, p. 2-5, ill.
  • – « Histoire de l’Imprimerie nationale », Art et Métiers du Livre, novembre-décembre 2004, n° 245, p. 46-59, ill.
  • Willemetz, Geneviève, Jean Anisson 1648-1721: un homme d’affaires et de culture au Grand siècle. Avant-propos, notes, bibliographie et index par Paul-Marie Grinevald. Paris, éditions des Cendres, 2004. 14 × 21,5 cm, 206 p.

External links

  • (French) Le site du groupe Imprimerie nationale
  • (French) Le site du collectif de défense du patrimoine de l'IN
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