World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Isoamyl acetate

Article Id: WHEBN0004164654
Reproduction Date:

Title: Isoamyl acetate  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Alcohol thermometer, Flavor, Gas mask, Sake, Cofactor Engineering
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Isoamyl acetate

Isoamyl acetate
Isoamyl acetate
Identifiers
CAS number  YesY
ChemSpider  YesY
UNII  YesY
KEGG  YesY
ChEBI  YesY
ChEMBL  YesY
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Properties
Molecular formula C7H14O2
Molar mass 130.19 g/mol
Appearance colorless liquid
Odor banana-like [1]
Density 0.876 g/cm3
Melting point −78 °C (−108 °F; 195 K)
Boiling point 142 °C (288 °F; 415 K)
Hazards
NFPA 704
3
1
0
Flash point 25 °C (77 °F; 298 K)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
 YesY   YesY/N?)

Isoamyl acetate, also known as isopentyl acetate, is an Juicy Fruit, a foam banana sweet or a pear drop) which is also described as similar to both banana and pear. Banana oil is a term that is applied either to pure isoamyl acetate or to flavorings that are mixtures of isoamyl acetate, amyl acetate, and other flavors.[2]

Production

Isoamyl acetate is prepared by the acid catalyzed reaction (Fischer esterification) between isoamyl alcohol and glacial acetic acid as shown in the reaction equation below. Typically, sulfuric acid is used as the catalyst. Alternately, an acidic ion exchange resin can be used as the catalyst.

Applications

Isoamyl acetate is used to confer banana flavor in foods. Pear oil commonly refers to a solution of isoamyl acetate in ethanol that is used as an artificial flavor.

It is also used as a solvent for some varnishes and nitrocellulose lacquers, as well as being a honey bee pheromone and can be used to attract large groups of honeybees to a small area. As a solvent and carrier for materials such as nitrocellulose, it was extensively used in the aircraft industry for stiffening and wind-proofing fabric flying surfaces, where it and its derivatives were generally known as 'dope'. Now that most aircraft are all-metal, such use is now limited to model aircraft, where it is still popularly used for strengthening tissue coverings and balsa wood.

Because of its intense, pleasant odor and its low toxicity, isoamyl acetate is used to test the effectiveness of respirators or gas masks.

Occurrence in nature

Banana oil is made naturally by the banana plant;[3] it is also produced synthetically.[4]

Isoamyl acetate is released by a honey bee's sting apparatus where it serves as a pheromone beacon to attract other bees and provoke them to sting.[5]

References

  1. ^ CDC - NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards
  2. ^ Karl-Georg Fahlbusch, Franz-Josef Hammerschmidt, Johannes Panten, Wilhelm Pickenhagen, Dietmar Schatkowski, Kurt Bauer, Dorothea Garbe, Horst Surburg “Flavors and Fragrances” in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2002. doi:10.1002/14356007.a11_141.
  3. ^ McGee, Harold. On Food and Cooking. 2003, Scribner, New York.
  4. ^ Isoamyl Acetate, Occupational Safety and Health Administration
  5. ^ Boch R; Shearer DA; Stone BC (September 8, 1962). "Identification of isoamyl acetate as an active component in the sting pheromone of the honey bee.". Nature (England: Nature Publishing Group) 195 (4845): 1018–20.  
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.